Branched Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles Prepared via Strain-Promoted 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions.
ABSTRACT: Conjugation of small organic molecules and polymers to polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) cores results in novel hybrid materials with unique physical characteristics. We report here an approach in which star-shaped organic-inorganic scaffolds bearing eight cyclooctyne moieties can be rapidly functionalized via strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) to synthesize a series of nearly monodisperse branched core-shell nanoparticles with hydrophobic POSS cores and hydrophilic arms. We established that SPAAC is a robust method for POSS core octafunctionalization with the reaction rate constant of 1.9 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1). Functionalization with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) azide, fluorescein azide, and unprotected lactose azide gave conjugates which represent different classes of compounds: polymer conjugates, fluorescent dots, and bioconjugates. These resulting hybrid compounds were preliminarily tested for their ability to self-assemble in solution and at the air-water interface. We observed the formation of robust smooth Langmuir monolayers with diverse morphologies. We found that polar lactose moieties are completely submerged into the subphase whereas the relatively hydrophobic fluorescein arms had extended conformation at the interface, and PEG arms were partially submerged. Finally, we observed the formation of stable micelles with sizes between 70 and 160 nm in aqueous solutions with size and morphology of the structures dependent on the molecular weight and the type of the peripheral hydrophilic moieties.
Project description:Covalent protein-oligodeoxynucleotide (protein-ODN) conjugates are useful in a number of biological applications, but synthesizing discrete conjugates-where the connection between the two components is at a defined location in both the protein and the ODN-under mild conditions with significant yield can be a challenge. In this article, we demonstrate a strategy for synthesizing discrete protein-ODN conjugates using strain-promoted azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (SPAAC, a copper-free 'click' reaction). Azide-functionalized proteins, prepared by enzymatic prenylation of C-terminal CVIA tags with synthetic azidoprenyl diphosphates, were 'clicked' to ODNs that had been modified with a strained dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO-ODN). The resulting protein-ODN conjugates were purified and characterized by size-exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis. We find that the yields and reaction times of the SPAAC bioconjugation reactions are comparable to those previously reported for copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) bioconjugation, but require no catalyst. The same SPAAC chemistry was used to immobilize azide-modified proteins onto surfaces, using surface-bound DIBO-ODN as a heterobifunctional linker. Cu-free click bioconjugation of proteins to ODNs is a simple and versatile alternative to Cu-catalyzed click methods.
Project description:Heterobifunctional linker allows for selective catalyst-free ligation of two different azide-tagged substrates via strained-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC). The linker contains an azadibenzocyclooctyne (ADIBO) moiety on one end and a cyclopropenone-masked dibenzocyclooctyne (photo-DIBO) group on the other. The first azide-derivatized substrate reacts only at the ADIBO end of the linker as the photo-DIBO moiety is azide-inert. After the completion of the first SPAAC step, photo-DIBO is activated by brief exposure to 350 nm light from a fluorescent UV lamp. The unmasked DIBO group then reacts with the second azide-tagged substrate. Both click reactions are fast (k = 0.4 and 0.07 M(-1) s(-1), respectively) and produce quantitative yield of ligation in organic solvents or aqueous solutions. The utility of the new cross-linker has been demonstrated by conjugation of azide functionalized bovine serum albumin (azido-BSA) with azido-fluorescein and by the immobilization of the latter protein on azide-derivatized silica beads. The BSA-bead linker was designed to incorporate hydrolytically labile fragment, which permits release of protein under the action of dilute acid. UV activation of the second click reaction permits spatiotemporal control of the ligation process.
Project description:The design of multifunctional polymer-based vectors, forming pDNA vaccines, offers great potential in cancer immune therapy. The transfection of dendritic immune cells (DCs) with tumour antigen-encoding pDNA leads to an activation of the immune system to combat tumour cells. In this work, we investigated the chemical attachment of DEC205 antibodies (aDEC205) as DC-targeting structures to polyplexes of P(Lys)-b-P(HPMA). The conjugation of a synthetic block copolymer and a biomacromolecule with various functionalities (aDEC205) requires bioorthogonal techniques to avoid side reactions. Click chemistry and in particular the strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) can provide the required bioorthogonality. With regard to a SPAAC of both components, we firstly synthesized two different azide-containing block copolymers, P(Lys)-b-P(HPMA)-N₃(stat) and P(Lys)-b-P(HPMA)-N₃(end), for pDNA complexation. In addition, the site-specific incorporation of ring-strained dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) moieties to the DEC205 antibody was achieved by an enzymatic strategy using bacterial transglutaminase (BTG). The chemical accessibility of DBCO molecules within aDEC205 as well as the accessibility of azide-functionalities on the polyplex' surface were investigated by various SPAAC experiments and characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS).
Project description:Strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) can be used to generate artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) from scaffold proteins containing a p-azido-L-phenylalanine (Az) residue and catalytically active bicyclononyne-substituted metal complexes. The high efficiency of this reaction allows rapid ArM formation when using Az residues within the scaffold protein in the presence of cysteine residues or various reactive components of cellular lysate. In general, cofactor-based ArM formation allows the use of any desired metal complex to build unique inorganic protein materials. SPAAC covalent linkage further decouples the native function of the scaffold from the installation process because it is not affected by native amino acid residues; as long as an Az residue can be incorporated, an ArM can be generated. We have demonstrated the scope of this method with respect to both the scaffold and cofactor components and established that the dirhodium ArMs generated can catalyze the decomposition of diazo compounds and both Si-H and olefin insertion reactions involving these carbene precursors.
Project description:O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as an essential protein post-translational modification in a range of organisms. It is involved in various cellular processes such as nutrient sensing, protein degradation, gene expression, and is associated with many human diseases. Despite its importance, identifying O-GlcNAcylated proteins is a major challenge in proteomics. Here, using peracetylated N-azidoacetylglucosamine (Ac4 GlcNAz) as a bioorthogonal chemical handle, we described a gel-based mass spectrometry method for the identification of proteins with O-GlcNAc modification in A549 cells. In addition, we made a labeling efficiency comparison between two modes of azide-alkyne bioorthogonal reactions in click chemistry: copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne and stain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) with Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne. After conjugation with click chemistry in vitro and enrichment via streptavidin resin, proteins with O-GlcNAc modification were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified with mass spectrometry. Proteomics data analysis revealed that 229 putative O-GlcNAc modified proteins were identified with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne conjugated sample and 188 proteins with Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne conjugated sample, among which 114 proteins were overlapping. Interestingly, 74 proteins identified from Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne conjugates and 46 verified proteins from Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne conjugates could be found in the O-GlcNAc modified proteins database dbOGAP (http://cbsb.lombardi.georgetown.edu/hulab/OGAP.html). These results suggested that CuAAC with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne represented a more powerful method in proteomics with higher protein identification and better accuracy compared to SPAAC. The proteomics credibility was also confirmed by the molecular function and cell component gene ontology (GO). Together, the method we reported here combining metabolic labeling, click chemistry, affinity-based enrichment, SDS-PAGE separation, and mass spectrometry, would be adaptable for other post-translationally modified proteins in proteomics.
Project description:Multifunctional dendrimers bearing two or more surface functionalities have the promise to provide smart drug delivery devices that can for example combine tissue targeting and imaging or be directed more precisely to a specific tissue or cell type. We have developed a concise synthetic methodology for efficient dendrimer assembly and heterobifunctionalization based on three sequential azide-alkyne cycloadditions. The methodology is compatible with biologically important compounds rich in chemical functionalities such as peptides, carbohydrates, and fluorescent tags. In the approach, a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) between polyester dendrons modified at the focal point with an azido and 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) moiety provided dendrimers bearing terminal and TMS-protected (TMS=trimethylsilyl) alkynes at the periphery. The terminal alkynes were outfitted with azido-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains or galactosyl residues by using Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC). Next, a one-pot TMS deprotection and second click reaction of the resulting terminal alkyne with azido-containing compounds gave multifunctional dendrimers bearing complex biologically active moieties at the periphery.
Project description:Little is known about the reactivity of strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reagents with inorganic azides. We explore the reactions of a variety of popular SPAAC reagents with sodium azide and hydrozoic acid. We find that the reactions proceed in water at rates comparable to those with organic azides, yielding in all cases a triazole adduct. The azide ion's utility as a cyclooctyne quenching reagent is demonstrated by using it to spatially pattern uniformly doped hydrogels. The facile quenching of cyclooctynes demonstrated here should be useful in other bioorthogonal ligation techniques in which cyclooctynes are employed, including SPANC, Diels-Alder, and thiol-yne.
Project description:In search of specific and highly selective sugar clusters for cell receptors, such as membrane lectins, various disaccharides were coupled to small peptide cores through an amide bond. In a first step, the reducing disaccharides, i.e. lactose and three different dimannoses, were converted into glycosyl-pyroglutamyl-beta-alanine derivatives. The free carboxylic group of these conjugates was then coupled to the alpha and epsilon amino groups of the core peptide (Lys( n )-Ala-Cys-NH2) with n =1 to 5, with complete substitution leading to homogeneous glycoclusters. The thiol group of the cysteine residue was used to tag the glycosylated oligolysines upon reaction with fluorescein iodoacetamide. The affinity of these glycoclusters towards two plant lectins was assessed by surface plasmon resonance. The selectivity of their cell uptake was investigated by flow cytometry using two types of cells: a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) expressing the plasma membrane galactose-specific lectin, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells expressing the plasma membrane mannose-specific lectin. The glycoclusters containing four or five disaccharides were shown to bind plant lectins and cell surface membrane lectins with a narrow selectivity and with a high affinity.
Project description:An order of magnitude difference in photoreactivity between bis- (photo-DIBOD, 1) and mono-cyclopropenone-caged dibenzocyclooctadiynes (MC-DIBOD, 5) allows for selective monodecarbonylation of 1. Alternatively, 5 is prepared by selective mono-cyclopropanation of dibenzo[a,e]cyclooctadiyne (DIBOD). MC-DIBOD (5) permits efficient sequential SPAAC cross-linking of azide-derivatized substrates. Cycloaddition to 5 converts an azide moiety into a photocaged form of triazole-fused dibenzo[a,e]cyclooctyne (3). While the azide reactivity of MC-DIBOD (5) and DIBOD is similar to that of other dibenzocyclooctynes, fusion of triazole to the dibenzocyclooctyne system in 3 results in a 3 orders of magnitude enhancement in SPAAC rates. In methanol, 3 reacts with butyl azide at an astonishing rate of 34 M-1 s-1, thus representing the most reactive cyclooctyne analogue reported so far. MC-DIBOD (5) was utilized in the preparation of mixed bis-triazoles and derivatization of the protein BSA with fluorescent dye and polyethylene glycol.
Project description:Novel methods are required for site-specific, quantitative fluorescent labeling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other difficult-to-express membrane proteins. Ideally, fluorescent probes should perturb the native structure and function as little as possible. We evaluated bioorthogonal reactions to label genetically encoded p-acetyl-L-phenylalanine (AcF) or p-azido-L-phenylalanine (azF) residues in receptors heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. We found that keto-selective reagents were not truly bioorthogonal, possibly owing to post-translational protein oxidation reactions. In contrast, the strain-promoted [3+2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SpAAC) with dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) reagents yielded stoichiometric conjugates with azF-rhodopsin while undergoing negligible background reactions. As one application of this technique, we used Alexa488-rhodopsin to measure the kinetics of ligand uptake and release in membrane-mimetic bicelles using a novel fluorescence-quenching assay.