Novel Brentuximab Vedotin Combination Therapies Show Promising Activity in Highly Refractory CD30+ Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.
ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies which typically respond to standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, patients with refractory NHL face a poor prognosis and represent an unmet need for improved therapeutics. We present two cases of refractory CD30+ NHL who responded to novel brentuximab vedotin- (BV-) based regimens. The first is a patient with stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with cranial nerve involvement who failed front-line treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (CHOEP) and second line cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate (MTX), and cytarabine (hyperCVAD) with intrathecal- (IT-) MTX and IT-cytarabine, but responded when BV was substituted for vincristine (hyperCBAD). The second patient was a man with stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with leptomeningeal involvement whose disease progressed during first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and progressed despite salvage therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) in whom addition of BV to topotecan resulted in a significant response. This report describes the first successful salvage treatments of highly aggressive, double refractory CD30+ NHL using two unreported BV-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Both regimens appear effective and have manageable toxicities. Further clinical trials assessing novel BV combinations are warranted.
Project description:Outcomes for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that proves refractory to treatment remain poor. Treatment of such patients is individualized and can include enrolment in a clinical trial of novel agents or use of one of a wide array of drug regimens. Initial treatment with anthracyclines such as doxorubicin limits options at later stages of treatment because of anthracycline-related cumulative cardiotoxicity. The aza-anthracenedione pixantrone was developed to reduce the likelihood of cardiotoxicity without compromising efficacy and is currently conditionally approved for use as monotherapy in patients with multiply-relapsed or refractory aggressive B cell NHL. The use of pixantrone in combination therapy, often to replace doxorubicin or mitoxantrone, has or is currently being investigated in numerous studies in patients with aggressive or indolent NHL and is the focus of this review. These include the R-CPOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, pixantrone, vincristine, prednisone) for aggressive NHL in the first-line setting, including a study in elderly patients with limited cardiac function, and for patients with relapsed NHL with prior anthracycline exposure; the PSHAP regimen (pixantrone, cytarabine, prednisone, cisplatin), also in the latter setting; the PREBen/PEBen regimen (pixantrone, bendamustine and etoposide with or without rituximab) as salvage therapy; and pixantrone in combination with fludarabine, dexamethasone, and rituximab (FPD-R) for relapsed indolent NHL.
Project description:Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM). PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death. There is no standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of PBL. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like regimens have been the backbone while more intensive regimens such as cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC), or dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (DA-EPOCH) are possible options. Recently, a few studies have reported the potential value of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and thalidomide in PBL patients. The introduction of genes encoding artificial receptors called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and CAR-modified T cells targeted to the B cell-specific CD19 antigen have demonstrated promising results in multiple early clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in epidemiology; pathophysiology; clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics; therapy; and outcome in patients with PBL.
Project description:In November 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved brentuximab vedotin (BV) for the treatment of adult patients with previously untreated systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma or other CD30-expressing peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), including angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and PTCL not otherwise specified, in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHP). Approval was based on ECHELON-2, a randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial that compared BV+CHP with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) in 452 patients with newly diagnosed, CD30-expressing PTCL. Efficacy was based on independent review facility-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). The median PFS was 48.2 months with BV+CHP versus 20.8 months with CHOP, resulting in a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-0.93). The trial also demonstrated improvement in overall survival (HR 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), complete response rate (68% vs. 56%), and overall response rate (83% vs. 72%) with BV+CHP. The most common adverse reactions (incidence ?20%) observed ?2% more with BV+CHP were nausea, diarrhea, fatigue or asthenia, mucositis, pyrexia, vomiting, and anemia. Peripheral neuropathy rates were similar (52% with BV+CHP, 55% with CHOP). Through the Real-Time Oncology Review pilot program, which allows FDA early access to key data, FDA granted this approval less than 2 weeks after official submission of the application. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This is the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of patients with newly diagnosed peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL). Improvement in progression-free and overall survival over cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy, which has been the standard of care for decades, is unprecedented. The new regimen represents a major advance for the frontline treatment of patients with CD30-expressing PTCL.
Project description:Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone) was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.
Project description:For patients with advanced indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), the recently reported results of the German StiL NHL-1 2003 and the international BRIGHT phase III trials showed that, as first-line treatment, the combination of bendamustine and rituximab is at least as effective as rituximab/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone or rituximab/cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone, possibly with a better therapeutic index. Bendamustine is therefore increasingly used in clinical practice. Because bendamustine has been used for many years in Germany and in Switzerland, our institutions have had extensive experience with bendamustine, both as a single agent and in combination with rituximab. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the most important clinical data from phase II/III trials with bendamustine in patients with indolent NHL and MCL, both in the relapsed/refractory setting and in the first-line setting. In addition, this review provides practical advice on how to optimally manage bendamustine therapy in patients with NHL.
Project description:Front-line treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) involves regimens such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and results in a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of less than 50%. This phase I open-label study evaluated the safety and activity of brentuximab vedotin administered sequentially with CHOP or in combination with CHP (CHOP without vincristine) as front-line treatment in patients with CD30(+) PTCL.Patients received sequential treatment (once every 3 weeks) with brentuximab vedotin 1.8 mg/kg (two cycles) followed by CHOP (six cycles) or brentuximab vedotin 1.8 mg/kg plus CHP (BV+CHP) for six cycles (once every 3 weeks). Responders received single-agent brentuximab vedotin for eight to 10 additional cycles (for a total of 16 cycles). The primary objective was assessment of safety; secondary end points included objective response rate, complete remission (CR) rate, progression-free survival rate (PFS), and OS. There were no prespecified comparisons of the two treatment approaches.After sequential treatment, 11 (85%) of 13 patients achieved an objective response (CR rate, 62%; estimated 1-year PFS rate, 77%). Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in eight (62%) of 13 patients. At the end of combination treatment, all patients (n = 26) achieved an objective response (CR rate, 88%; estimated 1-year PFS rate, 71%). All seven patients without anaplastic large-cell lymphoma achieved CR. Grade 3/4 adverse events (? 10%) in the combination-treatment group were febrile neutropenia (31%), neutropenia (23%), anemia (15%), and pulmonary embolism (12%).Brentuximab vedotin, administered sequentially with CHOP or in combination with CHP, had a manageable safety profile and exhibited substantial antitumor activity in newly diagnosed patients with CD30(+) PTCL. A randomized phase III trial is under way, comparing BV+CHP with CHOP (clinical trial No. NCT01777152).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In Ontario, no clearly defined standard of care for the management of mantle cell lymphoma (mcl) has been developed, and substantial variability from centre to centre is evident. This guidance document was prompted by the need to harmonize practice in Ontario with respect to first-line, conditioning, and post-transplantation maintenance therapy for patients newly diagnosed with transplantation-eligible mcl.<h4>Methods</h4>The medline and embase databases were systematically searched from January 2013 to January 2020 for evidence, and the best available evidence was used to draft recommendations relevant to first-line therapy, autologous stem-cell transplantation, and post-transplantation maintenance in the management of transplantation-eligible newly diagnosed mcl. Final approval of this guidance document was obtained from the Stem Cell Transplant Advisory Committee.<h4>Recommendations</h4>These recommendations apply to all cases of transplantation-eligible newly diagnosed mcl:? Alternating cycles of r-chop (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisolone) and r-dhap [rituximab plus dexamethasone-high-dose cytarabine-cisplatin] is the recommended first-line treatment for symptomatic patients newly diagnosed with mcl before autologous stem-cell transplantation (asct).? Rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (r-hypercvad), alternating with methotrexate and cytarabine, is not recommended for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed mcl.? beam (carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan), beac (carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-cyclophosphamide), and total-body irradiation-based regimens are reasonable conditioning options for patients with mcl who have responded to first-line therapy and who are undergoing asct.? Maintenance therapy with rituximab is recommended for patients with newly diagnosed mcl who have undergone asct.
Project description:PURPOSE:The treatment outcome of brentuximab vedotin (BV) has not been related with CD30 expression in previous studies enrolling patients with a wide range of CD30 expression level. Thus, this study explored the efficacy of BV in high-CD30-expressing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients most likely to benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This phase II study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02280785) enrolled relapsed or refractory high-CD30-expressing NHL, with BV administered intravenously at 1.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was > 40% disease control rate, consisting of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease. We defined high CD30 expression as ? 30% tumor cells positive for CD30 by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:High-CD30-expressing NHL patients (n=33) were enrolled except anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The disease control rate was 48.5% (16/33) including six CR and six PR; six patients (4CR, 2PR) maintained their response over 16 completed cycles. Response to BV and survival were not associated with CD30 expression levels. Over a median of 29.2 months of follow-up, the median progression-free and overall survival rates were 1.9 months and 6.1 months, respectively. The most common adverse events were fever (39%), neutropenia (30%), fatigue (24%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (27%). In a post-hoc analysis for the association of multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) on treatment outcome, MUM1- negative patients showed a higher response (55.6%, 5/9) than MUM1-positive patients (13.3%, 2/15). CONCLUSION:BV performance as a single agent was acceptable in terms of disease control rates and toxicity profiles, especially MUM1-negative patients.
Project description:T cell lymphomas (TCL) comprise a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) that often present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis and that most commonly have an aggressive clinical course. Treatment in the front-line setting is most often cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like regimens, which are effective in B cell lymphomas, but in TCL are associated with a high failure rate and frequent relapses. Furthermore, in contrast to B cell NHL, in which substantial clinical progress has been made with the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, no comparable advances have been seen in TCL. To change this situation and improve the prognosis in TCL, new gene-targeted therapies must be developed. This is now possible due to enormous progress that has been made in the last years in the understanding of the biology and molecular pathogenesis of TCL, which enables the implementation of the research findings in clinical practice. In this review, we present new therapies and current clinical and preclinical trials on targeted treatments for TCL using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), antibodies, chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CARTs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (PI3Ki), anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors (ALKi), and antibiotics, used alone or in combinations. The recent clinical success of ALKi and conjugated anti-CD30 antibody (brentuximab-vedotin) suggests that novel therapies for TCL can significantly improve outcomes when properly targeted.
Project description:We investigated the addition of rituximab to dose-dense and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with untreated poor-prognosis diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Ninety-four young patients (age, 18-60) with stage III-IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at intermediate/high or high risk according to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index were enrolled into a phase II trial. The treatment was as follows: four courses of bi-weekly rituximab-cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-vincristine-prednisone (R-MegaCEOP14), two courses of rituximab-mitoxantrone-cytarabine-dexamethasone (R-MAD) and carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan (BEAM) with autologous stem cell transplantation.The complete response and toxic death rates were 82% and 5%, respectively. Failure-free survival and overall survival rates at 4 years were 73% and 80%, respectively. The outcomes of these patients were retrospectively compared to those of 41 patients with similar characteristics enrolled into a previous phase II trial of high-dose chemotherapy without rituximab. This historical group was treated with eight weekly infusions of methotrexate-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone-bleomycin (MACOP-B), two courses of MAD and BEAM with autologous stem cell transplantation. The 4-year failure-free survival rates for the rituximab and historical groups were 73% versus 44%, respectively (p=0.001); the 4-year overall survival rates were 80% and 54%, respectively (p=0.002). A Cox's multivariable model was applied to adjust the effect of treatment for unbalanced or important prognostic factors: failure and death risks were significantly reduced in the rituximab group compared to the historical group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.44 (p=0.01) for failure-free survival and 0.46 (p=0.02) for overall survival.These results suggest that the addition of rituximab to high-dose chemotherapy is effective and safe in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a poor-prognosis and such regimens need to be compared to dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy without autologous stem cell transplantation in randomized trials.