Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Burden Is Increased in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) increases stroke risk, but the mechanism is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the association between SLE and features on neuroimaging of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a risk factor for stroke.Consecutive patients attending a clinic for SLE were recruited. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging; had blood samples taken for markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, cholesterol, and autoantibodies; and underwent cognitive and psychiatric testing. The data were compared with sex- and age-matched healthy controls and patients with minor stroke. Features of SVD were measured, a total SVD score calculated, and associations sought with vascular risk factors, cognition, SLE activity, and disease duration.Fifty-one SLE patients (age: 48.8 years; SD: 14.3 years) had a greater total SVD score compared with healthy controls (1 versus 0; P<0.0001) and stroke patients (1 versus 0; P=0.02). There were higher perivascular spaces and deep white matter hyperintensity scores and more superficial brain atrophy in SLE patients versus healthy controls. Despite fewer vascular risk factors than similarly aged stroke patients, SLE patients had similar or more of some SVD features. The total SVD score was not associated with SLE activity, cognition, disease duration, or any blood measure.In this data set, SLE patients had a high burden of SVD features on magnetic resonance imaging, particularly perivascular spaces. A larger longitudinal study is warranted to determine the causes of SVD features in SLE and clinical implications.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>In this cross-sectional study, we tested the construct validity of a "total SVD score," which combines individual MRI features of small-vessel disease (SVD) in one measure, by testing associations with vascular risk factors and stroke subtype.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed data from patients with lacunar or nondisabling cortical stroke from 2 prospective stroke studies. Brain MRI was rated for the presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces independently. The presence of each SVD feature was summed in an ordinal "SVD score" (range 0-4). We tested associations with vascular risk factors, stroke subtype, and cerebral atrophy using ordinal regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>In 461 patients, multivariable analysis found that age (odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.12), male sex (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.29), hypertension (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.20), smoking (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.59-3.63), and lacunar stroke subtype (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.70-3.54) were significantly and independently associated with the total SVD score. The score was not associated with cerebral atrophy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The total SVD score may provide a more complete estimate of the full impact of SVD on the brain, in a simple and pragmatic way. It could have potential for patient or risk stratification or early efficacy assessment in clinical trials of interventions to prevent SVD progression and may (after further testing) have a useful role in clinical practice.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a "total SVD score" was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. <b>Methods:</b> In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke) were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of WMH, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4) in each patient. <b>Results:</b> Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (<i>p</i> = 0.017), executive functioning (<i>p</i> < 0.001) and information processing speed (<i>p</i> = 0.037), but not with memory (<i>p</i> = 0.911). The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group, and baseline cognitive performance. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.
Project description:An MRI-based score of total small vessel disease burden (CAA-SVD-Score) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has been demonstrated to correlate with severity of pathologic changes. Evidence suggests that CAA-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) recurrence risk is associated with specific disease imaging manifestations rather than overall severity. We compared the correlation between the CAA-SVD-Score with the risk of recurrent CAA-related lobar ICH versus the predictive role of each of its components.Consecutive patients with CAA-related ICH from a single-center prospective cohort were analyzed. Radiological markers of CAA related SVD damage were quantified and categorized according to the CAA-SVD-Score (0-6 points). Subjects were followed prospectively for recurrent symptomatic ICH. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations between the CAA-SVD-Score as well as each of the individual MRI signatures of CAA and the risk of recurrent ICH.In 229 CAA patients with ICH, a total of 56 recurrent ICH events occurred during a median follow-up of 2.8years [IQR 0.9-5.4years, 781 person-years). Higher CAA-SVD-Score (HR=1.26 per additional point, 95%CI [1.04-1.52], p=0.015) and older age were independently associated with higher ICH recurrence risk. Analysis of individual markers of CAA showed that CAA-SVD-Score findings were due to the independent effect of disseminated superficial siderosis (HR for disseminated cSS vs none: 2.89, 95%CI [1.47-5.5], p=0.002) and high degree of perivascular spaces enlargement (RR=3.50-95%CI [1.04-21], p=0.042).In lobar CAA-ICH patients, higher CAA-SVD-Score does predict recurrent ICH. Amongst individual elements of the score, superficial siderosis and dilated perivascular spaces are the only markers independently associated with ICH recurrence, contributing to the evidence for distinct CAA phenotypes singled out by neuro-imaging manifestations.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>In patients with TIA and ischemic stroke, we validated the total small vessel disease (SVD) score by determining its prognostic value for recurrent stroke.<h4>Methods</h4>Two independent prospective studies were conducted, one comprising predominantly Caucasian patients with TIA/ischemic stroke (Oxford Vascular Study [OXVASC]) and one predominantly Chinese patients with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong [HKU]). Cerebral MRI was performed and assessed for lacunes, microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and perivascular spaces (PVS). Predictive value of total SVD score for risk of recurrent stroke was determined and potential refinements considered.<h4>Results</h4>In 2,002 patients with TIA/ischemic stroke (OXVASC n = 1,028, HKU n = 974, 6,924 patient-years follow-up), a higher score was associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per unit increase: 1.32, 1.16-1.51, <i>p</i> < 0.0001; <i>c</i> statistic 0.61, 0.56-0.65, <i>p</i> < 0.0001) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (HR 1.54, 1.11-2.13, <i>p</i> = 0.009; <i>c</i> statistic 0.65, 0.54-0.76, <i>p</i> = 0.006). A higher score predicted recurrent stroke in SVD and non-SVD TIA/ischemic stroke subtypes (<i>c</i> statistic 0.67, 0.59-0.74, <i>p</i> < 0.0001 and 0.60, 0.55-0.65, <i>p</i> < 0.0001). Including burden of microbleeds and WMH and adjusting the cutoff of basal ganglia PVS potentially improved predictive power for ICH (<i>c</i> statistic 0.71, 0.60-0.81, <i>p</i><sub>het</sub> = 0.45), but not for recurrent ischemic stroke (<i>c</i> statistic 0.60, 0.56-0.65, <i>p</i><sub>het</sub> = 0.76) on internal validation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The total SVD score has predictive value for recurrent stroke after TIA/ischemic stroke. Prediction of recurrence in patients with nonlacunar events highlights the potential role of SVD in wider stroke etiology.
Project description:Background The aim of this study was to determine the associations of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) burden with renal dysfunction and albuminuria in patients taking oral antithrombotic agents. Methods and Results Patients who newly started or continued taking oral antiplatelets or anticoagulants were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Obligatorily acquired multimodal magnetic resonance imaging at registration with prespecified imaging conditions was assessed for cerebral microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities, enlarged basal ganglia perivascular spaces, or lacunes, and an ordinal SVD score was calculated (range, 0-4). Multivariable adjusting covariates were age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, current smoking, drinking, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of 5324 patients (1762 women; median age, 73 years), 4797 (90.1%) patients were taking oral antithrombotic agents for secondary stroke prevention. Cerebral microbleeds were present in 32.7%, confluent white matter hyperintensities in 51.8%, extensive basal ganglia perivascular spaces in 38.9%, and lacunes in 59.4%. Median SVD score was 2. Compared with eGFR category G1 (eGFR ≥90 mL/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup>), adjusted odds ratios for SVD score increment were 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11-2.39) at category G4 (eGFR 15-<30 mL/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup>) and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.33-3.16) at G5 (eGFR <15 mL/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup>). Corresponding odds ratios relative to urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) category A1 (ACR <30 mg/g) were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.12-1.49) for category A2 (ACR 30-<300 mg/g) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.05-1.77) for A3 (ACR ≥300 mg/g). When combined eGFR and ACR categories were assessed, risks for SVD score increment generally increased as eGFR decreased and ACR increased. Conclusions Both reduced eGFR and albuminuria were independently associated with increased cerebral SVD burden in patients requiring oral antithrombotic medication mainly for secondary stroke prevention. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01581502; URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr; Unique identifier: UMIN000023669.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is generally considered as a cause of stroke, disability, gait disturbances, vascular cognitive impairment, and dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the total SVD burden can be used to predict functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. <b>Methods:</b> From April 2017 to January 2018, consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent baseline MRI scan were evaluated. The functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days and defined as i) excellent outcome (mRS ? 1) and ii) good outcome (mRS ? 2). Brain MRI was performed and assessed for lacunes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS). The total SVD burden was calculated based on lacunes, WMH, and EPVS and then summed up to generate an ordinal "total SVD burden" (range 0-3). Bivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the association between SVD and functional outcome. <b>Results:</b> A total of 416 patients were included in the final analysis; 44.0, 33.4, 19.2, and 3.4% of the patients had 0, 1, 2, and 3 features of SVD, respectively. In regard to individual SVD feature, lacunes (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.32-0.71; OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.31-0.77) and WMH (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82; OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33-0.85) were negatively associated with excellent outcome and good outcome. As to the total burden of SVD, three SVD features had strongest negative associations with functional outcomes (excellent outcome, OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.48; good outcome, OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.54). After adjustment for potential confounders, a high SVD burden (3 features, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.41) and the score of total SVD burden (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.44-0.93) remained negatively associated with excellent outcome. <b>Conclusion:</b> Total SVD burden negatively associated with functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute ischemic stroke and is superior to individual SVD feature in prediction of functional outcome. MRI-based assessment of total SVD burden is highly valuable in clinical management of stroke victims and could help guide the allocation of resources to improve outcome.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Previous studies have investigated the association between a single marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and hemorrhagic transformation (HT). However, the effect of the total SVD burden on HT has not been evaluated yet. We aimed to investigate the association between the total SVD score and HT in ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease (RHD). <b>Methods:</b> Ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or RHD admitted within 7 days after onset were enrolled at two hospitals in China. The total SVD score was based on the presence of lacunes, extensive white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and moderate to severe enlarged perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia. One point was awarded for the presence of each marker, with the total SVD score ranging from 0 to 4 points. HT was assessed based on follow-up imaging scans during hospitalization and was classified according to the radiographic appearance and associated neurological deterioration. <b>Results:</b> Of 207 enrolled patients (mean age, 67.79 years; 58.9% female), 89 (43.0%) developed HT. The distribution of the total SVD score was significantly different between patients with and without HT in the univariate analysis (<i>p</i> = 0.04). After adjustment for confounders, a SVD score of 1 was independently associated with an increased risk of HT [odds ratio (OR), 3.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-7.04; <i>p</i> = 0.003], while a SVD score ≥2 was inversely related to the occurrence of HT (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19-0.91; <i>p</i> = 0.03). These independent associations remained significant in the subgroups of hemorrhagic infarction and asymptomatic HT (all <i>p</i> < 0.05). <b>Conclusions:</b> In our study, the relationship between the total SVD score and HT was not linear, since the presence of only one marker of SVD was associated with an increased risk of HT, while the presence of two or more markers of SVD was a potential protective factor for HT. These results indicate the need to take the total SVD score into account, not only a single SVD marker, when assessing the risk of HT. Further studies with larger samples are required to validate these findings.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is common in ageing and patients with dementia and stroke. Its manifestations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, perivascular spaces, small subcortical infarcts, and brain atrophy. Many studies focus only on one of these manifestations. A protocol for the differential assessment of all these features is, therefore, needed.<h4>Aims</h4>To identify ways of quantifying imaging markers in research of patients with SVD and operationalize the recommendations from the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging guidelines. Here, we report the rationale, design, and methodology of a brain image analysis protocol based on our experience from observational longitudinal studies of patients with nondisabling stroke.<h4>Design</h4>The MRI analysis protocol is designed to provide quantitative and qualitative measures of disease evolution including: acute and old stroke lesions, lacunes, tissue loss due to stroke, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, macrohemorrhages, iron deposition in basal ganglia, substantia nigra and brain stem, brain atrophy, and white matter hyperintensities, with the latter separated into intense and less intense. Quantitative measures of tissue integrity such as diffusion fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and the longitudinal relaxation time are assessed in regions of interest manually placed in anatomically and functionally relevant locations, and in others derived from feature extraction pipelines and tissue segmentation methods. Morphological changes that relate to cognitive deficits after stroke, analyzed through shape models of subcortical structures, complete the multiparametric image analysis protocol.<h4>Outcomes</h4>Final outcomes include guidance for identifying ways to minimize bias and confounds in the assessment of SVD and stroke imaging biomarkers. It is intended that this information will inform the design of studies to examine the underlying pathophysiology of SVD and stroke, and to provide reliable, quantitative outcomes in trials of new therapies and preventative strategies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), blood flow, vascular and CSF pulsatility, and their independent relationship with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) features in patients with minor ischemic stroke and MRI evidence of SVD. METHODS:We recruited patients with minor ischemic stroke and assessed CVR using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI during a hypercapnic challenge, cerebral blood flow (CBF), vascular and CSF pulsatility using phase-contrast MRI, and structural magnetic resonance brain imaging to quantify white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and perivascular spaces (PVSs). We used multiple regression to identify parameters associated with SVD features, controlling for patient characteristics. RESULTS:Fifty-three of 60 patients completed the study with a full data set (age 68.0% ± 8.8 years, 74% male, 75% hypertensive). After controlling for age, sex, and systolic blood pressure, lower white matter CVR was associated with higher WMH volume (-0.01%/mm Hg per log10 increase in WMH volume, p = 0.02), basal ganglia PVS (-0.01%/mm Hg per point increase in the PVS score, p = 0.02), and higher venous pulsatility (superior sagittal sinus -0.03%/mm Hg, p = 0.02, per unit increase in the pulsatility index) but not with CBF (p = 0.58). Lower foramen magnum CSF stroke volume was associated with worse white matter CVR (0.04%/mm Hg per mL increase in stroke volume, p = 0.04) and more severe basal ganglia PVS (p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS:Lower CVR, higher venous pulsatility, and lower foramen magnum CSF stroke volume indicate that dynamic vascular dysfunctions underpin PVS dysfunction and WMH development. Further exploration of microvascular dysfunction and CSF dynamics may uncover new mechanisms and intervention targets to reduce SVD lesion development, cognitive decline, and stroke.
Project description:Objective: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with increased mortality, disability and cognitive decline, depression in stroke survivors. This study examined the association between SVD burden, defined by a combination of SVD markers, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke of any etiology were prospectively screened between January 2010 to December 2014 and enrolled in the study if they met study entry criteria. HRQoL was evaluated with the 12-item Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) at 3 months after the onset of acute ischemic stroke. SVD was ascertained by the presence of any of the SVD markers including lacune, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) in the basal ganglia or their combinations on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The presence of each individual marker scored 1 point and was summed up to generate an ordinal "SVD score" (0-4) capturing total SVD burden. Linear regression was used to determine the associations between SVD burden and HRQoL. Results: Of the743 acute ischemic stroke patients that formed he study sample (mean age: 66.3 ± 10.6 years; 41.7% women), 49.3%, 22.5%, 16.0%, 9.2% and 3.1% had SVD scores of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After adjusting for demographic, clinical and imaging variables, the SVD score was independently associated with lower overall score of SSQoL (B = -1.39, SE = 0.56, p = 0.01), and its domains of mobility (B = -0.41, SE = 0.10, p < 0.001) and vision (B = -0.12, SE = 0.06, p = 0.03). Acute infract volume (B = -1.44, SE = 0.54, p = 0.01), functional independence (B = 5.69, SE = 0.34, p < 0.001) and anxious (B = -1.13, SE = 0.23, p < 0.001) and depressive symptoms (B = -3.41, SE = 0.22, p < 0.001) were also the significant predictors of the overall score of SSQoL. Conclusion: The brain's SVD burden predicts lower HRQoL, predominantly in domains of mobility and vision at 3 months after acute ischemic stroke. The evaluation of SVD burden could facilitate developing individual treatment strategies.