Association of 17-? Estradiol with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: New Strategy to Produce Functional Myogenic Differentiated Cells with a Nano-Scaffold for Tissue Engineering.
ABSTRACT: The increased incidence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in postmenopausal women has been proposed to be associated with a reduction in the level of 17-? estradiol (E2). E2 has also been shown to enhance the multi-differentiation ability of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. However, studies on the potential value of E2 for tissue engineering in SUI treatment are rare. In the present study, we successfully fabricated myogenically differentiated ASCs (MD-ASCs), which were seeded onto a Poly(l-lactide)/Poly(e-caprolactone) electrospinning nano-scaffold, and incorporated E2 into the system, with the aim of improving the proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs. ASCs were collected from the inguinal subcutaneous fat of rats. The proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs, as well as the nano-scaffold biocompatibility of MD-ASCs, with or without E2 supplementation, were investigated. We demonstrated that E2 incorporation enhanced the proliferation of ASCs in vitro, and the most optimal concentration was 10-9 M. E2 also led to modulation of the MD-ASCs phenotype toward a concentrated type with smooth muscle-inductive medium. The expression of early (alpha-smooth muscle actin), mid (calponin), and late-stage (myosin heavy chain) contractile markers in MD-ASCs was enhanced by E2 during the different differentiation stages. Furthermore, the nano-scaffold was biocompatible with MD-ASCs, and cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by E2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that E2 can enhance the proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs and can be used to construct a biocompatible cell/nano-scaffold. These scaffolds with desirable differentiation cells show promising applications for tissue engineering.
Project description:Background:Secondary lymphedema is a common condition that affects patients with malignant tumors. Conservative treatments fail to provide lasting relief because they do not address the underlying pathological accumulation of excessive fat. Our aim is to clarify the molecular mechanisms of abnormal adipogenic differentiation in lymphedema adipose tissue. Methods:We compared the proliferation and adipogenesis potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) from the lymphedema adipose tissue from liposuction specimens of 10 patients with extremity lymphedema with that of ASCs from adipose tissue from the normal upper abdomen of the same patients. Transcriptome analysis were performed to identify the differences between the two kinds of ASCs. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) inhibitors were used to treat the abnormal ASCs in lymphedema adipose tissue. Results:Our results demonstrate that significant functional and transcriptomic differences exist between the two kinds of ASCs. Up-regulated genes were mainly involved in cell proliferation and division while down-regulated genes were mainly associated with immune responses and inflammatory as well as osteogenic and myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we find that the excessive proliferation and adipogenesis of ASCs from lymphedema adipose tissue returned to the normal phenotype by CDK1 inhibitors. ASCs from lymphedema adipose tissues have higher immunosuppressive effect and the cytokines related to immunosuppressive was significantly up-regulated. Conclusions:In conclusion, lymphedema-associated ASCs had more rapid proliferation and a higher adipogenic differentiation capacity. CDK1 may be a key driver of proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in these cells, which might expound the accumulation of adipose tissue extensively observed in secondary lymphedema. ASCs from lymphedema adipose tissues showed immunomodulation dysfunction and immunomodulation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lymphedema.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells serve as the body's reservoir for healing and tissue regeneration. In cases of severe tissue trauma where there is also a need for tissue organization, a scaffold may be of use to support the cells in the damaged tissue. Such a scaffold should be composed of a material that can biomimic the mechanical and biological properties of the target tissues in order to support autologous cell-adhesion, their proliferation, and differentiation. In this study, we developed and assayed a new biocomposite made of unique collagen fibers and alginate hydrogel that was assessed for the ability to support mesenchymal cell-proliferation and differentiation. Analysis over 11 weeks in vitro demonstrated that the scaffold was biocompatible and supports the cells viability and differentiation to produce tissue-like structures or become adipocyte under differentiation medium. When the biocomposite was enriched with nano particles (NPs), mesenchymal cells grew well after uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled NPs, maintained their viability, migrated through the biocomposite, reached, and adhered to the tissue culture dish. These promising findings revealed that the scaffold supports the growth and differentiation of mesenchymal cells that demonstrate their full physiological function with no sign of material toxicity. The cells' functionality performance indicates and suggests that the scaffold is suitable to be developed as a new medical device that has the potential to support regeneration and the production of functional tissue.
Project description:We previously showed that Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) expression was induced when quiescent muscle satellite cells were stimulated by hepatocyte growth factor and became activated satellite cells (ASCs). However, how Sema3A regulates genes in the early phase of ASCs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether Sema3A signaling can regulate the early phase of ASCs, an important satellite cell stage for postnatal growth, repair, and maintenance of skeletal muscle. We showed that expression of the myogenic proliferation regulatory factors Pax7 and Myf5 was decreased in myoblasts transfected with Sema3A siRNA. These cells failed to activate expression MyoD, another myogenic proliferation regulatory factor, during differentiation. Interestingly, some of the Sema3A-depleted cells did not express Pax7 and MyoD and had enlarged nuclei and very large cytoplasmic areas. We also observed that Pax7 and Myf5 expression was increased in Myc-Sema3A overexpressing myoblasts. BrdU analysis indicated that Sema3A regulated proliferation of ASCs. These findings suggest that Sema3A signaling can modulate expression of Pax7, Myf5, and MyoD. Moreover, we found that expression of emerin, an inner nuclear membrane protein, was regulated by Sema3A signaling. Emerin was identified by positional cloning as the gene responsible for the X-linked form of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD). In conclusion, our results support a role for Sema3A in maintaining ASCs through regulation, via emerin, of Pax7, Myf5, and MyoD expression.
Project description:Hydrogels serve as three-dimensional scaffolds whose composition can be customized to allow attachment and proliferation of several different cell types. Extracellular matrix-derived hydrogels are considered close replicates of the tissue microenvironment. They can serve as scaffolds for in vitro tissue engineering and are a useful tool to study cell-scaffold interaction. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) and decellularized adipose tissue-derived (DAT) hydrogel interaction on ASC morphology, proliferation, differentiation, and DAT hydrogel microstructure. First, the ASCs were characterized using flow cytometry, adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation, colony-forming unit fibroblast assay and doubling time. The viability and proliferation assays showed that ASCs seeded in DAT hydrogel at different concentrations and cultured for 21 days remained viable and displayed proliferation. ASCs were seeded on DAT hydrogel and cultured in stromal, adipogenic, or osteogenic media for 14 or 28 days. The analysis of adipogenic differentiation demonstrated the upregulation of adipogenic marker genes and accumulation of oil droplets in the cells. Osteogenic differentiation demonstrated the upregulation of osteogenic marker genes and mineral deposition in the DAT hydrogel. The analysis of DAT hydrogel fiber metrics revealed that ASC seeding, and differentiation altered both the diameter and arrangement of fibers in the matrix. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was assessed to determine the possible mechanism for DAT hydrogel remodeling. MMP-2 activity was observed in all ASC seeded samples, with the osteogenic samples displaying the highest MMP-2 activity. These findings indicate that DAT hydrogel is a cytocompatible scaffold that supports the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. Furthermore, the attachment of ASCs and differentiation along adipogenic and osteogenic lineages remodels the microstructure of DAT hydrogel.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells' growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, "IKVAV", and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, "RGD", into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.
Project description:For skeletal muscle engineering, scaffolds that can stimulate myogenic differentiation of cells while possessing suitable mechanical properties (e.g. flexibility) are required. In particular, the elastic property of scaffolds is of importance which helps to resist and support the dynamic conditions of muscle tissue environment. Here, we developed highly flexible nanocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds made of polycarbonate diol and isosorbide-based polyurethane and hydrophilic nano-graphene oxide added at concentrations up to 8%. The nano-graphene oxide incorporation increased the hydrophilicity, elasticity, and stress relaxation capacity of the polyurethane-derived nanofibrous scaffolds. When cultured with C2C12 cells, the polyurethane–nano-graphene oxide nanofibers enhanced the initial adhesion and spreading of cells and further the proliferation. Furthermore, the polyurethane–nano-graphene oxide scaffolds significantly up-regulated the myogenic mRNA levels and myosin heavy chain expression. Of note, the cells on the flexible polyurethane–nano-graphene oxide nanofibrous scaffolds could be mechanically stretched to experience dynamic tensional force. Under the dynamic force condition, the cells expressed significantly higher myogenic differentiation markers at both gene and protein levels and exhibited more aligned myotubular formation. The currently developed polyurethane–nano-graphene oxide nanofibrous scaffolds, due to their nanofibrous morphology and high mechanical flexibility, along with the stimulating capacity for myogenic differentiation, are considered to be a potential matrix for future skeletal muscle engineering.
Project description:The interactions of C2C12 myoblasts and human bone marrow stem cells (hMSCs) with silk-tropoelastin biomaterials, and the capacity of each to promote attachment, proliferation, and either myogenic- or osteogenic-differentiation were investigated. Temperature-controlled water vapor annealing was used to control beta-sheet crystal formation to generate insoluble silk-tropoelastin biomaterial matrices at defined ratios of the two proteins. These ratios controlled surface roughness and micro/nano-scale topological patterns, and elastic modulus, stiffness, yield stress, and tensile strength. A combination of low surface roughness and high stiffness in the silk-tropoelastin materials promoted proliferation and myogenic-differentiation of C2C12 cells. In contrast, high surface roughness with micro/nano-scale surface patterns was favored by hMSCs. Increasing the content of human tropoelastin in the silk-tropoelastin materials enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic-differentiation of hMSCs. We conclude that the silk-tropoelastin composition facilitates fine tuning of the growth and differentiation of these cells.
Project description:The physiological process of muscle regeneration is quite limited due to low satellite cell quantity and also the inability to regenerate and reconstruct niche tissue. The purpose of the study was to examine whether a graphene oxide scaffold is able to stimulate myogenic progenitor cell proliferation and the endocrine functions of differentiating cells, and therefore, their active participation in the construction of muscle tissue. Studies were carried out using mesenchymal cells taken from 6-day-old chicken embryos and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to assess angiogenesis. The graphene scaffold was readily colonized by myogenic progenitor cells and the cells dissected from heart, brain, eye, and blood vessels did not avoid the scaffold. The scaffold strongly induced myogenic progenitor cell signaling pathways and simultaneously activated proangiogenic signaling pathways via exocrine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. The present study revealed that the graphene oxide (GO) scaffold initiates the processes of muscle cell differentiation due to mechanical interaction with myogenic progenitor cell.
Project description:Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell therapy to treat inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Development of appropriate pre-clinical animal models is critical to determine safety and attain early efficacy data for the most promising therapeutic candidates. Naturally occurring diseases in cats already serve as valuable models to inform human clinical trials in oncologic, cardiovascular, and genetic diseases. The objective of this study was to complete a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of human and feline ASCs, with an emphasis on their immunomodulatory capacity and transcriptome.Human and feline ASCs were evaluated for phenotype, immunomodulatory profile, and transcriptome. Additionally, transwells were used to determine the role of cell-cell contact in ASC-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in both humans and cats.Similar to human ASCs, feline ASCs were highly proliferative at low passages and fit the minimal criteria of multipotent stem cells including a compatible surface protein phenotype, osteogenic capacity, and normal karyotype. Like ASCs from all species, feline ASCs inhibited mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, with or without direct ASC-lymphocyte contact. Feline ASCs mimic human ASCs in their mediator secretion pattern, including prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, transforming growth factor beta, and interleukin-6, all augmented by interferon gamma secretion by lymphocytes. The transcriptome of three unactivated feline ASC lines were highly similar. Functional analysis of the most highly expressed genes highlighted processes including: 1) the regulation of apoptosis; 2) cell adhesion; 3) response to oxidative stress; and 4) regulation of cell differentiation. Finally, feline ASCs had a similar gene expression profile to noninduced human ASCs.Findings suggest that feline ASCs modulate lymphocyte proliferation using soluble mediators that mirror the human ASC secretion pattern. Uninduced feline ASCs have similar gene expression profiles to uninduced human ASCs, as revealed by transcriptome analysis. These data will help inform clinical trials using cats with naturally occurring diseases as surrogate models for human clinical trials in the regenerative medicine arena.
Project description:Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66) porous scaffolds were fabricated by a phase inversion method. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silk fibroin (SF) were used to modify the surface of the nHA/PA66 scaffolds by freeze-drying and cross-linking. Dexamethasone was absorbed to the CNTs to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The cell viability of BMSCs was investigated by changing the concentration of the CNT dispersion, and the most biocompatible scaffold was selected. In addition, the morphology and mechanical property of the scaffolds were investigated. The results showed that the nHA/PA66 scaffolds modified with CNTs and SF met the requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The dexamethasone-loaded CNT/SF-nHA/PA66 composite scaffold promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and the drug-loaded scaffolds are expected to function as effective bone tissue engineering scaffolds.