Effect of complementary food supplementation on breastfeeding and home diet in rural Bangladeshi children.
ABSTRACT: Complementary food supplements (CFSs) can enhance growth where stunting is common, but substitution for the usual diet may reduce observed benefits.We aimed to characterize dietary diversity from home foods in a CFS efficacy trial and determine whether supplementation reduced breastfeeding frequency or displaced home foods.In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, children (n = 5499) received, for 1 y starting at age 6 mo, periodic child feeding counseling for mothers (control) or counseling plus 1 of 4 CFSs fed as a daily snack. Breastfeeding status and past 24-h diet were assessed at enrollment and every 3 mo thereafter until 18 mo of age. A 7-food group dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated from home foods only, and a DDS ?4 constituted minimum dietary diversity (MDD).Most children (97%) were breastfed through 18 mo of age, and 24-h breastfeeding frequency did not differ by supplementation group. Child dietary diversity was low; only 51% of children met the MDD by 18 mo. Rice, potatoes, and biscuits (cookies) were the most frequently consumed foods, whereas the legumes, dairy, eggs, and vitamin A-rich fruit and vegetable food groups were each consumed by <50% of children. The odds of meeting the MDD through the consumption of home foods were equal or greater in the supplemented groups compared with the control group at all ages. High socioeconomic status and any maternal education were associated with increased odds of MDD at age 18 mo, whereas child sex and household food security were not associated with MDD.In a setting where daily complementary food supplementation improved linear growth, there was no evidence that supplementation displaced breastfeeding or home foods, and the supplementation may have improved dietary diversity. Pathways by which supplementation with fortified foods may enhance dietary diversity, such as an improved appetite and increased body size, need elucidation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01562379.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Minimum Dietary Diversity (MDD) is a widely used indicator of adequate dietary micronutrient density for children 6-23 mo old. MDD food-group data remain underutilized, despite their potential for further informing nutrition programs and policies.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to describe the diets of children meeting MDD and not meeting MDD in India using food group data, nationally and subnationally.<h4>Methods</h4>Food group data for children 6-23 mo old (n = 73,036) from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey in India were analyzed. Per WHO standards, children consuming ≥5 of the following food groups in the past day or night met MDD: breast milk; grains, roots, or tubers; legumes or nuts; dairy; flesh foods; eggs; vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables; and other fruits and vegetables. Children not meeting MDD consumed <5 food groups. We analyzed the number and types of foods consumed by children meeting MDD and not meeting MDD at the national and subnational geographic levels.<h4>Results</h4>Nationally, children not meeting MDD most often consumed breast milk (84.5%), grains, roots, and tubers (62.0%), and/or dairy (42.9%). Children meeting MDD most often consumed grains, roots, and tubers (97.6%), vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables (93.8%), breast milk (84.1%), dairy (82.1%), other fruits and vegetables (79.5%), and/or eggs (56.5%). For children not meeting MDD, district-level dairy consumption varied the most (6.4%-79.9%), whereas flesh foods consumption varied the least (0.0%-43.8%). For children meeting MDD, district-level egg consumption varied the most (0.0%-100.0%), whereas grains, roots, and tubers consumption varied the least (66.8%-100.0%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Children not meeting MDD had low fruit, vegetable, and protein-rich food consumption. Many children meeting MDD also had low protein-rich food consumption. Examining the number and types of foods consumed highlights priorities for children experiencing the greatest dietary deprivation, providing valuable complementary information to MDD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Simple proxy indicators are needed to assess and monitor micronutrient intake adequacy of vulnerable populations. Standard dichotomous indicators exist for nonpregnant women of reproductive age and 6-23-mo-old children in low-income countries, but not for 24-59-mo-old children or pregnant or breastfeeding women.<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aimed to evaluate the performance of 2 standard food group scores (FGSs) and related dichotomous indicators to predict micronutrient adequacy of the diet of rural Burkinabe 24-59-mo-old children and women of reproductive age by physiological status.<h4>Methods</h4>A 24-h recall survey was conducted at dry season among 1066 pairs of children and caregivers. Micronutrient adequacy was evaluated by the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of intake over 11 micronutrients. Proxy indicators were FGS-10 [10 food groups based on the FAO/FHI360 minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W) guidelines] and related MDD-W (FGS-10 ?5); and FGS-7 [7 groups based on the WHO infant and young child (IYC) feeding MDD guidelines] and related MDD-IYC (FGS-7 ?4).<h4>Results</h4>FGS-10 and FGS-7 were similar across children and women (?3 groups). FGS-10 performed better than FGS-7 to predict MPA in children (Spearman rank correlation = 0.59 compared with 0.50) and women of all 3 physiological statuses (Spearman rank correlation = 0.53-0.55 compared with 0.42-0.52). MDD-W and MDD-IYC performed well in predicting MPA >0.75 in children and MPA >0.6 in nonpregnant nonbreastfeeding (NPNB) women, but a 4-group cutoff for FGS-10 allowed a better balance between sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of correct classification. MPA levels for pregnant and breastfeeding women were too low to assess best cutoff points.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MDD-IYC or an adapted MDD-W (FGS-10 ?4 instead of FGS-10 ?5) can be extended to 24-59-mo-old children and NPNB women in similar-diet settings. The inadequacy of micronutrient intakes in pregnant and breastfeeding women warrants urgent action. Micronutrient adequacy predictors should be validated in populations where a higher proportion of these women do meet dietary requirements.
Project description:Optimal breastfeeding (BF) practices in Ethiopia are far below the government's targets, and complementary feeding practices are poor. The Alive & Thrive initiative aimed to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through large-scale implementation of social and behavior change communication interventions in four regions of Ethiopia. The study assessed the effects of the interventions on IYCF practices and anthropometry over time in two regions-Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and Tigray. A pre- and post-intervention adequacy evaluation design was used; repeated cross-sectional surveys of households with children aged 0-23.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1494) and with children aged 24-59.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1475) were conducted at baseline (2010) and endline (2014), respectively. Differences in outcomes over time were estimated using regression models, accounting for clustering and covariates. Plausibility analyses included tracing recall of key messages and promoted foods and dose-response analyses. We observed improvements in most WHO-recommended IYCF indicators. Early BF initiation and exclusive BF increased by 13.7 and 9.4 percentage points (pp), respectively. Differences for timely introduction of complementary foods, minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD), and consumption of iron-rich foods were 22.2, 3.3, 26.2, 3.5, and 2.7 pp, respectively. Timely introduction and intake of foods promoted by the interventions improved significantly, but anthropometric outcomes did not. We also observed a dose-response association between health post visits and early initiation of BF (OR: 1.8); higher numbers of home visits by community volunteers and key messages recalled were associated with 1.8-4.4 times greater odds of achieving MDD, MMF, and MAD, and higher numbers of radio spots heard were associated with 3 times greater odds of achieving MDD and MAD. The interventions were associated with plausible improvements in IYCF practices, but large gaps in improving children's diets in Ethiopia remain, particularly during complementary feeding.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Adequate complementary feeding practices in early childhood contribute to better food preferences and health outcomes throughout the life course.<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim of this study was to describe patterns and socioeconomic inequalities in complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 mo in 80 low- and middle-income countries.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed national surveys carried out since 2010. Complementary feeding indicators for children aged 6-23 mo included minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), and minimum acceptable diet (MAD). Between- and within-country inequalities were documented using relative (wealth deciles), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and absolute (estimated household income) socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analyses included calculation of the slope index of inequality, Pearson correlation and linear regression, and scatter diagrams.<h4>Results</h4>Only 21.3%, 56.2%, and 10.1% of the 80 countries showed prevalence levels >50% for MDD, MMF, and MAD, respectively. Western & Central Africa showed the lowest prevalence for all indicators, whereas the highest for MDD and MAD was Latin America & Caribbean, and for MMF it was East Asia & the Pacific. Log GDP per capita was positively associated with MDD (R2 = 48.5%), MMF (28.2%), and MAD (41.4%). Pro-rich within-country inequalities were observed in most countries for the 3 indicators; pro-poor inequalities were observed in 2 countries for MMF, and in none for the other 2 indicators. Breast milk was the only type of food with a pro-poor distribution, whereas animal-source foods (dairy products, flesh foods, and eggs) showed the most pronounced pro-rich inequality. Dietary diversity improved sharply when absolute annual household incomes exceeded ∼US$20,000. All 3 dietary indicators improved by age and no consistent differences were observed between boys and girls.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Monitoring complementary feeding indicators across the world and implementing policies and programs to reduce wealth-related inequalities are essential to achieve optimal child nutrition.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Behavioral change communication (BCC) promotes skills and knowledge to improve infant and young child feeding, but without additional material inputs, recipients must develop strategies to translate knowledge into action. Using data from the Alive & Thrive initiative in Bangladesh (2010-2014), we aimed to test whether households receiving the intensive intervention (opposed to the nonintensive intervention) increased expenditures on key foods for mothers and children (e.g., foods that were promoted by the intervention and also changed in maternal and child diets). METHODS:The intensive intervention provided interpersonal counseling, community mobilization, and mass media campaigns to promote breastfeeding and complementary feeding. A cluster-randomized design compared 20 subdistricts randomly assigned to the intensive (4281 households) or nonintensive (4284 households) intervention. Measures included food and nonfood expenditures, dietary diversity, and women's economic resources. Linear and logistic regression tested difference-in-differences (DD) in expenditures and dietary diversity, accounting for subdistricts as clusters, and the association between maternal and child consumption of specific food groups and corresponding food expenditures. RESULTS:Expenditures on eggs and flesh foods increased more in intensive areas than in nonintensive areas by 53 (P < 0.01) and 471 (P < 0.01) taka/mo, respectively. Household food expenditures increased more in intensive areas by 832 taka (P = 0.02), whereas changes in nonfood expenditures did not differ. Women's employment and control of income increased more in intensive areas by 12 (P = 0.03) and 13 (P < 0.01) percentage points, respectively, while jewelry ownership decreased more by 23 percentage points (P < 0.01). Higher expenditures on food groups were reflected in higher consumption by women and children. CONCLUSIONS:Recipients in the intensive intervention mobilized additional resources to improve diets, reflected in increased expenditures and consumption of promoted foods. BCC interventions should document how recipients produce desired results without additional material inputs, particularly for behaviors that likely require additional resources. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01678716.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes continues to increase. These conditions disproportionately affect minorities and are associated with poor nutrition early in life. Current food-consumption patterns can inform pending dietary guidelines for infants and toddlers.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to describe infant feeding, complementary feeding, and food and beverage consumption patterns of 0- to 23.9-mo-olds in the general population.<h4>Methods</h4>The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2016 is a cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children aged <4 y. Dietary data were collected from a national random sample by using a 24-h dietary recall (n = 3235). The percentage of children consuming foods from >400 food groups was calculated. Differences in the percentage consuming between Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black children aged 0-23.9 mo were evaluated with the use of ORs and 95% CIs.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty-three percent of 0- to 23.9-mo-olds (n = 2635) were ever breastfed, 34% of 0- to 3.9-mo-olds (n = 305) and 15% of 4- to 5.9-mo-olds (n = 295) were exclusively breastfed, and 24% of 12- to 14.9-mo-olds (n = 412) consumed breast milk on the day of the recall. Complementary foods were more likely to be introduced before 4 mo in formula-fed infants (27%) than in infants who did not consume formula (5%). Half of 4- to 5.9-mo-olds consumed iron-fortified infant cereal, but few consumed iron-rich meats. Among toddlers (12-23.9 mo; n = 1133), >20% consumed no servings of fruit or vegetables on the day of the recall, approximately half consumed 100% fruit juice, and one-quarter to one-third consumed a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Breastfeeding initiation and duration have improved, but exclusivity remains low. Low consumption of iron-rich foods, fruit, and vegetables and lack of variety in vegetable consumption are problems. Efforts to reduce the consumption of SSBs and 100% fruit juice are warranted in early childhood.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study investigated self-food restriction during breastfeeding, reviewed the literature showing the effect of maternal diet on the health of breast-fed infants, and explored the validity of dietary restrictions.<h4>Methods</h4>Questionnaire data were collected from breastfeeding Korean mothers who visited the pediatric clinic of Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center from July 2015 through August 2015. The survey included items assessing maternal age, number of children, maternal educational attainment, household income, degree of difficulty with self-food restriction, types of self-restricted foods, dietary customs during breastfeeding, and sources of information about breastfeeding.<h4>Results</h4>The questionnaire was completed by 145 mothers. More than a third (n=56, 39%) had discomfort from and usually avoided 4-5 types of food (mean, 4.92). Mothers younger than 40 years had more discomfort (odds ratio [OR], 12.762; <i>P</i>=0.017). Primiparas felt less discomfort than multiparas (OR, 0.436; <i>P</i>=0.036). Dietary practices were not influenced by maternal educational attainment or household income. The most common self-restricted foods were caffeine (n=131, 90.3%), spicy foods (n=124, 85.5%), raw foods (n=109, 75.2%), cold foods (n=100, 69%), and sikhye (traditional sweet Korean rice beverage) (n=100, 69%). Most mothers (n=122, 84.1%) avoided foods for vague reasons.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Most mothers restricted certain foods unnecessarily. Literature review identified no foods that mothers should absolutely avoid during breastfeeding unless the infant reacts negatively to the food.
Project description:Micronutrient malnutrition is a challenge for women of reproductive age, who are particularly vulnerable due to greater micronutrient needs. The minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W) indicator is a micronutrient adequacy's proxy for those women, but little is known about its relation to other dimensions. We assessed MDD-W and its association with other socioeconomic, food security and purchasing practices in urban Burkina Faso. We conducted multi-stage cluster sampling in two main cities of Burkina Faso, stratified by type of district, and interviewed 12 754 women in the 2009-2011 period. We obtained food consumption data through unquantified 24 hour recalls and computed MDD-W as consuming at least five out of ten predefined food groups. We constructed multivariable regression models with sociodemographic and food security covariates. MDD-W in urban Burkina Faso was 31%, higher in Ouagadougou (33%) than in Bobo-Dioulasso (29%), and lower in unstructured districts. The most frequently consumed food groups were 'all starchy', 'vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables' and 'other vegetables'. Household's expenses were associated with higher likelihood of MDD-W, while the association with household food security indicators varied by year and type of district. Purchasing foods in markets and choosing the place of purchase based on large choice rather than proximity showed a positive association with the MDD-W. Only one in three women in urban Burkina Faso reached the minimum dietary diversity, and although socioeconomic and food security variables had the greatest effect on MDD-W, purchasing practices, like going to the market, also showed a positive effect.
Project description:Sodium intake is high in US children. Data are limited on the dietary sources of sodium, especially from birth to age 24 mo.We identified top sources of dietary sodium in US children from birth to age 24 mo.Data from the NHANES 2003-2010 were used to examine food sources of sodium (population proportions and mean intakes) in 778 participants aged 0-5.9 mo, 914 participants aged 6-11.9 mo, and 1219 participants aged 12-23.9 mo by sociodemographic characteristics.Overall, mean dietary sodium intake was low in 0-5.9-mo-old children, and the top contributors were formula (71.7%), human milk (22.9%), and commercial baby foods (2.2%). In infants aged 6-11.9 mo, the top 5 contributors were formula (26.7%), commercial baby foods (8.8%), soups (6.1%), pasta mixed dishes (4.0%), and human milk (3.9%). In children aged 12-23.9 mo, the top contributors were milk (12.2%), soups (5.4%), cheese (5.2%), pasta mixed dishes (5.1%), and frankfurters and sausages (4.6%). Despite significant variation in top food categories across racial/ethnic groups, commercial baby foods were a top food contributor in children aged 6-11.9 mo, and frankfurters and sausages were a top food contributor in children aged 12-23.9 mo. The top 5 food categories that contributed to sodium intake also differed by sex. Most of the sodium consumed (83-90%) came from store foods (e.g., from the supermarket). In children aged 12-23.9 mo, 9% of sodium consumed came from restaurant foods, and 4% of sodium came from childcare center foods.The vast majority of sodium consumed comes from foods other than infant formula or human milk after the age of 6 mo. Although the majority of sodium intake was from store foods, after age 12 mo, restaurant foods contribute significantly to intake. Reducing the sodium content in these settings would reduce sodium intake in the youngest consumers.
Project description:Poverty adversely affects child development through multiple pathways in low- and middle-income countries. Relationships between diet and child development are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to explore these associations in a longitudinal cohort of 305 children in rural Nepal (baseline mean age 14 months), evaluating dietary diversity and the consumption of specific food groups at three timepoints over 1.5 years. Child development was assessed using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-version 3 (ASQ-3). Associations between the number of days that children consumed minimum dietary diversity (MDD) (?4/8 items) and specific food groups over time (range 0-3) and total and subscale ASQ scores at age 23-38 months were estimated using multiple linear and logistic regression, dichotomizing scores at the lowest quartile. After adjusting for confounders, each additional day of consuming MDD was associated with a 35% reduction in the odds of low total ASQ score [OR 0.65, 95% CI (0.46, 0.92)]. The consumption of animal source foods [OR 0.64, (0.46, 0.89)], and vegetables/fruits [OR 0.60, (0.41, 0.90), but not processed foods [OR 0.99, (0.62, 1.59)] was associated with lower odds of low total development. Vegetables, fruits and animal source foods may be important for child development in this setting.