Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Annulation between ortho-Alkenylphenols and Allenes. Key Role of the Metal Geometry in Determining the Reaction Outcome.
ABSTRACT: 2-Alkenylphenols react with allenes, upon treatment with catalytic amounts of Pd(II) and Cu(II), to give benzoxepine products in high yields and with very good regio- and diastereoselectivities. This contrasts with the results obtained with Rh catalysts, which provided chromene-like products through a pathway involving a ?-hydrogen elimination step. Computational studies suggest that the square planar geometry of the palladium is critical to favor the reductive elimination process required for the formation of the oxepine products.
Project description:For over a century, the structures and reactivities of strained organic compounds have captivated the chemical community. Whereas triple-bond-containing strained intermediates have been well studied, cyclic allenes have received far less attention. Additionally, studies of cyclic allenes that bear heteroatoms in the ring are scarce. We report an experimental and computational study of azacyclic allenes, which features syntheses of stable allene precursors, the mild generation and Diels-Alder trapping of the desired cyclic allenes, and explanations of the observed regio- and diastereoselectivities. Furthermore, we show that stereochemical information can be transferred from an enantioenriched silyl triflate starting material to a Diels-Alder cycloadduct by way of a stereochemically defined azacyclic allene intermediate. These studies demonstrate that heteroatom-containing cyclic allenes, despite previously being overlooked as valuable synthetic intermediates, may be harnessed for the construction of complex molecular scaffolds bearing multiple stereogenic centres.
Project description:Among about 150 identified allenic natural products, the exocyclic allenes constitute a major subclass. Substantial efforts are devoted to the construction of axially chiral allenes, however, the strategies to prepare chiral exocyclic allenes are still rare. Herein, we show an efficient strategy for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral exocyclic allenes with the simultaneous control of axial and central chirality through copper(I)-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular reductive coupling of 1,3-enynes to cyclohexadienones. This tandem reaction exhibits good functional group compatibility and the corresponding optically pure exocyclic allenes bearing cis-hydrobenzofuran, cis-hydroindole, and cis-hydroindene frameworks, are obtained with high yields (up to 99% yield), excellent diastereoselectivities (generally >20:1?dr) and enantioselectivities (mostly >99%?ee). Furthermore, a gram-scale experiment and several synthetic transformations of the chiral exocyclic allenes are also presented.
Project description:Rh-hydride catalysis solves a synthetic challenge by affording the enantioselective reduction of allenes, thereby yielding access to motifs commonly used in medicinal chemistry. A designer Josiphos ligand promotes the generation of chiral benzylic isomers, when combined with a Hantzsch ester as the reductant. This semireduction proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups, which are typically reduced using conventional hydrogenations. Isotopic labelling studies support a mechanism where the hydride is delivered to the branched position of a Rh-allyl intermediate.Reduction of allenes poses several challenges in terms of chemo-, regio- and enantio-selectivity. Here, the authors report a rhodium-Josiphos catalytic system that reduces a variety of aryl allenes to chiral benzylic compounds with excellent selectivity and functional group tolerance.
Project description:An enantiodivergent method for the synthesis of multiply substituted allenes is described. Highly enantioenriched, point-chiral boronic esters were synthesized by homologation of ?-seleno alkenyl boronic esters with lithiated carbamates and eliminated to form axially chiral allene products. By employing either oxidative or alkylative conditions, both syn and anti elimination could be achieved with complete stereospecificity. The process enables the synthesis of either M or P?allenes from a single isomer of a point-chiral precursor and can be employed for the enantioselective assembly of di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted allenes.
Project description:A copper-catalyzed three-component coupling of allenes, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and imines allows regio-, chemo-, and diastereoselective assembly of branched ?,?-substituted-?-boryl homoallylic amines, that is, products bearing versatile amino, alkenyl, and borane functionality. Alternatively, convenient oxidative workup allows access to ?-substituted-?-amino ketones. A computational study has been used to probe the stereochemical course of the cross-coupling.
Project description:Gold(I)-catalysed intermolecular hydroalkoxylation of enantioenriched 1,3-disubstituted allenes was previously reported to occur with poor chirality transfer due to rapid allene racemisation. The first intermolecular hydroalkoxylation of allenes with efficient chirality transfer is reported here, exploiting conditions that suppress allene racemisation. A full substrate scope study reveals that excellent regio- and stereoselectivities are achieved when a ?-withdrawing substituent is present.
Project description:An olefin-directed palladium-catalyzed oxidative regio- and stereoselective arylation of allenes to afford 1,3,6-trienes has been established. A number of functionalized allenes, including 2,3- and 3,4-dienoates and 3,4-dienol derivatives, have been investigated and found to undergo the olefin-directed allene arylation. The olefin moiety has been proven to be a crucial element for the arylating transformation.
Project description:Several alkylidenesilacyclopropanes were prepared by silver-mediated silylene transfer to allenes. Oxasilacyclopentanes derived from allenes were prepared with high regio- and diastereoselectivity by a two-step, one-flask silacyclopropanation/carbonyl insertion reaction. Triols and homoallylic alcohols were formed diastereoselectively by functionalizing the oxasilacyclopentanes. An optically active allene (>98% ee) was utilized to synthesize an enantiopure homoallylic alcohol in 96% ee.
Project description:The Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) is one of the most useful and versatile methods for asymmetric synthesis known in organometallic chemistry. Development of this reaction over the past 30 years has typically relied on the use of an allylic electrophile bearing an appropriate leaving group to access the reactive Pd(?-allyl) intermediate that goes on to the desired coupling product after attack by the nucleophile present in the reaction. Our group has been interested in developing alternative approaches to access the reactive Pd(?-allyl) intermediate that does not require the use of an activated electrophile, which ultimately generates a stoichiometric byproduct in the reaction that is derived from the leftover leaving group. Along these lines, we have demonstrated that allenes can be used to generate the reactive Pd(?-allyl) intermediate in the presence of an acid cocatalyst, and this system is compatible with nucleophiles to allow for formation of formal AAA products by Pd-catalyzed additions to allenes. This article describes our work regarding the use of oxindoles as carbon-based nucleophiles in a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric addition of oxindoles to allenes (Pd-catalyzed hydrocarbonation of allenes). By using the chiral standard Trost ligand (L1) and 3-aryloxindoles as nucleophiles, this hydrocarbonation reaction provides products with two vicinal stereocenters, with one being quaternary, in excellent chemo-, regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities in high chemical yields.
Project description:Rhodium-catalyzed highly regio- and enantioselective hydroamination of allenes is reported. Exclusive branched selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved applying a rhodium(i)/Josiphos catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable ?-chiral allylic amines using benzophenone imine as ammonia carrier.