The lysosomal membrane protein SCAV-3 maintains lysosome integrity and adult longevity.
ABSTRACT: Lysosomes degrade macromolecules and recycle metabolites as well as being involved in diverse processes that regulate cellular homeostasis. The lysosome is limited by a single phospholipid bilayer that forms a barrier to separate the potent luminal hydrolases from other cellular constituents, thus protecting the latter from unwanted degradation. The mechanisms that maintain lysosomal membrane integrity remain unknown. Here, we identified SCAV-3, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of human LIMP-2, as a key regulator of lysosome integrity, motility, and dynamics. Loss of scav-3 caused rupture of lysosome membranes and significantly shortened lifespan. Both of these phenotypes were suppressed by reinforced expression of LMP-1 or LMP-2, the C. elegans LAMPs, indicating that longevity requires maintenance of lysosome integrity. Remarkably, reduction in insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling suppressed lysosomal damage and extended the lifespan in scav-3(lf) animals in a DAF-16-dependent manner. Our data reveal that SCAV-3 is essential for preserving lysosomal membrane stability and that modulation of lysosome integrity by the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway affects longevity.
Project description:Lysosomes play important roles in cellular degradation to maintain cell homeostasis. In order to understand whether and how lysosomes alter with age and contribute to lifespan regulation, we characterized multiple properties of lysosomes during the aging process in C. elegans. We uncovered age-dependent alterations in lysosomal morphology, motility, acidity and degradation activity, all of which indicate a decline in lysosome function with age. The age-associated lysosomal changes are suppressed in the long-lived mutants daf-2, eat-2 and isp-1, which extend lifespan by inhibiting insulin/IGF-1 signaling, reducing food intake and impairing mitochondrial function, respectively. We found that 43 lysosome genes exhibit reduced expression with age, including genes encoding subunits of the proton pump V-ATPase and cathepsin proteases. The expression of lysosome genes is upregulated in the long-lived mutants, and this upregulation requires the functions of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/NRF2 transcription factors. Impairing lysosome function affects clearance of aggregate-prone proteins and disrupts lifespan extension in daf-2, eat-2 and isp-1 worms. Our data indicate that lysosome function is modulated by multiple longevity pathways and is important for lifespan extension.
Project description:Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans and other eukaryotic organisms. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, has emerged as a central pathway regulated by various longevity signals including DR and IGF signaling in promoting longevity in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the autophagy protein ATG-18 acts cell non-autonomously in neuronal and intestinal tissues to maintain C. elegans wildtype lifespan and to respond to DR and IGF-mediated longevity signaling. Moreover, ATG-18 activity in chemosensory neurons that are involved in food detection sufficiently mediates the effect of these longevity pathways. Additionally, ATG-18-mediated cell non-autonomous signaling depends on the release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Interestingly, our data suggest that neuronal and intestinal ATG-18 acts in parallel and converges on unidentified neurons that secrete neuropeptides to regulate C. elegans lifespan through the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in response to reduced IGF signaling.
Project description:To investigate the interaction between the genes required for the functions of AWA olfactory neuron and insulin/IGF signaling in regulating the longevity of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans).The mutants that had loss-of-function mutation of the genes required for AWA, AWC, ASE, and AFD sensory neurons were employed. Lifespan, the speed of pharynx pumping, the intestinal autofluorescence, the dauer formation, and the brood size were examined. Rescue experiments were performed to confirm the role of the genes required for the functions of AWA neuron in regulating lifespan. Moreover, genetic interactions between genes required for the functions of AWA neuron and insulin/IGF signaling were investigated.Mutations of odr-7, odr-2, and odr-3 genes required for the functions of AWA neuron significantly increased the mean lifespan of nematodes and slowed the accumulation of intestinal autofluorescence. Besides, these mutations were closely associated with higher pumping rates during aging. However, mutation of odr-7, odr-2, or odr-3 did not obviously affect the brood size or the dauer formation, and the regulation of longevity by odr-7, odr-2, and odr-3 was temperature-independent. In contrast, mutations of genes required for the functions of ASE, AWC, and AFD sensory neurons did not influence the nematode lifespan. Moreover, expression of odr-7, odr-2 and odr-3 in AWA neuron could completely or largely restore the altered lifespan in odr-7, odr-2 and odr-3 mutants. Furthermore, genetic interaction assay demonstrated that the extended lifespan in odr-7 mutant could be suppressed by daf-16 mutation and enhanced by daf-2 or age-1 mutation, whereas mev-1 and pha-4 were not required for the long lifespan of odr-7 mutant.The genes required for the function of AWA sensory neuron could regulate the nematode longevity in an insulin/IGF signaling-dependent fashion in C. elegans.
Project description:Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice is regulated by conserved signaling networks, including the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling cascade and pathways depending on sirtuins, a family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases. Small molecules such as resveratrol are of great interest because they increase lifespan in many species in a sirtuin-dependent manner. However, no endogenous small molecules that regulate lifespan via sirtuins have been identified, and the mechanisms underlying sirtuin-dependent longevity are not well understood. Here, we show that in C. elegans, two endogenously produced small molecules, the dauer-inducing ascarosides ascr#2 and ascr#3, regulate lifespan and stress resistance through chemosensory pathways and the sirtuin SIR-2.1. Ascarosides extend adult lifespan and stress resistance without reducing fecundity or feeding rate, and these effects are reduced or abolished when nutrients are restricted. We found that ascaroside-mediated longevity is fully abolished by loss of SIR-2.1 and that the effect of ascr#2 requires expression of the G protein-coupled receptor DAF-37 in specific chemosensory neurons. In contrast to many other lifespan-modulating factors, ascaroside-mediated lifespan increases do not require insulin signaling via the FOXO homolog DAF-16 or the insulin/IGF-1-receptor homolog DAF-2. Our study demonstrates that C. elegans produces specific small molecules to control adult lifespan in a sirtuin-dependent manner, supporting the hypothesis that endogenous regulation of metazoan lifespan functions, in part, via sirtuins. These findings strengthen the link between chemosensory inputs and conserved mechanisms of lifespan regulation in metazoans and suggest a model for communal lifespan regulation in C. elegans.
Project description:The lysosome plays a crucial role in the regulation of longevity. Lysosomal degradation is tightly coupled with autophagy that is induced by many longevity paradigms and required for lifespan extension. The lysosome also serves as a hub for signal transduction and regulates longevity via affecting nuclear transcription. One lysosome-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathway is mediated by a lysosome-associated fatty acid binding protein LBP-8 in Caenorhabditis elegans. LBP-8 shuttles lysosomal lipids into the nucleus to activate lipid regulated nuclear receptors NHR-49 and NHR-80 and consequently promote longevity. However, the structural basis of LBP-8 action remains unclear. Here, we determined the first 1.3?Å high-resolution structure of this life-extending protein LBP-8, which allowed us to identify a structurally conserved nuclear localization signal and amino acids involved in lipid binding. Additionally, we described the range of fatty acids LBP-8 is capable of binding and show that it binds to life-extending ligands in worms such as oleic acid and oleoylethanolamide with high affinity.
Project description:Insulin/IGF-1 signaling plays a central role in longevity across phylogeny. In C. elegans, the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor, DAF-16, is the primary target of insulin/IGF-1 signaling, and multiple isoforms of DAF-16 (a, b, and d/f) modulate lifespan, metabolism, dauer formation, and stress resistance. Thus far, across phylogeny modulation of mammalian FOXOs and DAF-16 have focused on post-translational regulation with little focus on transcriptional regulation. In C. elegans, we have previously shown that DAF-16d/f cooperates with DAF-16a to promote longevity. In this study, we generated transgenic strains expressing near-endogenous levels of either daf-16a or daf-16d/f, and examined temporal expression of the isoforms to further define how these isoforms contribute to lifespan regulation.Here, we show that DAF-16a is sensitive both to changes in gene dosage and to alterations in the level of insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Interestingly, we find that as worms age, the intestinal expression of daf-16d/f but not daf-16a is dramatically upregulated at the level of transcription. Preventing this transcriptional upregulation shortens lifespan, indicating that transcriptional regulation of daf-16d/f promotes longevity. In an RNAi screen of transcriptional regulators, we identify elt-2 (GATA transcription factor) and swsn-1 (core subunit of SWI/SNF complex) as key modulators of daf-16d/f gene expression. ELT-2 and another GATA factor, ELT-4, promote longevity via both DAF-16a and DAF-16d/f while the components of SWI/SNF complex promote longevity specifically via DAF-16d/f.Our findings indicate that transcriptional control of C. elegans FOXO/daf-16 is an essential regulatory event. Considering the conservation of FOXO across species, our findings identify a new layer of FOXO regulation as a potential determinant of mammalian longevity and age-related diseases such as cancer and diabetes.
Project description:Mutations in the daf-2 gene of the conserved Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1) pathway double the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This phenotype is completely suppressed by deletion of Forkhead transcription factor daf-16. To uncover regulatory mechanisms coordinating this extension of life, we employed a quantitative proteomics strategy with daf-2 mutants in comparison with N2 and daf-16; daf-2 double mutants. This revealed a remarkable longevity-specific decrease in proteins involved in mRNA processing and transport, the translational machinery, and protein metabolism. Correspondingly, the daf-2 mutants display lower amounts of mRNA and 20S proteasome activity, despite maintaining total protein levels equal to that observed in wild types. Polyribosome profiling in the daf-2 and daf-16;daf-2 double mutants confirmed a daf-16-dependent reduction in overall translation, a phenotype reminiscent of Dietary Restriction-mediated longevity, which was independent of germline activity. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of proteins identified by our approach resulted in modified C. elegans lifespan confirming the importance of these processes in Insulin/IGF-1-mediated longevity. Together, the results demonstrate a role for the metabolism of proteins in the Insulin/IGF-1-mediated extension of life.
Project description:Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling may be a natural way for the reduction of dietary nutrients to extend lifespan. While evidence challenging this hypothesis is accumulating with Caenorhabditis elegans, for Drosophila melanogaster it is still thought that insulin/IGF and the mechanisms of dietary restriction (DR) might as yet function through overlapping mechanisms. Here, we aim to understand this potential overlap. We found that over-expression of dFOXO in head fat body extends lifespan and reduces steady-state mRNA abundance of insulin-like peptide-2 under conditions of high dietary yeast, but not when yeast is limiting. In contrast, conditions of DR that increase lifespan change only insulin-like peptide-5 (ilp5) mRNA abundance. Thus, reduction of ilp5 mRNA is associated with longevity extension by DR, while reduction of insulin-like peptide-2 is associated with the diet-dependent effects of FOXO over-expression upon lifespan. To assess whether reduction of ilp5 is required for DR to extend lifespan, we blocked its diet-dependent change with RNAi. Loss of the ilp5 dietary response did not diminish the capacity of DR to extend lifespan. Finally, we assessed the capacity of DR to extend lifespan in the absence of dFOXO, the insulin/IGF-responsive transcription factor. As with the knockdown of ilp5 diet responsiveness, DR was equally effective among genotypes with and without dFOXO. It is clear from many Drosophila studies that insulin/IGF mediates growth and metabolic responses to nutrition, but we now find no evidence that this endocrine system mediates the interaction between dietary yeast and longevity extension.
Project description:RNA helicases, which unwind RNAs, are essential for RNA metabolism and homeostasis. However, the roles of RNA helicases in specific physiological processes remain poorly understood. We recently reported that an RNA helicase, HEL-1, promotes long lifespan conferred by reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also showed that HEL-1 induces the expression of longevity genes by physically interacting with Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor. Thus, the HEL-1 RNA helicase appears to regulate lifespan by specifically activating FOXO in IIS. In the current study, we report another longevity-promoting RNA helicase, Suppressor of ACY-4 sterility 1 (SACY-1). SACY-1 contributed to the longevity of daf-2/insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants. Unlike HEL-1, SACY-1 was also required for the longevity due to mutations in genes involved in non-IIS pathways. Thus, SACY-1 appears to function as a general longevity factor for various signaling pathways, which is different from the specific function of HEL-1.
Project description:In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, inactivating mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, DAF-2, result in a 2-fold increase in lifespan mediated by DAF-16, a FOXO-family transcription factor. Downstream protein activities that directly regulate longevity during impaired insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) are poorly characterized. Here, we use global cysteine-reactivity profiling to identify protein activity changes during impaired IIS. Upon confirming that cysteine reactivity is a good predictor of functionality in C. elegans, we profiled cysteine-reactivity changes between daf-2 and daf-16;daf-2 mutants, and identified 40 proteins that display a >2-fold change. Subsequent RNAi-mediated knockdown studies revealed that lbp-3 and K02D7.1 knockdown caused significant increases in lifespan and dauer formation. The proteins encoded by these two genes, LBP-3 and K02D7.1, are implicated in intracellular fatty acid transport and purine metabolism, respectively. These studies demonstrate that cysteine-reactivity profiling can be complementary to abundance-based transcriptomic and proteomic studies, serving to identify uncharacterized mediators of C. elegans longevity.