No Reliable Association between Runs of Homozygosity and Schizophrenia in a Well-Powered Replication Study.
ABSTRACT: It is well known that inbreeding increases the risk of recessive monogenic diseases, but it is less certain whether it contributes to the etiology of complex diseases such as schizophrenia. One way to estimate the effects of inbreeding is to examine the association between disease diagnosis and genome-wide autozygosity estimated using runs of homozygosity (ROH) in genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Using data for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 21,868), Keller et al. (2012) estimated that the odds of developing schizophrenia increased by approximately 17% for every additional percent of the genome that is autozygous (? = 16.1, CI(?) = [6.93, 25.7], Z = 3.44, p = 0.0006). Here we describe replication results from 22 independent schizophrenia case-control datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 39,830). Using the same ROH calling thresholds and procedures as Keller et al. (2012), we were unable to replicate the significant association between ROH burden and schizophrenia in the independent PGC phase II data, although the effect was in the predicted direction, and the combined (original + replication) dataset yielded an attenuated but significant relationship between Froh and schizophrenia (? = 4.86,CI(?) = [0.90,8.83],Z = 2.40,p = 0.02). Since Keller et al. (2012), several studies reported inconsistent association of ROH burden with complex traits, particularly in case-control data. These conflicting results might suggest that the effects of autozygosity are confounded by various factors, such as socioeconomic status, education, urbanicity, and religiosity, which may be associated with both real inbreeding and the outcome measures of interest.
Project description:Inbreeding is often an inevitable outcome of strong directional artificial selection but on average it reduces population fitness with increased frequency of recessive deleterious alleles. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) representing genomic autozygosity that occur from mating between selected and genomically related individuals may be able to reveal the regions affecting fitness. To examine the influence of genomic autozygosity on fitness, we used a genome-wide association test to evaluate potential negative correlations between ROH and daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) or somatic cell score (SCS) in US Jersey cattle. In addition, relationships between changes of local ROH and inbreeding coefficients (F) were assessed to locate genomic regions with increased inbreeding. Despite finding some decreases in fertility associated with incremental increases in F, most emerging local ROH were not significantly associated with DPR or SCS. Furthermore, the analyses of ROH could be approximated with the most frequent haplotype(s), including the associations of ROH and F or traits. The analysis of the most frequent haplotype revealed that associations of ROH and fertility could be accounted for by the additive genetic effect on the trait. Thus, we suggest that a change of autozygosity is more likely to demonstrate footprints of selected haplotypes for production rather than highlight the possible increased local autozygosity of a recessive detrimental allele resulting from the mating between closely related animals in Jersey cattle.
Project description:Genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) are suitable for understanding population history, calculating genomic inbreeding, deciphering genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases as well as identifying genes linked with agro-economic traits. Autozygosity and ROH islands, genomic regions with elevated ROH frequencies, were characterized in 112 animals of seven Indian native cattle breeds (B. indicus) using BovineHD BeadChip. In total, 4138 ROH were detected. The average number of ROH per animal was maximum in draft breed, Kangayam (63.62 ± 22.71) and minimum in dairy breed, Sahiwal (24.62 ± 11.03). The mean ROH length was maximum in Vechur (6.97 Mb) and minimum in Hariana (4.04 Mb). Kangayam revealed the highest ROH based inbreeding (FROH > 1Mb = 0.113 ± 0.059), whereas Hariana (FROH > 1Mb = 0.042 ± 0.031) and Sahiwal (FROH > 1Mb = 0.043 ± 0.048) showed the lowest. The high standard deviation observed in each breed highlights a considerable variability in autozygosity. Out of the total autozygous segments observed in each breed except Vechur, > 80% were of short length (< 8 Mb) and contributed almost 50% of the genome proportion under ROH. However, in Vechur cattle, long ROH contributed 75% of the genome proportion under ROH. ROH patterns revealed Hariana and Sahiwal breeds as less consanguineous, while recent inbreeding was apparent in Vechur. Maximum autozygosity observed in Kangayam is attributable to both recent and ancient inbreeding. The ROH islands were harbouring higher proportion of QTLs for production traits (20.68% vs. 14.64%; P? 0.05) but lower for reproductive traits (11.49% vs. 15.76%; P? 0.05) in dairy breeds compared to draft breed. In draft cattle, genes associated with resistant to diseases/higher immunity (LYZL1, SVIL, and GPX4) and stress tolerant (CCT4) were identified in ROH islands; while in dairy breeds, for milk production (PTGFR, CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, and CSN3). Significant difference in ROH islands among large and short statured breeds was observed at chromosome 3 and 5 involving genes like PTGFR and HMGA2 responsible for milk production and stature, respectively. PCA analysis on consensus ROH regions revealed distinct clustering of dairy, draft and short stature cattle breeds.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to assess genome-wide autozygosity in a Nellore cattle population and to characterize ROH patterns and autozygosity islands that may have occurred due to selection within its lineages. It attempts also to compare estimates of inbreeding calculated from ROH (FROH), genomic relationship matrix (FGRM), and pedigree-based coefficient (FPED). RESULTS:The average number of ROH per animal was 55.15?±?13.01 with an average size of 3.24 Mb. The Nellore genome is composed mostly by a high number of shorter segments accounting for 78% of all ROH, although the proportion of the genome covered by them was relatively small. The genome autozygosity proportion indicates moderate to high inbreeding levels for classical standards, with an average value of 7.15% (178.70 Mb). The average of FPED and FROH, and their correlations (-?0.05 to 0.26) were low. Estimates of correlation between FGRM-FPED was zero, while the correlation (-?0.01 to -?0.07) between FGRM-FROH decreased as a function of ROH length, except for FROH?>?8Mb (-?0.03). Overall, inbreeding coefficients were not high for the genotyped animals. Autozygosity islands were evident across the genome (n?=?62) and their genomic location did not largely differ within lineages. Enriched terms (p?<?0.01) associated with defense response to bacteria (GO:0042742), immune complex reaction (GO:0045647), pregnancy-associated glycoproteins genes (GO:0030163), and organism growth (GO:0040014) were described within the autozygotic islands. CONCLUSIONS:Low FPED-FROH correlation estimates indicate that FPED is not the most suitable method for capturing ancient inbreeding when the pedigree does not extend back many generations and FROH should be used instead. Enriched terms (p <?0.01) suggest a strong selection for immune response. Non-overlapping islands within the lineages greatly explain the mechanism underlying selection for functionally important traits in Nellore cattle.
Project description:Jinhua pig, a well-known Chinese indigenous breed, has evolved as a pig breed with excellent meat quality, greater disease resistance, and higher prolificacy. The reduction in the number of Jinhua pigs over the past years has raised concerns about inbreeding. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) along the genome have been applied to quantify individual autozygosity to improve the understanding of inbreeding depression and identify genes associated with traits of interest. Here, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of ROH using next-generation sequencing data to characterize autozygosity in 202 Jinhua pigs, as well as to identify the genomic regions with high ROH frequencies within individuals. The average inbreeding coefficient, based on ROH longer than 1 Mb, was 0.168 ± 0.052. In total, 18,690 ROH were identified in all individuals, among which shorter segments (1-5 Mb) predominated. Individual ROH autosome coverage ranged from 5.32 to 29.14% in the Jinhua population. On average, approximately 16.8% of the whole genome was covered by ROH segments, with the lowest coverage on SSC11 and the highest coverage on SSC17. A total of 824 SNPs (about 0.5%) and 11 ROH island regions were identified (occurring in over 45% of the samples). Genes associated with reproduction (HOXA3, HOXA7, HOXA10, and HOXA11), meat quality (MYOD1, LPIN3, and CTNNBL1), appetite (NUCB2) and disease resistance traits (MUC4, MUC13, MUC20, LMLN, ITGB5, HEG1, SLC12A8, and MYLK) were identified in ROH islands. Moreover, several quantitative trait loci for ham weight and ham fat thickness were detected. Genes in ROH islands suggested, at least partially, a selection for economic traits and environmental adaptation, and should be subject of future investigation. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of environmental and artificial selection in shaping the distribution of functional variants in the pig genome.
Project description:Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are continuous homozygous segments of the DNA sequence. They have been applied to quantify individual autozygosity and used as a potential inbreeding measure in livestock species. The aim of the present study was (i) to investigate genome-wide autozygosity to identify and characterize ROH patterns in Gyr dairy cattle genome; (ii) identify ROH islands for gene content and enrichment in segments shared by more than 50% of the samples, and (iii) compare estimates of molecular inbreeding calculated from ROH (FROH), genomic relationship matrix approach (FGRM) and based on the observed versus expected number of homozygous genotypes (FHOM), and from pedigree-based coefficient (FPED).ROH were identified in all animals, with an average number of 55.12?±?10.37 segments and a mean length of 3.17 Mb. Short segments (ROH1-2 Mb) were abundant through the genomes, which accounted for 60% of all segments identified, even though the proportion of the genome covered by them was relatively small. The findings obtained in this study suggest that on average 7.01% (175.28 Mb) of the genome of this population is autozygous. Overlapping ROH were evident across the genomes and 14 regions were identified with ROH frequencies exceeding 50% of the whole population. Genes associated with lactation (TRAPPC9), milk yield and composition (IRS2 and ANG), and heat adaptation (HSF1, HSPB1, and HSPE1), were identified. Inbreeding coefficients were estimated through the application of FROH, FGRM, FHOM, and FPED approaches. FPED estimates ranged from 0.00 to 0.327 and FROH from 0.001 to 0.201. Low to moderate correlations were observed between FPED-FROH and FGRM-FROH, with values ranging from -0.11 to 0.51. Low to high correlations were observed between FROH-FHOM and moderate between FPED-FHOM and FGRM-FHOM. Correlations between FROH from different lengths and FPED gradually increased with ROH length.Genes inside ROH islands suggest a strong selection for dairy traits and enrichment for Gyr cattle environmental adaptation. Furthermore, low FPED-FROH correlations for small segments indicate that FPED estimates are not the most suitable method to capture ancient inbreeding. The existence of a moderate correlation between larger ROH indicates that FROH can be used as an alternative to inbreeding estimates in the absence of pedigree records.
Project description:The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins.
Project description:Inbreeding leaves distinct genomic traces, most notably long genomic tracts that are identical by descent and completely homozygous. These runs of homozygosity (ROH) can contribute to inbreeding depression if they contain deleterious variants that are fully or partially recessive. Several lines of evidence have been used to show that long (> 5 megabase) ROH are disproportionately likely to harbor deleterious variation, but the extent to which long vs. short tracts contribute to autozygosity at loci known to be deleterious and recessive has not been studied. In domestic dogs, nearly 200 mutations are known to cause recessive diseases, most of which can be efficiently assayed using SNP arrays. By examining genome-wide data from over 200,000 markers, including 150 recessive disease variants, we built high-resolution ROH density maps for nearly 2,500 dogs, recording ROH down to 500 kilobases. We observed over 678 homozygous deleterious recessive genotypes in the panel across 29 loci, 90% of which overlapped with ROH inferred by GERMLINE. Although most of these genotypes were contained in ROH over 5 Mb in length, 14% were contained in short (0.5 - 2.5 megabase) tracts, a significant enrichment compared to the genetic background, suggesting that even short tracts are useful for computing inbreeding metrics like the coefficient of inbreeding estimated from ROH (FROH ). In our dataset, FROH differed significantly both within and among dog breeds. All breeds harbored some regions of reduced genetic diversity due to drift or selective sweeps, but the degree of inbreeding and the proportion of inbreeding caused by short vs. long tracts differed between breeds, reflecting their different population histories. Although only available for a few species, large genome-wide datasets including recessive disease variants hold particular promise not only for disentangling the genetic architecture of inbreeding depression, but also evaluating and improving upon current approaches for detecting ROH.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Inbreeding increases the probability of homozygosity of deleterious alleles. Inbreeding and runs of homozygosity (ROH) are associated with an increased risk for disease phenotypes, including schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. The effects of inbreeding, ROH, homozygous deletions, and other copy number variations (CNVs) on risk for depression and suicide attempt (SA) were quantified in an Arab Bedouin Kindred. METHODS:We carried out genetic analyses of 439 individuals from an Arab kindred with high rates of depression and suicidal behavior. We obtained complete ascertainment of SAs and first-degree relatives of individuals who have attempted or died by suicide. RESULTS:We found extensive regions of ROH. On average, 5% of the genome is covered by ROH for these individuals, two-fold higher than ROH rates for individuals from populations of European ancestry. Inbreeding and total length of ROH were not associated with risk for depression or attempt. For CNVs, an increased number of duplications more than 500?kb was associated with an increased risk for attempt (odds ratio: 2.9; P=0.01; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-6.6). Although not significant after correction for multiple testing, the risk for SA appears to increase with copy number for a CNV on chromosome 9p24.1. This possibility is intriguing because the CNV covers GLDC, which encodes glycine dehydrogenase that binds to glycine, a co-agonist at N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors, and is involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission. CONCLUSION:Our findings add to the growing evidence of genetic risk factors that act pleiotropically to increase the risk for several neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and SA, irrespective of ancestry.
Project description:Inbreeding is a known risk factor for recessive Mendelian diseases and previous studies have suggested that it could also play a role in complex disorders, such as psychiatric diseases. Recent inbreeding results in the presence of long runs of homozygosity (ROHs) along the genome, which are also defined as autozygosity regions. Genetic variants in these regions have two alleles that are identical by descent, thus increasing the odds of bearing rare recessive deleterious mutations due to a homozygous state. A recent study showed a suggestive enrichment of long ROHs in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that recent inbreeding could play a role in the disease. To better understand the impact of autozygosity on schizophrenia risk, we selected, from a cohort of 180 Italian patients, seven subjects with extremely high numbers of large ROHs that were likely due to recent inbreeding and characterized the mutational landscape within their ROHs using Whole Exome Sequencing and, gene set enrichment analysis. We identified a significant overlap (17%; empirical p-value = 0.0171) between genes inside ROHs affected by low frequency functional homozygous variants (107 genes) and the group of most promising candidate genes mutated in schizophrenia. Moreover, in four patients, we identified novel and extremely rare damaging mutations in the genes involved in neurodevelopment (MEGF8) and in GABA/glutamatergic synaptic transmission (GAD1, FMN1, ANO2). These results provide insights into the contribution of rare recessive mutations and inbreeding as risk factors for schizophrenia. ROHs that are likely due to recent inbreeding harbor a combination of predisposing low-frequency variants and extremely rare variants that have a high impact on pivotal biological pathways implicated in the disease. In addition, this study confirms that focusing on patients with high levels of homozygosity could be a useful prioritization strategy for discovering new high-impact mutations in genetically complex disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maintaining maximum genetic diversity and preserving breed viability in conserved populations necessitates the rigorous evaluation of conservation schemes. Three chicken breeds (Baier Yellow Chicken (BEC), Beijing You Chicken (BYC) and Langshan Chicken (LSC)) are currently in conservation programs in China. Changes in genetic diversity were measured by heterozygosity, genomic inbreeding coefficients, and autozygosity, using estimates derived from runs of homozygosity (ROH) that were identified using SNPs. RESULTS:Ninety DNA samples were collected from three generations for each breed. In the most recent generation, the highest genetic diversity was observed in LSC, followed by BEC and BYC. Inbreeding coefficients based on ROH for the three breeds declined slightly between the first and middle generations, and then rapidly increased. No inbreeding coefficients exceeded 0.1. Population structure assessments using neighbor-joining tree analysis, principal components analysis, and STRUCTURE analysis indicated that no genetic differentiation existed within breeds. LD decay and ROH at different cut-off lengths were used to identify traces left by recent or ancient inbreeding. Few long ROH were identified, indicating that inbreeding has been largely avoided with the current conservation strategy. The observed losses in genetic diversity and occurrences of inbreeding might be consequences of sub-optimal effective population sizes. CONCLUSIONS:The conserved Chinese chicken populations have high genomic diversity under the current conservation program (R: F). Furthermore, this study highlights the need to monitor dynamic changes in genetic diversity in conserved breeds over successive generations. Our research provides new insights into genetic diversity dynamics in conserved populations, and lays a solid foundation for improving conservation schemes.