Use of estetrol with other steroids for attenuation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: to combine or not to combine?
ABSTRACT: Estetrol (E4), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) have important antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in neuronal system. We aimed to study the consequence of combined steroid therapy in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In vitro the effect of E4 combined with other steroids on oxidative stress and the cell viability in primary hippocampal cultures was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase and cell survival assays. In vivo neuroprotective and therapeutic efficacy of E4 combined with other steroids was studied in HIE model of immature rats. The rat pups rectal temperature, body and brain weights were evaluated.The hippocampus and the cortex were investigated by histo/immunohistochemistry: intact cell number counting, expressions of markers for early gray matter lose, neuro- and angiogenesis were studied. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was evaluated by ELISA in blood samples. In vitro E4 and combinations of high doses of E4 with P4 and/or E2 significantly diminished the LDH activity and upregulated the cell survival.In vivopretreatment or treatment by different combinations of E4 with other steroids had unalike effects on body and brain weight, neuro- and angiogenesis, and GFAP expression in blood. The combined use of E4 with other steroids has no benefit over the single use of E4.
Project description:Brain damage caused by hypoxic ischemic insult during the perinatal period causes hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies (HIEs). Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for HIE, but because the therapeutic burden is large for its limited therapeutic effectiveness, another strategy is needed. Progesterone (P4) plays a neuroprotective role through the actions of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (Allo), on P4 receptor, ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors or both. We examined the therapeutic potential of P4 using a newborn rat model of HIE. Fetal rats were exposed to transient ischemic hypoxia by 30-minute bilateral uterine artery clamping on gestational day 18. After spontaneous birth, newborn pups were subcutaneously injected with P4 (0.10 or 0.01 mg), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 0.12 mg), or Allo (0.10 mg) through postnatal days (PDs) 1 to 9. Brain damage in the rats was assessed using the rotarod test at PD50. The HIE insult reduced the rats' ability in the rotarod task, which was completely reversed by P4 and Allo, but not by MPA. Histological examination revealed that the HIE insult decreased neuronal (the cortex and the hippocampal CA1 region) and oligodendroglial cell density (the corpus callosum) through PD0 to PD50. The axon fiber density and myelin sheath thickness in the corpus callosum were also reduced at PD50. The time-course study revealed that P4 restored oligodendroglial cells by PD5, which was followed by neuroprotective action of P4 that lasted long over the injection period. These results suggest that P4 protects the neonatal brain from HIE insult via restoration of oligodendroglial cells.
Project description:Purpose:Postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers often respond initially to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor therapy. Resistance to these treatments usually develops within 12 to 18?months. Clinical studies have demonstrated that high-dose estrogen can induce regression of these endocrine-resistant tumors. However, side-effects of high-dose estradiol (E2) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) limit their usage. Estetrol (E4) is the most abundant estrogen during pregnancy and has a long half-life and a low potential for side-effects. Estetrol might then provide benefits similar to DES on tumor regression but with lesser toxicity. Methods:In this study, we systematically evaluated the effects of E4 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in wild-type MCF-7 and long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) MCF-7 cells and compared its effects with E2 and estriol (E3). Results:Estetrol induced apoptosis in LTED cells but stimulated growth of MCF-7 cells at concentrations from 10-11 to 10-8 M. These effects of E4 are similar to those of E2 but require much higher doses. Differing from E2, E4 at 10-12 M induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and another pregnancy estrogen, E3, acted similarly. No antagonistic effect of E4 or E3 against E2 occurred when they were combined. Conclusions:The pro-apoptotic effects of E4 and E3 on LTED cells and at low doses on MCF-7 cells indicate that these steroids could be used as therapeutic agents for endocrine-resistant or sensitive breast cancer.
Project description:Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver. In combination with drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG), E4 blocks ovulation and has less effect on haemostatic biomarkers in comparison with ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with DRSP. This study evaluates the impact of several doses of E4/DRSP and E4/LNG on safety parameters such as liver function, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrine parameters.This was a dose-finding, single-centre, controlled study performed in healthy women aged 18 to 35 years with a documented pretreatment ovulatory cycle. Participants received 5 mg or 10 mg E4/3 mg DRSP; 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg E4/150 ?g LNG; or 20 ?g EE/3 mg DRSP as a comparator for three consecutive cycles in a 24/4-day regimen. Changes from baseline to end of treatment in liver parameters, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrinology were evaluated.A total of 109 women were included in the study. Carrier proteins were minimally affected in the E4/DRSP and E4/LNG groups, in comparison with the EE/DRSP group, where a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin was observed. Similarly, minor effects on lipoproteins were observed in the E4 groups, and the effects on triglycerides elicited by the E4 groups were significantly lower than those in the EE/DRSP group. No imbalances in bone markers were observed in any groups. No alterations in insulin-like growth factor were observed in the E4 groups.E4-containing combinations have a limited effect on liver function, lipid metabolism, and bone and growth endocrine parameters.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adults with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene alleles e4 and e2 are at high risk of poor neurological outcome after brain injury. The e4 allele has been associated with cerebral palsy (CP), and the e2 allele has been associated with worse neurological outcome with congenital heart disease. This study was done to test the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with outcome among neonates who survive after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). METHODS:We conducted a cohort study of infants who survived HIE and had 18-22 mo standardized neurodevelopmental evaluations to assess associations between disability and the APOE genotypes e3/e3, e4/-, and e2/-. RESULTS:A total of 139 survivors were genotyped. Of these, 86 (62%) were of the e3/e3, 41 (29%) were of the e4/-, and 14 (10%) were of the e2/- genotypes. One hundred and twenty-nine infants had genotype and follow-up data; 26% had moderate or severe disabilities. Disability prevalence was 30 and 19% among those with and without the e3/e3 genotype, 25 and 26% among those with and without the e2 allele, and 18 and 29% among those with and without the e4 allele, respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. CP prevalence was also similar among genotype groups. CONCLUSION:Disability was not associated with the APOE genotype in this cohort of HIE survivors.
Project description:Recent results showing that the binding characteristics of 33 steroids for human membrane progesterone receptor alpha (hu-mPRalpha) differ from those for the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) suggest that hu-mPRalpha-specific agonists can be identified for investigating its physiological functions. The binding affinities of an additional 21 steroids for hu-mPRalpha were determined to explore the structure-activity relationships in more detail and to identify potent, specific mPRalpha agonists. Four synthetic progesterone derivatives with methyl or methylene groups on positions 18 or 19, 18a-methylprogesterone (18-CH(3)P4, Org OE 64-0), 13-ethenyl-18-norprogesterone (18-CH(2)P4, Org 33663-0), 19a-methylprogesterone (19-CH(3)P4, Org OD 13-0) and 10-ethenyl-19-norprogesterone (19-CH(2)P4, Org OD 02-0), showed similar or higher affinities than progesterone for hu-mPRalpha and displayed mPRalpha agonist activities in G-protein and MAP kinase activation assays. All four steroids also bound to the nPR in cytosolic fractions of MCF-7 cells. However, two compounds, 19-CH(2)P4 and 19-CH(3)P4, showed no nPR agonist activity in a nPR reporter assay and therefore are selective mPRalpha agonists suitable for physiological investigations. The structure-binding relationships of the combined series of 54 steroids for hu-mPRalpha deviated strikingly from those of a published set of 60 3-keto or 3-desoxy steroids for nPR. Close correlations were observed between the receptor binding affinities of the steroids and their physicochemical properties calculated by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) for both hu-mPRalpha and nPR. A comparison of the CoMFA field graphs for the two receptors revealed several differences in the structural features required for binding to hu-mPRalpha and nPR which could be exploited to develop additional mPR-specific ligands.
Project description:Introduction: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of death and disability in children worldwide. Apart from supportive care, the only established treatment for HIE is therapeutic hypothermia (TH). As TH is only partly neuroprotective, there is a need for additional therapies. Intermittent periods of limb ischemia, called remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPC), have been shown to be neuroprotective after HIE in rats and piglets. However, it is unknown whether RIPC adds to the effect of TH. We tested the neuroprotective effect of RIPC with TH compared to TH alone using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/MRS) in a piglet HIE model. Methods: Thirty-two male and female piglets were subjected to 45-min global hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Twenty-six animals were randomized to TH or RIPC plus TH; six animals received supportive care only. TH was induced through whole-body cooling. RIPC was induced 1 h after HI by four cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion in both hind limbs. Primary outcome was Lac/NAA ratio at 24 h measured by MRS. Secondary outcomes were NAA/Cr, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), arterial spin labeling, aEGG score, and blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) signal measured by MRI/MRS at 6, 12, and 24 h after the hypoxic-ischemic insult. Results: All groups were subjected to a comparable but mild insult. No difference was found between the two intervention groups in Lac/NAA ratio, NAA/Cr ratio, DWI, arterial spin labeling, or BOLD signal. NAA/Cr ratio at 24 h was higher in the two intervention groups compared to supportive care only. There was no difference in aEEG score between the three groups. Conclusion: Treatment with RIPC resulted in no additional neuroprotection when combined with TH. However, insult severity was mild and only evaluated at 24 h after HI with a short MRS echo time. In future studies more subtle neurological effects may be detected with increased MRS echo time and post mortem investigations, such as brain histology. Thus, the possible neuroprotective effect of RIPC needs further evaluation.
Project description:Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen with a long half-life produced only by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. The crystal structures of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) ligand-binding domain bound to 17β-estradiol (E2) and E4 are very similar, as well as their capacity to activate the two activation functions AF-1 and AF-2 and to recruit the coactivator SRC3. In vivo administration of high doses of E4 stimulated uterine gene expression, epithelial proliferation, and prevented atheroma, three recognized nuclear ERα actions. However, E4 failed to promote endothelial NO synthase activation and acceleration of endothelial healing, two processes clearly dependent on membrane-initiated steroid signaling (MISS). Furthermore, E4 antagonized E2 MISS-dependent effects in endothelium but also in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. This profile of ERα activation by E4, uncoupling nuclear and membrane activation, characterizes E4 as a selective ER modulator which could have medical applications that should now be considered further.
Project description:Importance: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. The incidence of HIE is 1-8 per 1,000 live births in developed countries. Whole-body hypothermia reduces the risk of disability or death, but 7 infants needed to be treated to prevent death or major neurodevelopmental disability. Inhalational gases may be promising synergistic agents due to their rapid onset and easy titratability. Objective: To review current data on different inhaled gases with neuroprotective properties that may serve as adjunct therapies to hypothermia. Evidence review: Literature review was performed using the PubMed database, google scholar, and ClinicalTrials.Gov. Results focused on articles published from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2017. Articles published earlier than 2005 were included when appropriate for historical perspective. Our review emphasized preclinical and clinical studies relevant to the use of inhaled agents for neuroprotection. Findings: Based on the relevance to our topic, 111 articles were selected pertaining to the incidence of HIE, pathophysiology of HIE, therapeutic hypothermia, and emerging therapies for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in preclinical and clinical settings. Supplemental tables summarizes highly relevant 49 publications that were included in this review. The selected publications emphasize the emergence of promising inhaled gases that may improve neurologic survival and alleviate neurodevelopmental disability when combined with therapeutic hypothermia in the future. Conclusions: Many inhaled agents have neuroprotective properties and could serve as an adjunct therapy to whole-body hypothermia. Inhaled agents are ideal due to their easy administration, titrability, and rapid onset and offset.
Project description:Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in preterm infants is a severe disease for which no curative treatment is available. Cerebral inflammation and invasion of activated peripheral immune cells have been shown to play a pivotal role in the etiology of white matter injury, which is the clinical hallmark of HIE in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an ovine model of HIE. In this translational animal model, global hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in instrumented preterm sheep by transient umbilical cord occlusion, which closely mimics the clinical insult. Intravenous administration of 2 x 10(6) MSC/kg reduced microglial proliferation, diminished loss of oligodendrocytes and reduced demyelination, as determined by histology and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in the preterm brain after global HI. These anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MSC were paralleled by reduced electrographic seizure activity in the ischemic preterm brain. Furthermore, we showed that MSC induced persistent peripheral T-cell tolerance in vivo and reduced invasion of T-cells into the preterm brain following global HI. These findings show in a preclinical animal model that intravenously administered MSC reduced cerebral inflammation, protected against white matter injury and established functional improvement in the preterm brain following global HI. Moreover, we provide evidence that induction of T-cell tolerance by MSC might play an important role in the neuroprotective effects of MSC in HIE. This is the first study to describe a marked neuroprotective effect of MSC in a translational animal model of HIE.
Project description:Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3?-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3?-THP, P4, and the 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3?-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes. After performing an over-representation analysis of gene ontology terms, we selected 10 genes whose products are cytoskeleton components, transcription factors, and proteins involved in the maintenance of DNA stability and replication to validate their expression changes by RT-qPCR. 3?-THP up-regulated six genes, two of them were also up-regulated by F. Two genes were up-regulated by P4 alone, however, such an effect was blocked by F when cells were treated with both steroids. The remaining genes were regulated by the combined treatments of 3?-THP + F or P4 + F. An in-silico analysis revealed that promoters of the six up-regulated genes by 3?-THP possess cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive elements along with CCAAT/Enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBP?) binding sites. These findings suggest that P4 and 3?-THP regulate different sets of genes that participate in the growth of GBMs.