Efficacy and tolerability of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost in glaucoma patients switched from benzalkonium chloride-preserved latanoprost or bimatoprost.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is used to preserve several topical, intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering glaucoma medications but can cause tolerability concerns that may lead to decreased adherence to treatment and ultimately diminish the effectiveness of IOP control. The study aimed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of BAK-free travoprost preserved with polyquaternium-1 in glaucoma patients switched from BAK-preserved latanoprost or bimatoprost. METHODS:This 12-week, open-label study was conducted in Europe between December 2011 and February 2013. We enrolled adult patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were receiving BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or bimatoprost 0.01% and, in the opinion of the investigator, would benefit from transition to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 because of tolerability concerns. Assessments included IOP, proportion of patients with IOP ?18 mmHg, ocular surface status, hyperemia, patient treatment preference, and adherence. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. RESULTS:Of the 202 patients screened, 187 patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (mean age, 66.6 years; range, 19-90 years). The mean IOP significantly reduced from baseline (17.0 mmHg) to week 6 (mean change, -1.17 mmHg; P<0.001) and week 12 (-1.16 mmHg; P<0.001). At week 12, more patients achieved IOP ?18 mmHg (81.2% versus 73.3% at baseline), and ocular surface disease severity improved from baseline to week 12. Most patients preferred BAK-free travoprost (74.9%) versus their previous medication and were very confident in their adherence (84.1%). Reduced visual acuity and eye pruritus were the most common adverse events (2.5% each). CONCLUSION:BAK-free travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 was efficacious and well tolerated and may be an advantageous prostaglandin analog option for patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are intolerant to BAK-preserved latanoprost or bimatoprost.
Project description:Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK).This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ?18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study.All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n?=?191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n?=?173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P?<?0.001 for both). A greater percentage of patients achieved a target IOP of ?18 mmHg at week 6 (93.1 %; n?=?163/175) and week 12 (93.3 %; n?=?166/178) compared with baseline (89.5 %; n?=?171/191). There was a 10.5 % increase in the percentage of patients with "none/trace" amounts of hyperemia. Most patients preferred the study medication (81.5 %; n?=?141/173) and were confident that they would adhere to their preferred medication (90.8 %; n?=?157/173). No serious AEs were reported, and eye irritation (3.7 %; n?=?7/191) was the most common treatment-related AE.Transitioning from BAK-containing latanoprost 0.005 % to BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % preserved with PQ reduced IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the efficacy and safety of fixed-combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% preserved with polyquaternium-1 in patients with insufficient response to bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preserved with benzalkonium chloride. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this open-label nonrandomized study conducted at 13 European sites, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with insufficient intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction during bimatoprost/timolol therapy were transitioned to travoprost/timolol (DuoTrav(®)) administered every evening for 12 weeks. Change in IOP from baseline to week 12 was assessed in patients who transitioned from fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol (n=57, primary endpoint). Secondary assessments included change in IOP at week 4, percentage of patients with IOP ?18 mmHg at weeks 4 and 12, change in Ocular Surface Disease Index and ocular hyperemia scores at week 12, and patient preference. Adverse events were also reported. RESULTS:IOP change (mean ± SD) from baseline to week 12 was -3.8±1.9 mmHg (P<0.001); results were similar at week 4. Most patients had IOP ?18 mmHg at weeks 4 and 12 (78.6% and 85.5%, respectively). Mean Ocular Surface Disease Index score was significantly reduced (P<0.001); no significant change in ocular hyperemia score was observed (P=0.197). Treatment-related adverse events included dysgeusia, nausea, paresthesia, myalgia, headache, and eye irritation (n=1 each). Most patients (74.5%) preferred travoprost/timolol over bimatoprost/timolol. CONCLUSION:Transition to travoprost/timolol significantly reduced IOP and was well tolerated in patients who had elevated IOP despite bimatoprost/timolol therapy. Polyquaternium-1-preserved travoprost/timolol was preferred over prior treatment with benzalkonium chloride-preserved bimatoprost/timolol.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of replacing latanoprost with another prostaglandin analogue (PGA) in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension requiring additional intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering while on latanoprost.Prospective, randomised, investigator-masked, multicentre clinical trial. Patients on latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy requiring additional IOP lowering discontinued latanoprost and were randomised to bimatoprost 0.03% (n = 131) or travoprost 0.004% (n = 135). IOP was measured at latanoprost-treated baseline and after 1 month and 3 months of replacement therapy.Baseline mean diurnal IOP on latanoprost was similar between groups. The mean diurnal IOP was significantly lower with bimatoprost than with travoprost at 1 month (p = 0.009) and 3 months (p = 0.024). Overall, 22.0% of bimatoprost patients versus 12.1% of travoprost patients achieved a > or =15% reduction in diurnal IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline at both months 1 and 3 (p = 0.033). At month 3, the additional mean diurnal IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was 2.1 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.5) mm Hg (11.0%) with bimatoprost and 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.8) mm Hg (7.4%) with travoprost (p = 0.024). At 3 months, 11.5% of bimatoprost and 16.5% of travoprost patients demonstrated a > or =1-grade increase in physician-graded conjunctival hyperaemia (p = 0.288). Hyperaemia was reported as a treatment-related adverse event in 3.1% of bimatoprost and 1.5% of travoprost patients (p = 0.445).Patients on latanoprost requiring lower IOP achieved a greater additional short-term diurnal IOP reduction when latanoprost was replaced by bimatoprost compared with travoprost. Low rates of hyperaemia were observed in patients treated with bimatoprost or travoprost after switching from latanoprost.
Project description:Medications to control intraocular pressure (IOP) are frequently preserved using benzalkonium chloride (BAK), which can negatively affect the ocular surface. Data are needed to assess efficacy and safety of prostaglandin drugs preserved with and without BAK. The present study compared the efficacy and safety of BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (TRAV) and BAK 0.02%-preserved bimatoprost 0.01% (BIM) during late-day time points in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.This was a 12-week, phase 4, randomized, investigator-masked, crossover study. 84 patients with IOP ?24 and <36 mmHg were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily TRAV or BIM for 6 weeks followed by an additional 6-week crossover period. IOP was measured at the end of each treatment period at 4, 6, and 8 pm. TRAV was considered noninferior to BIM if the upper limit of the 95% CI of the between-group difference in mean IOP was ?1.5 mmHg. Adverse events were assessed throughout the study.One patient discontinued due to allergic conjunctivitis, and 2 patients with missing data were excluded; 81 patients were included in the per-protocol population (mean ± SD age, 58.3 ± 11.4 years; TRAV/BIM, n = 41; BIM/TRAV, n = 40). After 6 weeks, mean IOP with TRAV (17.4 ± 2.7 mmHg; change from baseline, -6.0 mmHg) was similar to BIM (17.2 ± 2.6 mmHg; change from baseline, -6.3 mmHg); the between-group difference was 0.22 mmHg (95% CI, -0.22 to 0.67). Thus, noninferiority of TRAV versus BIM was demonstrated. Mean IOP at each time point and mean and percentage IOP change from baseline were not significantly different between treatments. All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild to moderate. The incidences of mild ocular hyperemia with TRAV and BIM were 31% and 39%, respectively; moderate hyperemia was observed in 2% of patients receiving BIM.Late-day IOP-lowering efficacy of BAK-free TRAV was noninferior to that of BAK 0.02%-preserved BIM; both reduced baseline IOP by 25%. Both treatments were well tolerated, although a higher incidence of moderate ocular hyperemia was observed with BIM.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01464424; registered November 1, 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. METHODS:Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ?20 mmHg after ?30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented. RESULTS:Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm. CONCLUSION:Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP lowering and maintain monotherapy by replacing latanoprost with bimatoprost. Reductions in IOP from latanoprost baseline were larger with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03%, and bimatoprost 0.01% had a more favorable tolerability profile.
Project description:For primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), laser treatment or surgery is used when the target intraocular pressure (IOP) cannot be achieved by pharmacological agents, such as prostaglandin (PG) analogs; these drugs also have varied effects. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 74 POAG patients (74 eyes) whose IOP was inadequately controlled by PG analogs (bimatoprost [13 eyes], latanoprost [34 eyes], tafluprost [11 eyes], and travoprost [16 eyes]) and underwent primary trabeculectomy. The proportion of patients with no recurrent IOP elevation within 24 months post-trabeculectomy was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the bimatoprost group (31.3%) than in the latanoprost (83.2%), tafluprost (45.5%), or travoprost groups (65.6%). Deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus (DUES) was observed before trabeculectomy in 18 of 74 eyes (24.3%) treated with bimatoprost (9 eyes; 50.0%), latanoprost (3 eyes; 16.7%), tafluprost (1 eye; 5.5%) and travoprost (5 eyes; 27.8%). The proportion of patients with no recurrent IOP elevation up to 24 months post-trabeculectomy was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower in the DUES(+) group (34.7%) than in the DUES(-) group (74.3%). Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, with no recurrent IOP elevation used as dependent variable, and bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost, β-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, brimonidine, gender, age, preoperative IOP, mean deviation, duration of PG analog use before surgery, and the number of ophthalmic solutions used as independent variables, identified only bimatoprost as a significant independent factor (P = 0.0368). Thus, the outcome of trabeculectomy varied depending on the PG analog used preoperatively, and bimatoprost use was associated with a high risk of recurrent IOP elevation up to 2 years post-trabeculectomy. This may indicate that the incidence of DUES differed with the PG analog used. Patients with glaucoma who are treated with bimatoprost should be monitored for DUES, and when these patients undergo trabeculectomy, the postoperative course of IOP should be followed carefully.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fixed-combination (FC) therapy is used in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) patients who require more than one medication to reach their target intraocular pressure (IOP). Currently, there are several FC therapies available for the treatment of glaucoma. The FC of latanoprost/timolol (LTFC) is a commonly used FC. Here, we conducted systematic review to compare the IOP-lowering effects of LTFC with other FCs for patients with POAG and OHT. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for randomized-controlled clinical trials and cross-over studies. The outcomes were mean IOP and IOP fluctuation after one month of treatment. Meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan (version 5.1) software. After conducting meta-analyses, we rated the quality of each meta-analysis as high, moderate, low, or very low using the "GRADE" system. RESULTS:We included 16 trials in this meta-analysis. Moderate-quality meta-analysis showed that LTFC had a comparable mean IOP to that of a fixed combination of travoprost and timolol (TTFC) [mean difference (MD): 0.07 mmHg] and a fixed combination of dorzolamide and timolol (DTFC) [MD: -0.31 mmHg], and it also had a comparable IOP-fluctuation effect compared to that of TTFC [MD: 0.13 mm Hg] and DTFC [MD: 0.25 mmHg]. Compared to the fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol (BiTFC), moderate-quality evidence showed a higher mean IOP in the LTFC group [MD 0.76 mmHg], whereas low-quality meta-analysis showed higher IOP fluctuation [MD 1.09 mmHg] in the LTFC group. CONCLUSIONS:LTFC is as effective as TTFC and DTFC, but worse than BiTFC in controlling mean IOP and IOP fluctuation for POAG or OHT patients. The quality of our meta-analyses was assessed as moderate, with the exception of one low-quality analysis that compared the IOP fluctuation of LTFC and BiTFC.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Bimatoprost-timolol (bimatoprost 0.03%-timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination [FDC]) and tafluprost-timolol (tafluprost 0.0015%-timolol 0.5% FDC) eye drops are currently the only topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-reducing therapies available as preservative-free (PF) prostaglandin and timolol FDC. The aim of this study was to investigate changes to ocular signs and symptoms when patients with ocular hypertension (OH) or open-angle glaucoma (OAG) switched from PF or benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved bimatoprost-timolol to PF tafluprost-timolol eye drops. DESIGN:This was a 12-week, open-label, phase IV study. SETTING:Sixteen centres in Finland, Germany, Italy and the UK. PARTICIPANTS:Patients with OH or OAG (IOP on medication ?21?mm Hg), treated with PF or BAK-preserved bimatoprost-timolol for ?4 weeks before screening, and presenting with conjunctival hyperaemia and ?1?ocular symptom. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were switched to PF tafluprost-timolol once daily in the treated eye(s). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary endpoints were change from screening to week 12 in conjunctival hyperaemia and worst ocular symptom. The secondary outcome measures were changes from screening in ocular signs (other than conjunctival hyperaemia) and symptoms at week 12. RESULTS:Of 123 enrolled patients, 121 were included in the intention-to-treat dataset, of which all were Caucasian and 54.5% were female; 76 patients used BAK-preserved bimatoprost-timolol and 45 used PF drops. Conjunctival hyperaemia and severity of worst ocular symptom following switch to PF tafluprost-timolol significantly reduced from screening to week 12 in all patients (p<0.001). The percentage of patients with ocular signs and symptoms was significantly reduced at week 12 compared with screening (p<0.001). IOP was not affected by the change of treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Switching from BAK-preserved or PF bimatoprost-timolol to tafluprost-timolol reduced both signs and symptoms of ocular surface disease with no clinically relevant effect on IOP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:EudraCT2014-005273-37; Results.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The efficacy of lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and safety of switching to travoprost/timolol fixed combination ophthalmic solution (Duotrav(®), Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma or ocular hypertension undergoing prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy was investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients treated with travoprost, latanoprost, tafluprost, or bimatoprost for ?3 months and requiring additional medication were switched to Duotrav without washout. Baseline IOP was calculated from measurements at two visits during PGA monotherapy. IOP reductions at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after switching to Duotrav and adverse events were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Of 162 patients enrolled, 157 patients (96.9%) with ?4 weeks of follow-up after switching to Duotrav were analyzed. The mean IOP decreased significantly (baseline = 16.3 ± 3.1 mmHg; 4 weeks = 14.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, 8 weeks = 14.7 ± 3.3 mmHg, 12 weeks = 14.6 ± 3.2 mmHg; all P < 0.0001). When study eyes were divided into three groups according to baseline IOP (?19 mmHg: 33 eyes, 21.0%; ?15 to <19 mmHg: 78 eyes, 49.7%; <15 mmHg: 46 eyes, 29.3%), all groups showed significant IOP reductions (P = 0.0324 ~ P < 0.0001) after switching to Duotrav. Twenty-seven of 166 patients (16.3%) in the safety analysis experienced adverse events and 26/166 patients (15.7%) experienced adverse events, for which a relationship to Duotrav could not be ruled out. Adverse events in five patients led to treatment discontinuation (eye pruritus; eye irritation; increased blood pressure and rash; increased blurred vision; deepening of the eyelid sulcus and blepharoptosis). Twelve weeks after treatment switching, eyelash changes, blepharal pigmentation and deepening of the eyelid sulcus occurred in 42 (26.8%), 29 (18.5%), and 13 (8.3%) cases, respectively, among 157 patients with follow-up. There was no significant worsening from baseline for superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) or conjunctival hyperemia after switching (SPK score: baseline = 0.58 ± 1.31; 12 weeks = 0.92 ± 1.76, P = 0.1819; conjunctival hyperemia score: baseline = 0.41 ± 0.64; 12 weeks = 0.49 ± 0.63, P = 0.3774).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings confirm that switching to Duotrav(®) in PGA monotherapy patients shows IOP-lowering effect with minimal safety concerns.<h4>Funding</h4>Japan Association of Health Service and Alcon Japan. Ltd.<h4>Trial registration</h4>UMIN Clinical Trials Registry identifier, UMIN000007028.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate conjunctival hyperemia associated with bimatoprost 0.01% treatment in patients who replace latanoprost 0.005% with bimatoprost 0.01%. METHODS:Randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, multicenter study of patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma whose intraocular pressure (IOP) was adequately controlled on latanoprost monotherapy. At baseline, patients discontinued latanoprost and were randomized to treatment with once-daily bimatoprost 0.01% (n = 151) or vehicle (n = 71). The primary endpoint was the peak change in macroscopic hyperemia (conjunctival hyperemia evaluated by gross visual inspection) from baseline to month 1. RESULTS:Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle in the mean [standard deviation] peak change from baseline macroscopic hyperemia at month 1 (0.18 [0.46] in the bimatoprost 0.01% group vs 0.02 [0.32] in the vehicle group, P = 0.009). The between-group difference was 0.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04, 0.26), which was within the predefined margin for noninferiority of 0.5 on a hyperemia grading scale of 0 to +3. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the percentage of patients with a ?1-grade increase in macroscopic hyperemia from baseline. Mean IOP was decreased from baseline (-0.7 to -1.3 mm Hg) in the bimatoprost 0.01% group (P ? 0.002) and was increased from baseline (+3.3 to +3.6 mm Hg) in the vehicle group (P < 0.001) at month 1. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle with respect to conjunctival hyperemia in this study population. Replacement of latanoprost with bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma can result in additional IOP reduction without clinically important hyperemia.