IgE-associated food allergy alters the presentation of paediatric eosinophilic esophagitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Links between food allergens and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have been established, but the interplay between EoE- and IgE-associated immediate hypersensitivity to foods remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the prevalence of IgE-associated food allergy at the time of diagnosis of EoE in children and to determine whether differences existed in presentation and disease compared to subjects with EoE alone. METHODS:Eosinophilic esophagitis patients were stratified based on the diagnosis of IgE-associated immediate hypersensitivity (EoE + IH vs. EoE-IH). Clinical, histologic, pathologic, and endoscopic differences were investigated using a retrospective database. RESULTS:We found that 29% of the 198 EoE patients in our cohort had EoE + IH. These subjects presented at a younger age than those without IH (6.05 vs. 8.09 years, P = 0.013) and were more likely to have comorbid allergic disease. Surprisingly, the EoE + IH group presented with significantly different clinical symptoms, with increased dysphagia, gagging, cough, and poor appetite compared to their counterparts in the EoE-IH group. Male gender, allergic rhinitis, the presence of dysphagia, and younger age were independently associated with having EoE + IH. Specific IgE levels to common EoE-associated foods were higher in EoE + IH, regardless of eliciting immediate hypersensitivity symptoms. In contrast, IgE levels for specific foods triggering EoE were relatively lower in both the groups than IgE levels for immediate reactions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Immediate hypersensitivity is common in children with EoE and identifies a population of EoE patients with distinct clinical characteristics. Our study describes a subtype of EoE in which IgE-mediated food allergy may impact the presentation of paediatric EoE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that is triggered by food allergens and characterized by progressive esophageal dysfunction. Recently, EoE has been identified in patients who underwent oral immunotherapy (OIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy, suggesting an association. OBJECTIVE:We sought to ascertain whether significant associations exist between IgE-mediated food allergies and EoE. METHODS:Using the analysis of electronic medical record data and manual chart review, we examined our subspecialty care network of 35,528 children and adolescents to identify and characterize patients with IgE-mediated and EoE food allergy. The most common food allergens were defined, and the prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was determined. Logistic regression was used to measure the extent to which IgE-mediated food allergy to specific foods is associated with EoE. RESULTS:The most common causes of EoE were milk, soy, egg, grains, and meats, an allergen pattern that is distinct from that of IgE-mediated food allergy. The prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was higher than that reported in the general population (4.7% vs 0.04%). The distribution of IgE-mediated food allergens in patients with EoE was similar to that of the general population, and IgE-mediated allergy to egg (2.27; 1.91-2.64), milk (4.19; 3.52-4.97), or shellfish (1.55; 1.24-1.92) was significantly associated with an EoE diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings support a clinical association between these conditions that has implications for the management of children with food allergy, and particular relevance to patients undergoing OIT.
Project description:Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to wheat.
Project description:Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was first described in the 1990s, showing an increasing incidence and prevalence since then, being the leading cause of food impaction and the major cause of dysphagia. Probably, in a few years, EoE may no longer be considered a rare disease. Methods: This article discusses new aspects of the pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of EoE according to the last published guidelines. Results: The epidemiological studies indicate a multifactorial origin for EoE, where environmental and genetic factors take part. EoE affects both children and adults and it is frequently associated with atopic disease and IgE-mediated food allergies. In patients undergoing oral immunotherapy for desensitization from IgE-mediated food allergy the risk of developing EoE is 2.72%. Barrier dysfunction and T-helper 2 inflammation is considered to be pathogenetically important factors. There are different patterns of clinical presentation varying with age and can be masked by adaptation habits. Besides, symptoms do not usually correlate with histologic disease activity. The diagnostic criteria for EoE has evolved but mainly requires symptoms of esophageal dysfunction with histologic evidence of a peak value of at least 15 eosinophils per high-power field. Endoscopies have to be repeated in order to diagnose, monitor, and treat EoE. Treatment of EoE can be started either by drugs (PPIs and topical corticosteroids) or elimination diets. The multistage step-up elimination diet management approach of EoE is promising. Endoscopic dilation is used for patients with severe dysphagia/food impaction with inadequate response to anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusions: Research in recent years has contributed to a better understanding of EoE's pathogenesis, genetic background, natural history, allergy workup, standardization in assessment of disease activity, evaluation of minimally invasive diagnostic tools, and new therapeutic approaches. However, several unmet needs are to be solved urgently, as finding a non-invasive disease-monitoring methods and biomarkers for routine practice, the development or new therapies, novel food allergy testing to detect triggering foods, drug, and doses required for initial therapy and safety issues with long-term maintenance therapy, amongst others. Besides, multidisciplinary management units of EoE, involving gastroenterologists, pediatricians, allergists, pathologists, dietitians, and ENT specialists are needed.
Project description:Evaluation of IgE-mediated food sensitivity is frequently performed for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). However, the clinical relevance of identifying IgE-mediated sensitivity to foods in adults is unclear.To determine whether EoE associated with food or aeroallergen sensitivity represents a phenotype of EoE with distinct clinical or biological features.A medical record review identified 257 patients with a diagnosis of EoE evaluated in the adult allergy clinic at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics from 2008 to 2013. Patient records were reviewed to capture measures of disease severity, endoscopy results, pathology reports, allergy testing, medical management and patient-reported outcomes.Evaluation of food sensitization with skin prick testing and/or serum IgE was performed for 93% of patients. Sensitization to at least 1 food was identified in 54% of patients who were more likely to report concomitant asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and/or food allergy compared with nonfood sensitive patients. Aeroallergen sensitivity was identified in 87% of patients tested. Clinical characteristics, including EoE symptoms, disease severity, endoscopic findings, peripheral eosinophilia, and patient-reported outcomes, did not differ between food sensitive and non-food sensitive patients. However, on endoscopy, aeroallergen sensitive patients were more likely to have strictures and less likely to exhibit felinization compared with non-aeroallergen sensitized patients.Adults with EoE and IgE-mediated food sensitivity are not phenotypically different than non-food sensitive patients. There is no clear clinical utility in identifying food sensitivity in adults with EoE. Further studies are needed to determine whether aeroallergen sensitivity represents a distinct phenotype of EoE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The allergic march describes the natural history of allergic conditions as they develop during childhood. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease that can be triggered by specific foods. Despite its allergic pathophysiology, the epidemiologic relationship between EoE and established members of the allergic march is unknown. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine whether EoE meets epidemiologic criteria for being considered a member of the allergic march. METHODS:Using a primary care birth cohort of 130,435 children, we determined the natural histories of atopic dermatitis (AD), IgE-mediated food allergy (IgE-FA), asthma, EoE, and allergic rhinitis (AR) in individual patients. We then performed case-control analyses to establish the extent that existing allergic conditions influence the rate of subsequent EoE diagnosis. RESULTS:A total of 139 children developed EoE during the observation period (prevalence of 0.11%). The peak age of EoE diagnosis was 2.6 years, as compared with 0.3 years, 1 year, 1.1 years, and 2.1 years for AD, IgE-FA, asthma, and AR, respectively. The presence of AD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-4.6), IgE-FA (HR 9.1, 95% CI 6.5-12.6), and asthma (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.7) was independently and cumulatively associated with subsequent EoE diagnosis. The presence of AR was associated with subsequent EoE diagnosis (HR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0-3.9), and the presence of EoE was associated with subsequent AR diagnosis (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.5). CONCLUSIONS:Allergic comorbidities are positively associated with EoE diagnosis. Together, our findings suggest that EoE is a late manifestation of the allergic march.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathological diagnosis seen in children as well as adults. Growing evidence suggests that EoE is strongly associated with atopic disorders. Presenting symptoms differ in children and adults and it is not known whether atopic features vary by age. This study was designed to compare atopic features and allergic sensitization between children and adults with EoE. We conducted a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 50 children (aged 2-18 years) and 50 adults (aged 21-75 years) with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of EoE referred to our allergy clinic. Data regarding patient characteristics, history of atopic diseases, and allergy test results were collected for analysis. The majority of children and adults were white and male patients. When compared with adults, a higher percentage of children had a history of asthma (52% versus 24%; p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between adults and children regarding history of allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy, and family history of atopy. There was no statistically significant difference between children and adults regarding immediate-type sensitization to foods and aeroallergens. Compared with adults, a higher percentage of children showed a positive reaction to one or more foods on patch testing (62% versus 31%; p = 0.01). A high prevalence of comorbid atopic diseases and sensitizations to food and environmental allergens was seen in both children and adults. Children had a significantly higher rate of asthma and positive patch test to foods compared with adults.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disease triggered by food antigens for which dietary elimination treatment can induce and sustain histologic remission. Our review aims to describe the state of the art regarding dietary treatment of EoE, highlighting a number of areas of controversy related to dietary therapy in EoE, including novel modalities for determining food triggers, making the empiric dietary elimination process more efficient, issues of cross-contamination and "dosing" of how much food to avoid or add back, costs and effects on quality of life, long-term efficacy, and the risk of developing immediate IgE-type reactions after initial dietary elimination. Elemental formulas, empiric elimination diets, and targeted allergy test-directed elimination diets are well-described treatments for EoE. Although elemental diets are most efficacious, their clinical use is limited by cost and the palatability of an exclusively liquid diet. While empiric elimination is less effective than elemental formula-based diets, they are more easily implemented and often sustainable. Since the comparative effectiveness of elimination diets with proton-pump inhibitors and swallowed topical steroids remains unknown, there are multiple areas to address with future research.
Project description:AbstractEosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disorder which affects all ages, from infancy through adulthood. It typically affects atopic individuals (Table 1) and is a chronic allergic disorder, with foods ubiquitous in the diet being the most described trigger of this isolated eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus in both adults and children. This inflammatory process leads to esophageal symptoms such as dysphagia and feeding intolerance. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the current state of EoE therapy and symptomatology and then try to make the case for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent some of the long-term consequences of esophageal inflammation.
Project description:Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), are rare chronic pathologies of the digestive system, with an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that, together with the "classic" IgE-response to allergens, also a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism could be involved in the development of eosinophilic disorders. EoE and EGE were studied only in the latest decades and as a consequence accurate data are not yet available, concerning not only pathogenesis, but also epidemiology, treatment and outcomes. The diagnosis of EoE is centered on endoscopic findings but the certainty is obtained by histological examination from biopsy samples, that has a sensitivity of 100% when based on five samples. The currently available treatments include topical corticosteroids, specific diets and endoscopic treatment. Concerning EGE, three subtypes (mucosal, muscular, and serosal) were identified. The diagnosis is based, as for EoE, on endoscopic and histological assessment, and the treatment includes pharmacological and dietetic approaches. Further studies are warranted in order to better define the etiology and pathogenesis of eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and thus to develop more appropriate and specific therapies.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is difficult to distinguish from gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) and other causes of dysphagia. We assessed the utility of a set of clinical and endoscopic features for predicting EoE without obtaining esophageal biopsies.We prospectively enrolled consecutive adults undergoing outpatient upper endoscopy at the University of North Carolina from July 2011 through December 2013. Incident cases of EoE were diagnosed per consensus guidelines. Non-EoE controls had either GERD- or dysphagia-predominant symptoms. A predictive model containing clinical and endoscopic, but no histological, data was assessed. Receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated.A total of 81 EoE cases (mean age 38 years; 60% male; 93% white; 141 eosinophils per high-power field (eos/hpf)) and 144 controls (mean age 52, 38% male; 82% white; 3 eos/hpf) were enrolled. A combination of clinical (age, sex, dysphagia, food allergy) and endoscopic (rings, furrows, plaques, hiatal hernia) features was highly predictive of EoE. The AUC was 0.944, with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 84, 97, and 92%. Similar values were seen after limiting controls to those with only reflux or dysphagia or to those with esophageal eosinophilia not due to EoE.We validated a set of clinical and endoscopic features to predict EoE with a high degree of accuracy and allow identification of those at very low risk of disease. Use of these predictors at the point-of-care will avoid the effort and expense of low-yield histological examinations for EoE.