Amyloid Imaging, Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Predict Driving Performance Among Cognitively Normal Individuals.
ABSTRACT: Postmortem brain studies of older drivers killed in car accidents indicate that many had Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes. We examined whether AD biomarkers are related to driving performance among cognitively normal older adults. Individuals with normal cognition, aged 65+ years, and driving at least once per week, were recruited. Participants (N=129) took part in clinical assessments, a driving test, and positron emission tomography imaging with Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection. General linear models tested whether the number of driving errors differed as a function of each of the biomarker variables (mean cortical binding potential for PIB, and CSF A?42, tau, ptau181, tau/A?42, ptau181/A?42). Higher ratios of CSF tau/A?42, ptau181/A?42, and PIB mean cortical binding potential, were associated with more driving errors (P<0.05). Preclinical AD may have subtle cognitive and functional effects, which alone may go unnoticed. However, when combined, these changes may impact complex behaviors such as driving.
Project description:To determine whether and how longitudinal rates of change in MRI volumetrics, CSF concentrations of Alzheimer-related proteins, molecular imaging of cerebral fibrillar amyloid with PET using the [(11)C] benzothiazole tracer, Pittsburgh compound B (PiB), and cognition were associated among asymptomatic middle-aged to older individuals.Multivariate mixed models for repeated measures were used to assess the correlations on the rates of changes across markers.Among 209 asymptomatic middle-aged to older individuals longitudinally followed for up to 11 years (mean 6.7 years), a faster intraindividual decrease in CSF A?42 was associated with a faster increase in PiB mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (MCSUVR, p = 0.04), but not others. The rate of change in CSF tau (and Ptau181) was correlated with the rate of change in PiB MCSUVR (p = 0.002), hippocampal volume (p = 0.04), and global cognition (p = 0.008). The rate of change in hippocampal volume was correlated with the rate of change in global cognition (p = 0.04). Only 3 significant correlations were observed at baseline: CSF A?42 and PiB MCSUVR (p < 0.001), CSF tau and PiB MCSUVR (p < 0.001), and CSF A?42 and global cognition (p = 0.01).CSF tau (Ptau181), PiB MCSUVR, and hippocampal volume were all longitudinally correlated with each other, whereas CSF A?42 was correlated only with PiB binding. Unlike the baseline values, the longitudinal change in CSF tau (Ptau181) and hippocampal volume were correlated with the longitudinal change in global cognition, validating the role of these biomarkers in Alzheimer disease prevention trials.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Previous studies suggest that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism may influence symptom onset in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our recent cross-sectional findings suggest that Met66 may influence clinical expression in dominantly inherited AD (DIAD) through its effects on tau. However, it remains unclear whether carriage of Met66 in DIAD results in faster increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and ptau181 , and whether these increases are associated with accelerated brain volume loss and memory decline. METHODS:A total of 211 subjects (101 mutation noncarriers, 110 mutation carriers), who were cognitively normal, as defined by a Clinical Dementia Rating global score of 0, completed assessments of cognitive function, neuroimaging, and CSF sampling over 3.5 years as part of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network. RESULTS:In mutation carriers, Met66 carriers showed faster memory decline (4×), hippocampal volume loss (16×), and CSF tau and ptau181 increases (6×) than Val66 homozygotes. BDNF did not influence rates of cortical ?-amyloid accumulation or change in CSF A?42 levels in mutation carriers. In mutation noncarriers, BDNF genotype had no effect on change in cognition, brain volume, cortical ?-amyloid accumulation, or change in any CSF measures of tau, ptau181 , and CSF A?42 . INTERPRETATION:As in sporadic AD, the deleterious effects of ?-amyloid on cognitive function, brain volume loss, and CSF tau in DIAD mutation carriers are less in Val66 homozygotes. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism should be considered as a potential moderator of clinical trial outcomes in current treatment and prevention trials in DIAD and sporadic AD. Ann Neurol 2018;84:424-435.
Project description:?-amyloid (A?) plaques and tau-related neurodegeneration are pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The utility of AD biomarkers, including those measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in predicting future AD risk and cognitive decline is still being refined. Here, we explored potential relationships between functional connectivity (FC) patterns within the default-mode network (DMN), age, CSF biomarkers (A?42 and pTau181), and cognitive status in older adults. Multiple measures of FC were explored, including a novel time series-based measure [total interdependence (TI)]. In our sample of 27 cognitively normal older adults, no significant associations were found between levels of A?42 or pTau181 and cognitive scores or regional brain volumes. However, we observed several novel relationships between these biomarkers and measures of FC in DMN during both resting-state and a short-term memory task. First, increased connectivity between bilateral anterior middle temporal gyri was associated with higher levels of CSF A?42 and A?42/pTau181 ratio (reflecting lower AD risk) during both rest and task. Second, increased bilateral parietal connectivity during the short-term memory task, but not during rest, was associated with higher levels of CSF pTau181 (reflecting higher AD risk). Third, increased connectivity between left middle temporal and left parietal cortices during the active task was associated with decreased global cognitive status but not CSF biomarkers. Lastly, we found that our new TI method was more sensitive to the CSF A?42-connectivity relationship whereas the traditional cross-correlation method was more sensitive to levels of CSF pTau181 and cognitive status. With further refinement, resting-state connectivity and task-driven connectivity measures hold promise as non-invasive neuroimaging markers of A? and pTau burden in cognitively normal older adults.
Project description:Identifying older adults at risk of cognitive decline represents a challenge as Alzheimer's disease (AD) modifying therapies move toward preclinical stages.To investigate the relationship between AD biomarkers and subsequent change in cognition in a cohort of cognitively intact older adults.84 cognitively normal subjects (mean age 72.0 years, 59% women) were recruited through the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the Harvard Aging Brain Study and followed over 3 years. Measurements of amyloid-? 1-42 (A?42), total Tau (t-Tau), and Tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-Tau181) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at study entry were available in all cases. Baseline brain MRI, FDG-PET, and PiB-PET data were available in the majority of participants. Relationship between baseline AD biomarkers and longitudinal change in cognition was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression and linear mixed models.14% participants increased their global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score from 0 to 0.5 during follow-up. A CDR score increase was associated with higher baseline CSF t-Tau and p-Tau181, higher global cortical PiB retention, and lower hippocampal volume. The combination of high CSF t-Tau and low A?42 or low hippocampal volume was more strongly related to cognitive outcome than each single biomarker. Higher CSF t-Tau was the only biomarker associated with subsequent decline in MMSE score.Baseline CSF t-Tau and p-Tau181, in vivo amyloid load, and hippocampal volume were all independently associated with future decline in cognition. The discriminatory ability of these biomarkers to predict risk of cognitive decline, however, was only modest.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology appears several years before clinical symptoms, so identifying ways to detect individuals in the preclinical stage is imperative. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Tau/A?42 ratio is currently the best known predictor of AD status and cognitive decline, and the ratio of CSF levels of chitinase-3-like 1 protein (CHI3L1, YKL-40) and amyloid beta (A?42) were reported as predictive, but individual variability and group overlap inhibits their utility for individual diagnosis making it necessary to find ways to improve sensitivity of these biomarkers.We used linear regression to identify genetic loci associated with CSF YKL-40 levels in 379 individuals (80 cognitively impaired and 299 cognitively normal) from the Charles F and Joanne Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. We tested correlations between YKL-40 and CSF Tau/A?42 ratio, A?42, tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181). We used studentized residuals from a linear regression model of the log-transformed, standardized protein levels and the additive reference allele counts from the most significant locus to adjust YKL-40 values and tested the differences in correlations with CSF Tau/A?42 ratio, A?42, tau, and ptau181.We found that genetic variants on the CH13L1 locus were significantly associated with CSF YKL-40 levels, but not AD risk, age at onset, or disease progression. The most significant variant is a reported expression quantitative trait locus for CHI3L1, the gene which encodes YKL-40, and explained 12.74 % of the variance in CSF YKL-40 in our study. YKL-40 was positively correlated with ptau181 (r?=?0.521) and the strength of the correlation significantly increased with the addition of genetic information (r?=?0.573, p?=?0.006).CSF YKL-40 levels are likely a biomarker for AD, but we found no evidence that they are an AD endophenotype. YKL-40 levels are highly regulated by genetic variation, and by including genetic information the strength of the correlation between YKL-40 and ptau181 levels is significantly improved. Our results suggest that studies of potential biomarkers may benefit from including genetic information.
Project description:To define CSF ?-amyloid 1-42 (A?42) cutpoints to detect cortical amyloid deposition as assessed by 11C-Pittsburgh compound B ([11C]PiB)-PET and to compare these calculated cutpoints with cutpoints currently used in clinical practice.We included 433 participants (57 controls, 99 with mild cognitive impairment, 195 with Alzheimer disease [AD] dementia, and 82 with non-AD dementia) from 5 European centers. We calculated for each center and for the pooled cohort CSF A?42 and A?42/tau ratio cutpoints for cortical amyloid deposition based on visual interpretation of [11C]PiB-PET images.Amyloid-PET-based calculated CSF A?42 cutpoints ranged from 521 to 616 pg/mL, whereas existing clinical-based cutpoints ranged from 400 to 550 pg/mL. Using the calculated cutpoint from the pooled sample (557 pg/mL), concordance between CSF A?42 and amyloid-PET was 84%. Similar concordance was found when using a dichotomized A?42/tau ratio. Exploratory analysis showed that participants with a positive amyloid-PET and normal CSF A?42 levels had higher CSF tau and phosphorylated tau levels and more often had mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia compared with participants who had negative amyloid-PET and abnormal CSF A?42 levels.Amyloid-PET-based CSF A?42 cutpoints were higher and tended to reduce intercenter variability compared with clinical-based cutpoints. Discordant participants with normal CSF A?42 and a positive amyloid-PET may be more likely to have AD-related amyloid pathology than participants with abnormal CSF A?42 and a negative amyloid-PET.This study provides Class II evidence that an amyloid-PET-based CSF A?42 cutpoint identifies individuals with amyloid deposition with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 80%.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the ordering of changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers among cognitively normal individuals.<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional data, including CSF analytes, molecular imaging of cerebral fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) with PET using the [<sup>11</sup>C] benzothiazole tracer Pittsburgh compound B (PiB), MRI-based brain structures, and clinical/cognitive outcomes harmonized from 8 studies, collectively involving 3,284 cognitively normal individuals 18 to 101 years of age, were analyzed. The age at which each marker exhibited an accelerated change (called the change point) was estimated and compared across the markers.<h4>Results</h4>Accelerated changes in CSF Aβ<sub>1-42</sub> (Aβ<sub>42</sub>) occurred at 48.28 years of age and in Aβ<sub>42</sub>/Aβ<sub>40</sub> ratio at 46.02 years, followed by PiB mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) with a change point at 54.47 years. CSF total tau (Tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (Ptau) had a change point at ≈60 years, similar to those for MRI hippocampal volume and cortical thickness. The change point for a cognitive composite occurred at 62.41 years. The change points for CSF Aβ<sub>42</sub> and Aβ<sub>42</sub>/Aβ<sub>40</sub> ratio, albeit not significantly different from that for PiB SUVR, occurred significantly earlier than that for CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers, and the cognitive composite. Adjusted analyses confirmed that accelerated changes in CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers, and the cognitive composite occurred at ages not significantly different from each other.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings support the hypothesized early changes of amyloid in preclinical AD and suggest that changes in neuronal injury and neurodegeneration markers occur close in time to cognitive decline.
Project description:Importance:Prior evidence suggests that racial differences exist in tau biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Whether this reported disparity is associated with a differential level of neurodegeneration and disease stage or with underlying mechanisms separate from amyloid or tau is unclear. Objectives:To compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in African American and white individuals with normal cognition and MCI, to estimate race-based cutoffs for these biomarkers that maximize diagnostic discrimination between normal cognition and MCI, and to study the association of demographic characteristics, cognitive performance, and common vascular risk factors with these differences. Design, Setting, and Participants:This case-control study conducted from March 1, 2016, through January 31, 2019, included participants in the Brain Stress Hypertension and Aging Research Program cohort undergoing baseline assessment. Participants were 50 years or older and recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, area. Exposures:Self-reported race and cognitive status categorized using modified Petersen criteria and clinical consensus diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures:Levels of ?-amyloid 1-42 (A?1-42), tau, and phosphorylated tau 181 (pTau181), the ratio of tau or pTau181 to A?1-42, and hippocampal volume on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results:Data from 362 study participants were analyzed (mean [SD] age, 65.6 [7.9] years), of whom 152 (42.0%) were African American, 230 (63.5%) were women, and 189 (52.2%) had MCI. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and cognitive performance, lower mean (SE) levels were observed in African American vs white individuals with MCI for tau (52.40 [5.90] vs 78.98 [5.02] pg/mL; P?=?.001) and pTau181 (15.42 [2.06] vs 25.24 [1.75] pg/mL; P?=?.001) and a lower pTau181 to A?1-42 ratio (0.07 [0.02] vs 0.14 [0.01]; P?=?.003). There were no racial differences in the normal cognition group or in hippocampal volumes in the MCI group. Cutoffs for CSF biomarkers were higher for A?1-42 in African American relative to white individuals (208 [95% CI, 126-321] vs 197 [95% CI, 183-245] pg/mL) and lower for tau (51 [95% CI, 31-59] vs 59 [95% CI, 56-92] pg/mL) and pTau181 (12 [95% CI, 12-19] vs 20 [95% CI, 12-27] pg/mL) levels. Cutoffs for the pTau181 to A?1-42 ratio were 0.05 (95% CI, 0.03-0.12) for African American participants and 0.05 (95% CI, 0.05-0.13) for white participants. Conclusions and Relevance:This study found that African American individuals had lower levels of tau-based biomarkers that were not likely explained by the degree of disease stage or neurodegeneration reflected by hippocampal volumes. This study suggests that race is an important factor when interpreting CSF biomarkers, especially in the clinical diagnosis of prodromal AD. It appears that using the pTau181 to A?1-42 ratio may ameliorate these differences.
Project description:To examine interactions of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype with age and with in vivo measures of preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) in cognitively normal aging.Two hundred forty-one cognitively normal individuals, aged 45-88 years, had cerebral amyloid imaging studies with Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB). Of the 241 individuals, 168 (70%) also had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays of amyloid-beta(42) (Abeta(42)), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau(181)). All individuals were genotyped for APOE.The frequency of individuals with elevated mean cortical binding potential (MCBP) for PIB rose in an age-dependent manner from 0% at ages 45-49 years to 30.3% at 80-88 years. Reduced levels of CSF Abeta(42) appeared to begin earlier (18.2% of those aged 45-49 years) and increase with age in higher frequencies (50% at age 80-88 years) than elevations of MCBP. There was a gene dose effect for the APOE4 genotype, with greater MCBP increases and greater reductions in CSF Abeta(42) with increased numbers of APOE4 alleles. Individuals with an APOE2 allele had no increase in MCBP with age and had higher CSF Abeta(42) levels than individuals without an APOE2 allele. There was no APOE4 or APOE2 effect on CSF tau or ptau(181).Increasing cerebral Abeta deposition with age is the pathobiological phenotype of APOE4. The biomarker sequence that detects Abeta deposition may first be lowered CSF Abeta(42), followed by elevated MCBP for PIB. A substantial proportion of cognitively normal individuals have presumptive preclinical AD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>PET imaging using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [(11)C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD), as have CSF measures of the 42 amino acid beta-amyloid protein (Abeta(1-42)) and total and phosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau). Relationships between biomarkers and with disease severity are incompletely understood.<h4>Methods</h4>Ten subjects with AD, 11 control subjects, and 34 subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative underwent clinical evaluation; CSF measurement of Abeta(1-42), t-tau, and p-tau; and PIB-PET and FDG-PET scanning. Data were analyzed using continuous regression and dichotomous outcomes with subjects classified as "positive" or "negative" for AD based on cutoffs established in patients with AD and controls from other cohorts.<h4>Results</h4>Dichotomous categorization showed substantial agreement between PIB-PET and CSF Abeta(1-42) measures (91% agreement, kappa = 0.74), modest agreement between PIB-PET and p-tau (76% agreement, kappa = 0.50), and minimal agreement for other comparisons (kappa <0.3). Mini-Mental State Examination score was significantly correlated with FDG-PET but not with PIB-PET or CSF Abeta(1-42). Regression models adjusted for diagnosis showed that PIB-PET was significantly correlated with Abeta(1-42), t-tau, and p-tau(181p), whereas FDG-PET was correlated only with Abeta(1-42).<h4>Conclusions</h4>PET and CSF biomarkers of Abeta agree with one another but are not related to cognitive impairment. [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is modestly related to other biomarkers but is better related to cognition. Different biomarkers for Alzheimer disease provide different information from one another that is likely to be complementary.