The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair.
ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) has a well-established role in DNA strand break repair by promoting enrichment of repair factors at damage sites through ADP-ribose interaction domains. Here, we exploit the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium to uncover a role for ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair and redundancy of this pathway with non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In silico searches were used to identify a protein that contains a permutated macrodomain (which we call aprataxin/APLF-and-PNKP-like protein; APL). Structural analysis reveals that this permutated macrodomain retains features associated with ADP-ribose interactions and that APL is capable of binding poly(ADP-ribose) through this macrodomain. APL is enriched in chromatin in response to cisplatin treatment, an agent that induces DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). This is dependent on the macrodomain of APL and the ART Adprt2, indicating a role for ADP-ribosylation in the cellular response to cisplatin. Although adprt2- cells are sensitive to cisplatin, ADP-ribosylation is evident in these cells owing to redundant signalling by the double-strand break (DSB)-responsive ART Adprt1a, promoting NHEJ-mediated repair. These data implicate ADP-ribosylation in DNA ICL repair and identify that NHEJ can function to resolve this form of DNA damage in the absence of Adprt2.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins found in organisms from all kingdoms of life which regulates many important biological functions including DNA repair, chromatin structure, unfolded protein response and apoptosis. Several cellular enzymes, such as macrodomain containing proteins PARG [poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase] and TARG1 [terminal ADP-ribose (ADPr) protein glycohydrolase], reverse protein ADP-ribosylation. In the present study, we show that human Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X)-type motif 16 (hNUDT16) represents a new enzyme class that can process protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro, converting it into ribose-5'-phosphate (R5P) tags covalently attached to the modified proteins. Furthermore, our data show that hNUDT16 enzymatic activity can be used to trim ADP-ribosylation on proteins in order to facilitate analysis of ADP-ribosylation sites on proteins by MS.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a common posttranslational modification that may have antiviral properties and impact innate immunity. To regulate this activity, macrodomain proteins enzymatically remove covalently attached ADP-ribose from protein targets. All members of the Coronavirinae, a subfamily of positive-sense RNA viruses, contain a highly conserved macrodomain within nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3). However, its function or targets during infection remain unknown. We identified several macrodomain mutations that greatly reduced nsp3's de-ADP-ribosylation activity in vitro Next, we created recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) strains with these mutations. These mutations led to virus attenuation and a modest reduction of viral loads in infected mice, despite normal replication in cell culture. Further, macrodomain mutant virus elicited an early, enhanced interferon (IFN), interferon-stimulated gene (ISG), and proinflammatory cytokine response in mice and in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Using a coinfection assay, we found that inclusion of mutant virus in the inoculum protected mice from an otherwise lethal SARS-CoV infection without reducing virus loads, indicating that the changes in innate immune response were physiologically significant. In conclusion, we have established a novel function for the SARS-CoV macrodomain that implicates ADP-ribose in the regulation of the innate immune response and helps to demonstrate why this domain is conserved in CoVs. IMPORTANCE:The macrodomain is a ubiquitous structural domain that removes ADP-ribose from proteins, reversing the activity of ADP-ribosyltransferases. All coronaviruses contain a macrodomain, suggesting that ADP-ribosylation impacts coronavirus infection. However, its function during infection remains unknown. Here, we found that the macrodomain is an important virulence factor for a highly pathogenic human CoV, SARS-CoV. Viruses with macrodomain mutations that abrogate its ability to remove ADP-ribose from protein were unable to cause lethal disease in mice. Importantly, the SARS-CoV macrodomain suppressed the innate immune response during infection. Our data suggest that an early innate immune response can protect mice from lethal disease. Understanding the mechanism used by this enzyme to promote disease will open up novel avenues for coronavirus therapies and give further insight into the role of macrodomains in viral pathogenesis.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational addition of either monomers or polymers of ADP-ribose to target proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases, usually by interferon-inducible diphtheria toxin-like enzymes known as PARPs. While several PARPs have known antiviral activities, these activities are mostly independent of ADP-ribosylation. Consequently, less is known about the antiviral effects of ADP-ribosylation. Several viral families, including Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, encode for macrodomain proteins that bind to and hydrolyze ADP-ribose from proteins and are critical for optimal replication and virulence. These results suggest that macrodomains counter cellular ADP-ribosylation, but whether PARPs or, alternatively, other ADP-ribosyltransferases cause this modification is not clear. Here we show that pan-PARP inhibition enhanced replication and inhibited interferon production in primary macrophages infected with macrodomain-mutant but not wild-type coronavirus. Specifically, knockdown of two abundantly expressed PARPs, PARP12 and PARP14, led to increased replication of mutant but did not significantly affect wild-type virus. PARP14 was also important for the induction of interferon in mouse and human cells, indicating a critical role for this PARP in the regulation of innate immunity. In summary, these data demonstrate that the macrodomain is required to prevent PARP-mediated inhibition of coronavirus replication and enhancement of interferon production.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification generated by members of the superfamily of ADP-ribosyltransferases, known as the Parp enzymes. Depending on the superfamily member, Parp enzymes can mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylate a protein substrate. Parp superfamily members confer regulation to a variety of biological processes that include cell signaling, DNA repair, transcription, and stress responses. Here, we describe biochemical methods for detection of ADP-ribose conjugated to the androgen receptor (AR) using the archaeal macrodomain, AF1521, from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The utility of AF1521 is based on its highly selective recognition of ADP-ribose conjugated to protein. AF1521 immobilized on beads can be used to enrich for ADP-ribosylated proteins, which in our application results in recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR from prostate cancer cell extracts. We engineered tandem AF1521 macrodomains and found this improves the recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR under native conditions, and it enabled development of an assay for detection of ADP-ribosylation on blots. Thus, AF1521 can be used to query ADP-ribosylation of protein under both native and denaturing conditions. Our assays should prove useful for understanding how ADP-ribosylation regulates AR function.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3) contains a macrodomain that is essential for coronavirus pathogenesis and is thus an attractive target for drug development. This macrodomain is thought to counteract the host interferon (IFN) response, an important antiviral signalling cascade, via the reversal of protein ADP-ribosylation, a posttranslational modification catalyzed by host poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). However, the main cellular targets of the coronavirus macrodomain that mediate this effect are currently unknown. Here, we use a robust immunofluorescence-based assay to show that activation of the IFN response induces ADP-ribosylation of host proteins and that ectopic expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 macrodomain reverses this modification in human cells. We further demonstrate that this assay can be used to screen for on-target and cell-active macrodomain inhibitors. This IFN-induced ADP-ribosylation is dependent on PARP9 and its binding partner DTX3L, but surprisingly the expression of the Nsp3 macrodomain or the deletion of either PARP9 or DTX3L does not impair IFN signaling or the induction of IFN-responsive genes. Our results suggest that PARP9/DTX3L-dependent ADP-ribosylation is a downstream effector of the host IFN response and that the cellular function of the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 macrodomain is to hydrolyze this end product of IFN signaling, rather than to suppress the IFN response itself.
Project description:Human pathogenic positive single strand RNA ((+)ssRNA) viruses, including Chikungunya virus, pose severe health problems as for many neither efficient vaccines nor therapeutic strategies exist. To interfere with propagation, viral enzymatic activities are considered potential targets. Here we addressed the function of the viral macrodomains, conserved folds of non-structural proteins of many (+)ssRNA viruses. Macrodomains are closely associated with ADP-ribose function and metabolism. ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification controlling various cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription and stress response. We found that the viral macrodomains possess broad hydrolase activity towards mono-ADP-ribosylated substrates of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases ARTD7, ARTD8 and ARTD10 (aka PARP15, PARP14 and PARP10, respectively), reverting this post-translational modification both in vitro and in cells. In contrast, the viral macrodomains possess only weak activity towards poly-ADP-ribose chains synthesized by ARTD1 (aka PARP1). Unlike poly-ADP-ribosylglycohydrolase, which hydrolyzes poly-ADP-ribose chains to individual ADP-ribose units but cannot cleave the amino acid side chain - ADP-ribose bond, the different viral macrodomains release poly-ADP-ribose chains with distinct efficiency. Mutational and structural analyses identified key amino acids for hydrolase activity of the Chikungunya viral macrodomain. Moreover, ARTD8 and ARTD10 are induced by innate immune mechanisms, suggesting that the control of mono-ADP-ribosylation is part of a host-pathogen conflict.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that can alter the physical and chemical properties of target proteins and that controls many important cellular processes. Macrodomains are evolutionarily conserved structural domains that bind ADP-ribose derivatives and are found in proteins with diverse cellular functions. Some proteins from the macrodomain family can hydrolyze ADP-ribosylated substrates and therefore reverse this post-translational modification. Bacteria and Streptomyces, in particular, are known to utilize protein ADP-ribosylation, yet very little is known about their enzymes that synthesize and remove this modification. We have determined the crystal structure and characterized, both biochemically and functionally, the macrodomain protein SCO6735 from Streptomyces coelicolor This protein is a member of an uncharacterized subfamily of macrodomain proteins. Its crystal structure revealed a highly conserved macrodomain fold. We showed that SCO6735 possesses the ability to hydrolyze PARP-dependent protein ADP-ribosylation. Furthermore, we showed that expression of this protein is induced upon DNA damage and that deletion of this protein in S. coelicolor increases antibiotic production. Our results provide the first insights into the molecular basis of its action and impact on Streptomyces metabolism.
Project description:Cells use the post-translational modification ADP-ribosylation to control a host of biological activities. In some pathogenic bacteria, an operon-encoded mono-ADP-ribosylation cycle mediates response to host-induced oxidative stress. In this system, reversible mono ADP-ribosylation of a lipoylated target protein represses oxidative stress response. An NAD(+) -dependent sirtuin catalyzes the single ADP-ribose (ADPr) addition, while a linked macrodomain-containing protein removes the ADPr. Here we report the crystal structure of the sitruin-linked macrodomain protein from Staphylococcus aureus, SauMacro (also known as SAV0325) to 1.75-Å resolution. The monomeric SauMacro bears a previously unidentified Zn(2+) -binding site that putatively aids in substrate recognition and catalysis. An amino-terminal three-helix bundle motif unique to this class of macrodomain proteins provides a structural scaffold for the Zn(2+) site. Structural features of the enzyme further indicate a cleft proximal to the Zn(2+) binding site appears well suited for ADPr binding, while a deep hydrophobic channel in the protein core is suitable for binding the lipoate of the lipoylated protein target.
Project description:Macrodomains are conserved protein folds associated with ADP-ribose binding and turnover. ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed primarily by ARTD (aka PARP) enzymes in cells. ARTDs transfer either single or multiple ADP-ribose units to substrates, resulting in mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation. TARG1/C6orf130 is a macrodomain protein that hydrolyzes mono-ADP-ribosylation and interacts with poly-ADP-ribose chains. Interactome analyses revealed that TARG1 binds strongly to ribosomes and proteins associated with rRNA processing and ribosomal assembly factors. TARG1 localized to transcriptionally active nucleoli, which occurred independently of ADP-ribose binding. TARG1 shuttled continuously between nucleoli and nucleoplasm. In response to DNA damage, which activates ARTD1/2 (PARP1/2) and promotes synthesis of poly-ADP-ribose chains, TARG1 re-localized to the nucleoplasm. This was dependent on the ability of TARG1 to bind to poly-ADP-ribose. These findings are consistent with the observed ability of TARG1 to competitively interact with RNA and PAR chains. We propose a nucleolar role of TARG1 in ribosome assembly or quality control that is stalled when TARG1 is re-located to sites of DNA damage.
Project description:ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) catalyze reversible additions of mono- and poly-ADP-ribose onto diverse types of proteins by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cosubstrate. In the human ART superfamily, 14 out of 20 members are shown to catalyze endogenous protein mono-ADP-ribosylation and play important roles in regulating various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Identification of new modulators of mono-ARTs can thus potentially lead to discovery of novel therapeutics. In this study, we developed a macrodomain-linked immunosorbent assay (MLISA) for characterizing mono-ARTs. Recombinant macrodomain 2 from poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 14 (PARP14) was generated with a C-terminal human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) tag for detecting mono-ADP-ribosylated proteins. Coupled with an anti-HA secondary antibody, the generated HA-tagged macrodomain 2 reveals high specificity for mono-ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by distinct mono-ARTs. Kinetic parameters of PARP15-catalyzed automodification were determined by MLISA and are in good agreement with previous studies. Eight commonly used chemical tools for PARPs were examined by MLISA with PARP15 and PARP14 in 96-well plates and exhibited moderate inhibitory activities for PARP15, consistent with published reports. These results demonstrate that MLISA provides a new and convenient method for quantitative characterization of mono-ART enzymes and may allow identification of potent mono-ART inhibitors in a high-throughput-compatible manner.