The Effect of Geometrical Isomerism of 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid on Its Binding Affinity to HIV-Integrase Enzyme: A Molecular Docking Study.
ABSTRACT: A potent plant-derived HIV-1 inhibitor, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA), has been shown to undergo isomerisation upon UV exposure where the naturally occurring 3 trans ,5 trans -diCQA isomer gives rise to the 3 cis ,5 trans -diCQA, 3 trans ,5 cis -diCQA, and 3 cis ,5 cis -diCQA isomers. In this study, inhibition of HIV-1 INT by UV-induced isomers was investigated using molecular docking methods. Here, density functional theory (DFT) models were used for geometry optimization of the 3,5-diCQA isomers. The YASARA and Autodock VINA software packages were then used to determine the binding interactions between the HIV-1 INT catalytic domain and the 3,5-diCQA isomers and the Discovery Studio suite was used to visualise the interactions between the isomers and the protein. The geometrical isomers of 3,5-diCQA were all found to bind to the catalytic core domain of the INT enzyme. Moreover, the cis geometrical isomers were found to interact with the metal cofactor of HIV-1INT, a phenomenon which has been linked to antiviral potency. Furthermore, the 3 trans ,5 cis -diCQA isomer was also found to interact with both LYS156 and LYS159 which are important residues for viral DNA integration. The differences in binding modes of these naturally coexisting isomers may allow wider synergistic activity which may be beneficial in comparison to the activities of each individual isomer.
Project description:Dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) are plant metabolites and undergo trans-cis-isomerization when exposed to UV irradiation. As such, diCQAs exist in both trans- and cis-configurations and amplify the already complex plant metabolome. However, analytical differentiation of these geometrical isomers using mass spectrometry (MS) approaches has proven to be extremely challenging. Exploring the chromatographic space to develop possible conditions that would aid in differentially separating and determining the elution order of these isomers is therefore imperative. In this study, simple chromatographic parameters, such as column chemistry (phenyl versus alkyl), mobile phase composition (methanol or acetonitrile), and column temperature, were investigated to aid in the separation of diCQA geometrical isomers. The high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) chromatograms revealed four isomers post UV irradiation of diCQA authentic standards. The elution profile/order was seen to vary on different reverse-phase column chemistries (phenyl versus alkyl) using different mobile phase composition. Here, the elution profile/order on the phenyl-derived column matrices (with methanol as the mobile phase composition) was observed to be relatively reproducible as compared to the alkyl (C18) columns. Chromatographic resolution of diCQA geometrical isomers can be enhanced with an increase in column temperature. Lastly, the study highlights that chromatographic elution order/profile cannot be relied upon to fathom the complexity of isomeric plant metabolites.
Project description:Chlorogenic acid (CGA) exists as multiple isomers (e.g., 3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA) in foods such as coffee beverages, fruits and vegetables. This study aimed to investigate relative activities of these six different CGA isomers to modify redox biology in inflamed Caco-2 cells that involved Nrf2 signaling. Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with individual CGA isomers to assess the relative effectiveness to mitigate oxidative stress. Isomer-specific capacity of different CGA isomers for direct free radical scavenging activity and potential endogenous control of oxidative stress were determined using chemical assays and cell-based experiments, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations of the CGA and Keap1-Nrf2 complex were performed to predict CGA structure-specific interactions. Results demonstrated that dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA including 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA) isomers had greater (p?<?0.05) affinity to ameliorate oxidative stress through direct free radical scavenging activity. This observation corresponded to greater (p?<?0.05) capacity to activate Nrf2 signaling compared to caffeoylquinic acid (CQA including 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA) isomers in inflamed differentiated Caco-2 cells. Simulations revealed that differences between the ability of CQA and diCQA to interact with the Keap1-Nrf2 complex may be due to differences in relative orientation within this complex. The observed CGA isomer-specific affinity for CQA to activate Nrf2 signaling was confirmed by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 induced by CGA and greater (p?<?0.05) upregulation of genes related to Nrf2 expression.
Project description:Due to the recently uncovered health benefits and anti-HIV activities of dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs), understanding their structures and functions is of great interest for drug discovery efforts. DiCQAs are analytically challenging to identify and quantify since they commonly exist as a diverse mixture of positional and geometric (cis/trans) isomers. In this work, we utilized ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry to separate the various isomers before and after UV irradiation. The experimental collision cross sections were then compared with theoretical structures to differentiate and identify the diCQA isomers. Our analyses found that naturally the diCQAs existed predominantly as trans/trans isomers, but after 3 h of UV irradiation, cis/cis, cis/trans, trans/cis, and trans/trans isomers were all present in the mixture. This is the first report of successful differentiation of cis/trans diCQA isomers individually, which shows the great promise of IMS coupled with theoretical calculations for determining the structure and activity relationships of different isomers in drug discovery studies.
Project description:In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) and theoretical calculations have been used to study carotenoid geometrical motifs generated by photoisomerization from the all-trans geometry. Multiple geometric isomers of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin were separated using TIMS (R > 110) for [M](+), [M + H](+), and [M - 18](+) molecular species. Comparison of observed cross sections with those obtained from molecular dynamics calculations showed that the number of cis double bonds and s-cis single bonds in the polyene chain determine the topology space of the carotenoid. The intensities of IMS signals are correlated with the relative stability of these geometric isomers.1,2 The most stable isomer is the all-trans geometry regardless of the ionization state ([M - 18](+), [M](+), and [M + H](+)), and structural stability decreases with the increasing number of cis and/or s-cis bonds in the polyene chain.
Project description:The title compound is a co-crystal of the cis and trans isomers, namely cis-bis-[1,1,1,5,5,5-hexa-fluoro-pentane-2,4-dionato(1-)-?(2)O,O']bis-(4-phenyl-pyridine N-oxide-?O)copper(II)-trans-bis-[1,1,1,5,5,5-hexa-fluoro-pentane-2,4-dionato(1-)-?(2)O,O']bis(4-phenyl-pyridine N-oxide-?O)copper(II) (2/1), [Cu(C(5)HF(6)O(2))(2)(C(11)H(9)NO)(2)]. In both isomers, the coordination geometry of the Cu(2+) atom is octa-hedral, exhibiting typical Jahn-Teller distortion. The metal atom of the trans isomer is located on an inversion centre. In the cis isomer, the phenyl ring in one 4-phenyl-pyridine N-oxide ligand is disordered over two orientations in a 1:1 ratio. In the crystal, weak inter-molecular C-H?F and C-H?O contacts establish connections between the cis and trans isomers.
Project description:The room temperature absorption and emission spectra of the 4-cis and all-trans isomers of 2,4,6,8,10,12,14-hexadecaheptaene are almost identical, exhibiting the characteristic dual emissions S1-->S0 (21Ag- --> 11Ag-) and S2-->S0 (11Bu+ --> 11Ag-) noted in previous studies of intermediate length polyenes and carotenoids. The ratio of the S1-->S0 and S2-->S0 emission yields for the cis isomer increases by a factor of approximately 15 upon cooling to 77 K in n-pentadecane. In contrast, for the trans isomer this ratio shows a 2-fold decrease with decreasing temperature. These results suggest a low barrier for conversion between the 4-cis and all-trans isomers in the S1 state. At 77 K, the cis isomer cannot convert to the more stable all-trans isomer in the 21Ag- state, resulting in the striking increase in its S1-->S0 fluorescence. These experiments imply that the S1 states of longer polyenes have local energy minima, corresponding to a range of conformations and isomers, separated by relatively low (2-4 kcal) barriers. Steady state and time-resolved optical measurements on the S1 states in solution thus may sample a distribution of conformers and geometric isomers, even for samples represented by a single, dominant ground state structure. Complex S1 potential energy surfaces may help explain the complicated S2-->S1 relaxation kinetics of many carotenoids. The finding that fluorescence from linear polyenes is so strongly dependent on molecular symmetry requires a reevaluation of the literature on the radiative properties of all-trans polyenes and carotenoids.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lycopene, which is a red carotenoid in tomatoes, has been hypothesized to mediate disease-preventive effects associated with tomato consumption. Lycopene is consumed primarily as the all-trans geometric isomer in foods, whereas human plasma and tissues show greater proportions of cis isomers. OBJECTIVE:With the use of compartmental modeling and stable isotope technology, we determined whether endogenous all-trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization or isomeric-bioavailability differences underlie the greater proportion of lycopene cis isomers in human tissues than in tomato foods. DESIGN:Healthy men (n = 4) and women (n = 4) consumed (13)C-lycopene (10.2 mg; 82% all-trans and 18% cis), and plasma was collected over 28 d. Unlabeled and (13)C-labeled total lycopene and lycopene-isomer plasma concentrations, which were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were fit to a 7-compartment model. RESULTS:Subjects absorbed a mean ± SEM of 23% ± 6% of the lycopene. The proportion of plasma cis-(13)C-lycopene isomers increased over time, and all-trans had a shorter half-life than that of cis isomers (5.3 ± 0.3 and 8.8 ± 0.6 d, respectively; P < 0.001) and an earlier time to reach maximal plasma concentration than that of cis isomers (28 ± 7 and 48 ± 9 h, respectively). A compartmental model that allowed for interindividual differences in cis- and all-trans-lycopene bioavailability and endogenous trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization was predictive of plasma (13)C and unlabeled cis- and all-trans-lycopene concentrations. Although the bioavailability of cis (24.5% ± 6%) and all-trans (23.2% ± 8%) isomers did not differ, endogenous isomerization (0.97 ± 0.25 ?mol/d in the fast-turnover tissue lycopene pool) drove tissue and plasma isomeric profiles. CONCLUSION:(13)C-Lycopene combined with physiologic compartmental modeling provides a strategy for following complex in vivo metabolic processes in humans and reveals that postabsorptive trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization, and not the differential bioavailability of isomers, drives tissue and plasma enrichment of cis-lycopene. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01692340.
Project description:cis-trans isomerization of proteins phosphorylated by proline-directed kinases is proposed to control numerous signaling molecules and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and other diseases. However, there is no direct evidence for the existence of cis-trans protein isomers in vivo or for their conformation-specific function or regulation. Here we develop peptide chemistries that allow the generation of cis- and trans-specific antibodies and use them to raise antibodies specific for isomers of phosphorylated tau. cis, but not trans, p-tau appears early in the brains of humans with mild cognitive impairment, accumulates exclusively in degenerated neurons, and localizes to dystrophic neurites during Alzheimer's progression. Unlike trans p-tau, the cis isomer cannot promote microtubule assembly, is more resistant to dephosphorylation and degradation, and is more prone to aggregation. Pin1 converts cis to trans p-tau to prevent Alzheimer's tau pathology. Isomer-specific antibodies and vaccines may therefore have value for the early diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are found naturally in dairy products. Two isomers of CLA, that differ only in the location of cis and trans double bonds, are found to have distinct and different biological effects. The cis 9 trans 11 (C9T11) isomer is believed to have anti-carcinogenic effects, while the trans 10 cis 12 (T10C12) isomer is believed to be associated with anti-obesity effects. In this paper we extend earlier molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of pure CLA-phosphatidylcholine bilayers to investigate the comparative effects of cholesterol on bilayers composed of the two respective isomers. Simulations of phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers in which the sn-2 chains contained one of the two isomers of CLA were performed in which, for each isomer, the simulated bilayers contained 10% and 30% cholesterol (Chol). From MD trajectories we calculate and compare structural properties of the bilayers, including areas per molecule, thickness of bilayers, tilt angle of cholesterols, order parameter profiles, and one and two-dimensional radial distribution function (RDF), as functions of Chol concentration. While the structural effect of cholesterol is approximately the same for both isomers, we find differences at an atomistic level in order parameter profiles and in two-dimensional radial distribution functions.
Project description:A photoresponsive nanoporous polymer film has been produced from the templated self-assembly of a columnar liquid crystal containing azo units. A liquid crystalline complex of polymerizable azobenzoic acid and a tris-benzimidazolyl benzene template molecule was cross-linked via thiol-ene radical copolymerization with dodecanedithiol. Subsequent removal of the template yielded nanoporous polymer films with pores of approximately 1 nm in diameter. Both trans-cis and cis-trans photoisomerizations of azobenzoic acid took place in the porous films. At room temperature, the cis isomer was sufficiently long-lived to establish a difference in dye absorption kinetics of the two isomers. The cationic dye rhodamine 6G was bound to both isomers, but the rate of binding to films enriched in the cis isomer was 8 times faster.