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Somatic TP53 Mutations in the Era of Genome Sequencing.


ABSTRACT: Amid the complexity of genetic alterations in human cancer, TP53 mutation appears as an almost invariant component, representing by far the most frequent genetic alteration overall. Compared with previous targeted sequencing studies, recent integrated genomics studies offer a less biased view of TP53 mutation patterns, revealing that >20% of mutations occur outside the DNA-binding domain. Among the 12 mutations representing each at least 1% of all mutations, five occur at residues directly involved in specific DNA binding, four affect the tertiary fold of the DNA-binding domain, and three are nonsense mutations, two of them in the carboxyl terminus. Significant mutations also occur in introns, affecting alternative splicing events or generating rearrangements (e.g., in intron 1 in sporadic osteosarcoma). In aggressive cancers, mutation is so common that it may not have prognostic value (all these cancers have impaired p53 function caused by mutation or by other mechanisms). In several other cancers, however, mutation makes a clear difference for prognostication, as, for example, in HER2-enriched breast cancers and in lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. Thus, the clinical significance of TP53 mutation is dependent on tumor subtype and context. Understanding the clinical impact of mutation will require integrating mutation-specific information (type, frequency, and predicted impact) with data on haplotypes and on loss of heterozygosity.

SUBMITTER: Hainaut P 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5088513 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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