Incidence and Cost of Ankle Sprains in United States Emergency Departments.
ABSTRACT: Ankle sprains represent a common injury in emergency departments, but little is known about common complications, procedures, and charges associated with ankle sprains in emergency departments.There will be a higher incidence of ankle sprains among younger populations (?25 years old) and in female patients. Complications and procedures will differ between ankle sprain types. Lateral ankle sprains will have lower health care charges relative to medial and high ankle sprains.Descriptive epidemiological study.Level 3.A cross-sectional study of the 2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was conducted. Outcomes such as charges, complications, and procedures were compared using propensity score matching between lateral and medial as well as lateral and high ankle sprains.The sample contained 225,114 ankle sprains. Female patients sustained more lateral ankle sprains (57%). After propensity score adjustment, lateral sprains incurred greater charges than medial ankle sprains (median [interquartile range], $1008 [$702-$1408] vs $914 [$741-$1108]; P < 0.01). Among complications, pain in the limb (1.92% vs 0.52%, P = 0.03), sprain of the foot (2.96% vs 0.70%, P < 0.01), and abrasion of the hip/leg (1.57% vs 0.35%, P = 0.03) were more common in lateral than medial ankle sprain events. Among procedures, medial ankle sprains were more likely to include diagnostic radiology (97.91% vs 83.62%, P < 0.01) and less likely to include medications than lateral ankle sprains (0.87% vs 2.79%, P < 0.01). Hospitalizations were more common following high ankle sprains than lateral ankle sprains (24 [6.06%] vs 1 [0.25%], P < 0.01).Ankle sprain emergency department visits account for significant health care charges in the United States. Age- and sex-related differences persist among the types of ankle sprains.The health care charges associated with ankle sprains indicate the need for additional preventive measures. There are age- and sex-related differences in the prevalence of ankle sprains that suggest these demographics may be risk factors for ankle sprains.
Project description:Ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent athletic injuries. Prior work has investigated lateral ankle sprains, but research on generally more severe medial sprains is lacking. This case report performs a kinematic analysis using novel motion analysis methods on a non-contact medial ankle sprain. Peak eversion (50°) occurred 0.2 seconds following ground contact, maximum velocity of 426°/s, while peak dorsiflexion (64°) occurred with a greater maximum velocity (573°/s). The combination of dorsiflexion at ground contact and rapid eversion is associated with a non-contact eversion sprain. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the eversion ankle sprain injury mechanism.
Project description:Deltoid ligament injuries account for 5.1% to 15.8% of ankle sprains and occur with concomitant lateral ankle sprains. The anterior tibiotalar ligament (ATTL), located within the deep layer of the deltoid ligament complex, connects the talus and the tibia on the medial side of the ankle and controls ankle eversion and rotation. If conservative treatment for chronic medial ankle instability after an ankle sprain fails, ATTL repair or reconstruction might be necessary. Arthroscopic reconstruction techniques of the lateral ankle ligaments recently have been reported. Here, we describe arthroscopic reconstruction of the ATTL using a free tendon graft (ARATTL). This technique is less invasive than other treatments and results in a more stable medial ankle joint.
Project description:BACKGROUND::Soccer has a high injury rate, with lateral ankle sprains being a common injury. Therefore, an approach to prevent or at least reduce the occurrence is warranted. Injury prevention can be improved by identifying specific risk factors and individuals at risk. PURPOSE::To assess drop-jump landing performance as a potential predictor of lateral ankle sprain within 3-year follow-up. STUDY DESIGN::Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS::Single-legged drop-jump landing tests were performed by 190 elite soccer players. Based on ground-reaction forces, 6 outcome measures were calculated that aim to reflect the impact and stabilization phase. Lateral ankle sprains were registered during up to 3 years of follow-up. Following a z score correction for age, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. RESULTS::During follow-up, 45 players (23.7%) suffered a primary lateral ankle sprain. Of those, 34 were regarded as severe (absence >7 days). Performance was related to increased risk of ankle sprain ( P = .005 for all sprains and P = .001 for severe sprains). Low mediolateral stability for the first 0.4 seconds after landing (a larger value indicates more force exerted in the mediolateral direction, resulting in rapid lateral stabilization) and high horizontal ground-reaction force between 3.0 and 5.0 seconds (a smaller value indicates less sway in the stabilization phase) were identified as risk factors. A player that scored 2 SD below average for both risk factors had a 4.4-times-higher chance of sustaining an ankle sprain than a player who scored average. CONCLUSION::The current study showed that following a single-legged drop-jump landing, mediolateral force over 0 to 0.4 seconds and/or mean resultant horizontal ground-reaction force over 3 to 5 seconds has predictive value with regard to the occurrence of an ankle sprain among male elite soccer players within 3 years.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lateral ankle sprains are common in indoor sports. High shoe-surface friction is considered a risk factor for non-contact lateral ankle sprains. Spraino is a novel low-friction patch that can be attached to the outside of sports shoes to minimise friction at the lateral edge, which could mitigate the risk of such injury. We aimed to determine preliminary effectiveness (incidence rate and severity) and safety (harms) of Spraino to prevent lateral ankle sprains among indoor sport athletes.<h4>Methods</h4>In this exploratory, parallel-group, two-arm pilot randomised controlled trial, 510 subelite indoor sport athletes with a previous lateral ankle sprain were randomly allocated (1:1) to Spraino or 'do-as-usual'. Allocation was concealed and the trial was outcome assessor blinded. Match and training exposure, number of injuries and associated time loss were captured weekly via text messages. Information on harms, fear-of-injury and ankle pain was also documented.<h4>Results</h4>480 participants completed the trial. They reported a total of 151 lateral ankle sprains, of which 96 were categorised as non-contact, and 50 as severe. All outcomes favoured Spraino with incidence rate ratios of 0.87 (95% CI 0.62 to 1.23) for all lateral ankle sprains; 0.64 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.98) for non-contact lateral ankle sprains; and 0.47 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.88) for severe lateral ankle sprains. Time loss per injury was also lower in the Spraino group (1.8 vs 2.8 weeks, p=0.014). Six participants reported minor harms because of Spraino.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Compared with usual care, athletes allocated to Spraino had a lower risk of lateral ankle sprains and less time loss, with only few reported minor harms.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NCT03311490.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ankle sprains are some of the most frequent injuries of the musculoskeletal system. However, there is no substantive evidence supporting which treatment strategy is superior. Taping with Kinesiotape (KT) is a new method that is used as an alternative to the more established taping and bracing techniques used for the prophylaxis and treatment of ankle sprains. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of KT on ankle sprain by comparing acupuncture combined with KT (AcuKT) with acupuncture alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains. METHODS/DESIGN:This study is a prospective, multi-center (DongShin University Gwangju Oriental Hospital, DongShin University Mokpo Oriental Hospital, and KyungHee Korean Medicine Hospital), outcome assessor-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Participants (n = 60) with a lateral ankle sprain occurring within 1 week of the study will be randomly assigned to either an acupuncture group (n = 10 at each center (total n = 30)) or an AcuKT group (n = 10 at each center (total n = 30)). The acupuncture group will receive acupuncture treatment at ST36, ST41, BL60, BL62, KI3, KI6, GB39, and GB40 once per day, 5 days per week (excluding Saturday and Sunday) for 1 week. The AcuKT group will receive acupuncture treatment at ST36, ST41, BL60, BL62, KI3, KI6, GB39, and GB40 and the ankle meridian tendino-musculature and a figure-of-eight shape form of KT treatment once per day, 5 days per week (excluding Saturday and Sunday) for 1 week. The primary outcome will be pain evaluation assessed according to a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), while Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), edema, European Quality of Life Five Dimension-Five Level Scale (EQ-5D-5 L) score, and number of recurrent ankle sprains will be considered as secondary outcome measures. VAS, FAOS, and edema measurements will be performed at baseline (before intervention), 5 days after the first intervention (i.e., at the end of the intervention), and 4 weeks after the completion of intervention. EQ-5D-5 L measurements will be conducted at baseline, 5 days after the first intervention, 4 weeks after the completion of intervention, and 26 weeks after the completion of intervention. The number of recurrent ankle sprains will be determined at 4, 8, 12, and 26 weeks after the completion of the intervention. DISCUSSION:This study will provide data regarding the efficacy of KT for the treatment of acute lateral ankle sprain. The results may lead to insights into the usefulness of KT in the treatment of acute lateral ankle sprain. TRIAL REGISTRATION:cris.nih.go.kr, ID: KCT0002257. Registered on 27 February 2017, and approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Medical Device Clinical Trial Plan Approval #737).
Project description:Ankle sprains are common within the general population and can result in prolonged disablement. Limited talocrural dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) is a common consequence of ankle sprain. Limited talocrural DF ROM may contribute to persistent symptoms, disability, and an elevated risk for re-injury. As a result, many health care practitioners use hands-on passive procedures with the intention of improving talocrural joint DF ROM in individuals following ankle sprains. Dosage of passive hands-on procedures involves a continuum of treatment speeds. Recent evidence suggests both slow- and fast-speed treatments may be effective to address disablement following ankle sprains. However, these interventions have yet to be longitudinally compared against a placebo study condition.We developed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to test the hypotheses that hands-on treatment procedures administered to individuals following ankle sprains during the post-acute injury period can improve short-, intermediate-, and long-term disablement, as well as reduce the risk for re-injury.This study is designed to measure the clinical effects of hands-on passive stretching treatment procedures directed to the talocrural joint that vary in treatment speed during the post-acute injury period, compared to hands-on placebo control intervention.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00888498.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the incidence of ankle sprains and severe ankle sprains attending accident and emergency (A&E) units; to describe current practice for severe ankle sprains in A&E units in the United Kingdom. METHODS:Crude age and sex specific incidence rates were calculated for four health districts from cases ascertained from data on seven A&E clinical information systems. Case records of patients with ankle sprains at an A&E unit in another health district were audited and the proportion of severe ankle sprains calculated. UK A&E units were surveyed about their usual treatment of patients with severe ankle sprains. RESULTS:The estimate of the crude incidence rate of ankle sprains was a minimum of 52.7 per 10 000, rising to 60.9 (95% CI 59.4 to 62.4) when figures were adjusted for the proportion of patients without a diagnostic code (13.7%). There were important age-sex differences with unadjusted rates observed from 127.8 per 10 000 (CI 115.5 to 140.0) in girls aged 10-14 years to 8.2 (CI 4.2 to 12.3) in men aged 70-74 years. As 14% of ankle sprains attending A&E were classed as severe, this would equate to 42 000 severe ankle sprains per year in the UK. In the UK wide survey, there was a response rate of 79% (211 of 266). Among the responders, Tubigrip was used routinely in 55%, below knee casts in 3%, and braces in 2%. Boots were not used routinely in any unit. CONCLUSION:While there is considerable variation in severe ankle sprain management in UK A&E units, most are treated with the minimal mechanical support of Tubigrip.
Project description:Ankle sprain is a common musculoskeletal injury. In Korean medicine, blood stasis is thought to be the main cause of pain and swelling in patients with ankle sprain. Dangguixu-san (DS), a herbal extract, is widely used in Korean medicine for the treatment of traumatic ecchymosis and pain by promoting blood circulation and relieving blood stasis. However, the effects of DS on ankle sprain have not been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Here, we describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the efficacy and safety of DS for the treatment of ankle sprain.In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm clinical trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio, participants (n = 48) with acute lateral ankle sprain (ALAS) that occurred within 72 h before enrollment will be randomly assigned to a DS (n = 24) or a placebo (n = 24) group. Both groups will receive acupuncture treatment once a day for 5 days a week (excluding Saturday and Sunday) and the trial medication (DS/placebo capsule) three times a day for seven consecutive days. The primary outcome measure will be pain relief evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Secondary outcome measures will include Foot and Ankle Outcome Scores (FAOS), edema, European Quality of Life Five-Dimension-Five-Level Scale (EQ-5D-5 L) scores, and the number of recurrent ankle sprains. VAS, FAOS, edema, and EQ-5D-5 L scores will be recorded before, at the end of, and at 4 weeks after treatment completion. EQ-5D-5 L scores will be additionally recorded at 26 weeks after treatment completion. The number of recurrent ankle sprains will be recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 26 weeks after treatment completion.This study is expected to provide evidence regarding the efficacy, safety, and usefulness of DS for the treatment of ALAS.cris.nih.go.kr, registration number: KCT 0002374 . Registered on 11 July, 2017 and approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (registration number, 31244).
Project description:Background: Ankle sprains are common among physically active individuals, especially among athletes. Majority of those who suffer ankle sprains have residual symptoms including pain, episodes of giving way, compromised proprioception and neuromuscular control, and re-injury leading to chronic ankle instability. The aim of this study was to see the effect of chronic ankle sprain on pain, range of motion, proprioception, and, static and dynamic balance among athletes. Methods: A total of 80 athletes, aged 18 to 25 years, involved in track-and-field sports were invited to participate in this study. They were divided in two groups. Athletes with history of grade 1 or 2 ankle sprain on either side requiring medical care who reported at least three episodes of ankle giving way in past 12 months were included in group A. An equal number of healthy athletes without any history of ankle sprain or injury in the lower limbs in the past one year matched by sex, age, height, weight, and limb dominance, were included in group B (control). Outcome measures: Participant's pain, range of motion, proprioception and balance (static and dynamic) was measured using visual analog scale, half circle goniometer, degree of foot position sense, single leg stance time and Y-balance test respectively. Results: Although there were no differences in the active ankle joint range of motion (p > 0.05) in comparison to the control group, athletes with chronic ankle sprain reported mild pain and statistically significant (p < 0.05) deficits in foot proprioception, static and dynamic balance. Conclusions: Deficits in foot proprioception, static and dynamic balance even one year after the ankle sprain could be the reason for limitations in the dynamic defense system of the joint that predisposes to recurrent injury and instability. It is essential to understand the normal clinical course and risk factors for athletes who sustain sprain before devising a long term comprehensive rehabilitation program that focuses on mechanical and functional insufficiencies in order to improve their functional performance and prevent the risk of recurrent sprain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: During the recovery period after acute ankle sprain, it is unclear whether conventional treatment should be supported by supervised exercise. AIM: To evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of conventional treatment combined with supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with an acute ankle sprain. DESIGN: Randomised controlled clinical trial. SETTING: A total of 32 Dutch general practices and the hospital emergency department. METHOD: Adults with an acute lateral ankle sprain consulting general practices or the hospital emergency department were allocated to either conventional treatment combined with supervised exercises or conventional treatment alone. Primary outcomes were subjective recovery (0-10 point scale) and the occurrence of a resprain. Measurements were carried out at intake, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year after injury. Data were analysed using intention-to-treat analyses. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were enrolled and randomised to either conventional treatment alone or conventional treatment combined with supervised exercise. There was no significant difference between treatment groups concerning subjective recovery or occurrence of resprains after 3 months and 1-year of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Conventional treatment combined with supervised exercises compared to conventional treatment alone during the first year after an acute lateral ankle sprain does not lead to differences in the occurrence of resprains or in subjective recovery.