Primary Care Provider-Delivered Smoking Cessation Interventions and Smoking Cessation Among Participants in the National Lung Screening Trial.
ABSTRACT: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown.To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes.A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors.Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening.Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI,?1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI,?1.19-1.79).Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange follow-up were relatively low. Our findings confirm the need for and benefit of clinicians taking more active intervention steps in helping patients who undergo screening to quit smoking.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smoking is the most important preventable cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but provision of smoking cessation support (SCS) to pregnant women is poor. We examined the association between midwives' implementation of SCS (5As - Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange follow-up) and reported barriers/enablers to implementation. METHODS:On-line anonymous survey of midwives providing antenatal care in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, assessing provision of the 5As and barriers/enablers to their implementation, using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Factor analyses identified constructs underlying the 5As; and barriers/enablers. Multivariate general linear models examined relationships between the barrier/enabler factors and the 5As factors. RESULTS:Of 750 midwives invited, 150 (20%) participated. Respondents more commonly reported Asking and Assessing than Advising, Assisting, or Arranging follow-up (e.g. 77% always Ask smoking status; 17% always Arrange follow-up). Three 5As factors were identified- 'Helping', 'Assessing quitting' and 'Assessing dependence'. Responses to barrier/enabler items showed greater knowledge, skills, intentions, and confidence with Assessment than Assisting; endorsement for SCS as a priority and part of midwives' professional role; and gaps in training and organisational support for SCS. Nine barrier/enabler factors were identified. Of these, the factors of 'Capability' (knowledge, skills, confidence); 'Work Environment' (service has resources, capacity, champions and values SCS) and 'Personal priority' (part of role and a priority) predicted 'Helping'. CONCLUSION:The TDF enabled systematic identification of barriers to providing SCS, and the multivariate models identified key contributors to poor implementation. Combined with qualitative data, these results have been mapped to intervention components to develop a comprehensive intervention to improve SCS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pregnancy is an opportunity for health providers to support women to stop smoking. OBJECTIVES:Identify the pooled prevalence for health providers in providing components of smoking cessation care to women who smoke during pregnancy. DESIGN:A systematic review synthesising original articles that reported on (1) prevalence of health providers' performing the 5As ('Ask', 'Advise', 'Assess', 'Assist', 'Arrange'), prescribing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and (2) factors associated with smoking cessation care. DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases searched using 'smoking', 'pregnancy' and 'health provider practices'. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:Studies included any design except interventions (self-report, audit, observed consultations and women's reports), in English, with no date restriction, up to June 2017. PARTICIPANTS:Health providers of any profession. DATA EXTRACTION, APPRAISAL AND ANALYSIS:Data were extracted, then appraised with the Hawker tool. Meta-analyses pooled percentages for performing each of the 5As and prescribing NRT, using, for example, 'often/always' and 'always/all'. Meta-regressions were performed of 5As for 'often/always'. RESULTS:Of 3933 papers, 54 were included (n=29?225 participants): 33 for meta-analysis. Health providers included general practitioners, obstetricians, midwives and others from 10 countries. Pooled percentages of studies reporting practices 'often/always' were: 'Ask' (n=9) 91.6% (95% CI 88.2% to 95%); 'Advise' (n=7) 90% (95% CI 72.5% to 99.3%), 'Assess' (n=3) 79.2% (95% CI 76.5% to 81.8%), 'Assist (cessation support)' (n=5) 59.1% (95% CI 56% to 62.2%), 'Arrange (referral)' (n=6) 33.3% (95% CI 20.4% to 46.2%) and 'prescribing NRT' (n=6) 25.4% (95% CI 12.8% to 38%). Heterogeneity (I2) was 95.9%-99.1%. Meta-regressions for 'Arrange' were significant for year (p=0.013) and country (p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS:Health providers 'Ask', 'Advise' and 'Assess' most pregnant women about smoking. 'Assist', 'Arrange' and 'prescribing NRT' are reported at lower rates: strategies to improve these should be considered. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42015029989.
Project description:Clinical practice guidelines recommend that clinicians implement the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) for smoking cessation at every clinical encounter. We sought to examine the prevalence of patient- and clinician-reported 5As in two primary care and one HIV care clinics in San Francisco, California between August 2013 and March 2014 (n = 462 patients and n = 61 clinicians). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with receipt of the 5As, adjusting for patient demographics, patient insurance, clinic site, patient tobacco use, and patient comorbidities. The patient-reported prevalence of 5As receipt was as follows: Ask, 49.9%; Advise, 47.2%; Assess, 40.6%; any Assist, 44.9%; and Arrange, 22.4%. In multivariable analysis, receipt of Advise, Assess, and Assist were associated with older patient age. Whereas patients with HIV had a lower odds of reporting being advised (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) or assessed for readiness to quit (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), patients with pulmonary diseases had higher odds of reporting being assisted (AOR 1.6, 95% 1.0-2.6) than patients without these diagnoses. Although the majority of clinicians reported asking (91.8%), advising (91.8%), and assessing (93.4%) tobacco use 'most of the time' or 'always' during a clinical encounter, fewer reported assisting (65.7%) or arranging (19.7%) follow-up. Only half of patients reported being screened for tobacco use and fewer reported receipt of the other 5As, with significant disparities in receipt of the 5As among patients with HIV. Our findings confirm the need for interventions to increase clinician-delivered cessation treatment in primary and HIV care.
Project description:We assessed whether smoking cessation improved among pregnant smokers who attended Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics trained to implement a brief smoking cessation counseling intervention, the 5As: ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange.In Ohio, staff in 38 WIC clinics were trained to deliver the 5As from 2006 through 2010. Using 2005-2011 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System data, we performed conditional logistic regression, stratified on clinic, to estimate the relationship between women's exposure to the 5As and the odds of self-reported quitting during pregnancy. Reporting bias for quitting was assessed by examining whether differences in infants' birth weight by quit status differed by clinic training status.Of 71,526 pregnant smokers at WIC enrollment, 23% quit. Odds of quitting were higher among women who attended a clinic after versus before clinic staff was trained (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). The adjusted mean infant birth weight was, on average, 96 g higher among women who reported quitting (P<0.0001), regardless of clinic training status.Training all Ohio WIC clinics to deliver the 5As may promote quitting among pregnant smokers, and thus is an important strategy to improve maternal and child health outcomes.
Project description:Background: Smoke-free hospital policies are becoming increasingly common to promote good health and quit attempts among patients who smoke. This study aims to assess: staff perceived enforcement and compliance with smoke-free policy; the current provision of smoking cessation care; and the characteristics of staff most likely to report provision of care to patients. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of medical, nursing, and allied staff from two Australian public hospitals was conducted. Staff report of: patient and staff compliance with smoke-free policy; perceived policy enforcement; the provision of the 5As for smoking cessation (Ask, Assess, Advise, Assist, and Arrange follow-up); and the provision of stop-smoking medication are described. Logistic regressions were used to determine respondent characteristics related to the provision of the 5As and stop-smoking medication use during hospital admission. Results: A total of 805 respondents participated. Self-reported enforcement of smoke-free policy was low (60.9%), together with compliance for both patients (12.9%) and staff (23.6%). The provision of smoking cessation care was variable, with the delivery of the 5As ranging from 74.7% (ask) to 18.1% (arrange follow-up). Medical staff (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, CI = 1.13, 3.85, p = 0.018) and full time employees (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.06, 3.89, p = 0.033) were more likely to provide smoking cessation care always/most of the time. Stop-smoking medication provision decreased with increasing age of staff (OR = 0.98, CI = 0.96, 0.99, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Smoke-free policy enforcement and compliance and the provision of smoking cessation care remains low in hospitals. Efforts to improve smoking cessation delivery by clinical staff are warranted.
Project description:Smartphone technology is ideally suited to provide tailored smoking cessation support, yet it is unclear to what extent currently existing smartphone "apps" use tailoring, and if tailoring is related to app popularity and user-rated quality.We conducted a content analysis of Android smoking cessation apps (n = 225), downloaded between October 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014. We recorded app popularity (>10,000 downloads) and user-rated quality (number of stars) from Google Play, and coded the existence of tailoring features in the apps within the context of using the 5As ("ask," "advise," "assess," "assist," and "arrange follow-up"), as recommended by national clinical practice guidelines.Apps largely provided simplistic tools (eg, calculators, trackers), and used tailoring sparingly: on average, apps addressed 2.1 ± 0.9 of the 5As and used tailoring for 0.7 ± 0.9 of the 5As. Tailoring was positively related to app popularity and user-rated quality: apps that used two-way interactions (odds ratio [OR] = 5.56 [2.45-12.62]), proactive alerts (OR = 3.80 [1.54-9.38]), responsiveness to quit status (OR = 5.28 [2.18-12.79]), addressed more of the 5As (OR = 1.53 [1.10-2.14]), used tailoring for more As (OR = 1.67 [1.21-2.30]), and/or used more ways of tailoring 5As content (OR = 1.35 [1.13-1.62]) were more likely to be frequently downloaded. Higher star ratings were associated with a higher number of 5As addressed (b = 0.16 [0.03-0.30]), a higher number of 5As with any level of tailoring (b = 0.14 [0.01-0.27]), and a higher number of ways of tailoring 5As content (b = 0.08 [0.002-0.15]).Publically available smartphone smoking cessation apps are not particularly "smart": they commonly fall short of providing tailored feedback, despite users' preference for these features.
Project description:Tobacco consumption is a risk factor for chronic diseases and worldwide around six million people die from long-term exposure to first- or second-hand smoke annually. One effective approach to tobacco control is smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians. However, research suggests that smoking cessation counseling is not sufficiently implemented in primary care. In order to understand and address the discrepancy between evidence and practice, an overview of counseling practices is needed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review is to assess the frequency of smoking cessation counseling in primary care. Self-reported counseling behavior by physicians is categorized according to the 5A's strategy (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange). An electronic database search was performed in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library and overall, 3491 records were identified. After duplicates were removed, the title and abstracts of 2468 articles were screened for eligibility according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. The remaining 97 full-text articles reporting smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians were assessed for eligibility. Eligible studies were those that measured physicians' self-reported smoking cessation counseling activities via questionnaire. Thirty-five articles were included in the final review (1 intervention and 34 cross-sectional studies). On average, behavior corresponding to the 5A's was reported by 65% of physicians for "Ask", 63% for "Advise", 36% for "Assess", 44% for "Assist", and 22% of physicians for "Arrange", although the measurement and reporting of each of these counseling practices varied across studies. Overall, the results indicate that the first strategies (ask, advise) were more frequently reported than the subsequent strategies (assess, assist, arrange). Moreover, there was considerable variation in the items used to assess counseling behaviour and developing a standardized instrument to assess the counseling strategies implemented in primary care would help to identify and address current gaps in practice.
Project description:The focus on acute care, time pressure, and lack of resources hamper the delivery of smoking cessation interventions in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to 1) determine the effect of an emergency nurse-initiated intervention on delivery of smoking cessation counseling based on the 5As framework (ask-advise-assess-assist-arrange) and 2) assess ED nurses' and physicians' perceptions of smoking cessation counseling.The authors conducted a pre-post trial in 789 adult smokers (five or more cigarettes/day) who presented to two EDs. The intervention focused on improving delivery of the 5As by ED nurses and physicians and included face-to-face training and an online tutorial, use of a charting/reminder tool, fax referral of motivated smokers to the state tobacco quitline for proactive telephone counseling, and group feedback to ED staff. To assess ED performance of cessation counseling, a telephone interview of subjects was conducted shortly after the ED visit. Nurses' and physicians' self-efficacy, role satisfaction, and attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling were assessed by survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the intervention on performance of the 5As, while adjusting for key covariates.Of 650 smokers who completed the post-ED interview, a greater proportion had been asked about smoking by an ED nurse (68% vs. 53%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3 to 2.9), assessed for willingness to quit (31% vs. 9%, adjusted OR= 4.9, 95% CI = 2.9 to 7.9), and assisted in quitting (23% vs. 6%, adjusted OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 2.7 to 9.5) and had arrangements for follow-up cessation counseling (7% vs. 1%, adjusted OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 2.3 to 21) during the intervention compared to the baseline period. A similar increase was observed for emergency physicians (EPs). ED nurses' self-efficacy and role satisfaction in cessation counseling significantly improved following the intervention; however, there was no change in "pros" and "cons" attitudes toward smoking cessation in either ED nurses or physicians.Emergency department nurses and physicians can effectively deliver smoking cessation counseling to smokers in a time-efficient manner. This trial also provides empirical support for expert recommendations that call for nursing staff to play a larger role in delivering public health interventions in the ED.
Project description:Background: This study aimed to understand dentists' perspective of the environmental determinants which positively or negatively influence the implementation of Canadian smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (5As: Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) in private dental clinics in Quebec. Methods: This study used a qualitative design and an integrative conceptual framework composed of three theoretical perspectives. Data collection was conducted in individual semi-directed interviews with 20 private dentists lasting between 35 and 45 min. The audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim, followed by a directed content analysis. Results: Some of the barriers identified to counselling in smoking cessation were lack of time, patient attitude, lack of prescription of nicotine replacement therapies, lack of reimbursement, and the lack of training of the dental team. Enablers cited by participants were the style of dentist's leadership, the availability of community, human and material resources, the perception of counselling as a professional duty, and the culture of dental medicine. In addition to these variables, dentists' attitude and behaviour were affected by different organisations giving initial or continual training to dentists, governmental policies, and the compatibility of Canadian smoking cessation guidelines with the practice of dentistry. Conclusion: Our findings will inform the development of smoking cessation interventions in dental healthcare settings.
Project description:The 5As for smoking cessation is an evidence-based intervention to aid providers in counseling patients to quit smoking. While most providers "ask" patients about their tobacco use patterns and "advise" them to quit, fewer patients report being "assessed" for their interest in quitting, and even fewer report subsequent "assistance" in a quit attempt and having follow-up "arranged".This article describes the design of an implementation study testing a computer tablet intervention to improve provider adherence to the 5As for smoking cessation. Findings will contribute to the existing literature on technology acceptance for addressing addictive behaviors, and how digital tools may facilitate the broader implementation of evidence-based behavioral counseling practices without adversely affecting clinical flow or patient care.This project develops and tests a computer-facilitated 5As (CF-5As) model that administers the 5As intervention to patients with a computer tablet, then prompts providers to reinforce next steps. During the development phase, 5As' content will be programmed onto computer tablets, alpha and beta-testing of the service delivery model will be done, and pre-intervention interview and questionnaire data will be collected from patients, providers, and clinic staff about 5As fidelity and technology adoption. During the program evaluation phase, a randomized controlled trial comparing a group who receives the CF-5As intervention to one that does not will be conducted to assess 5As fidelity. Using the technology acceptance model, a mixed methods study of contextual and human factors influencing both 5As and technology adoption will also be conducted.Technology is increasingly being used in clinical settings. A technological tool that connects patients, providers, and clinic staff to facilitate the promotion of behavioral interventions such as smoking cessation may provide an innovative platform through which to efficiently and effectively implement evidence-based practices.