Hypotension and reduced nitric oxide-elicited vasorelaxation in transgenic mice overexpressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO), constitutively produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing bovine eNOS in the vascular wall using murine preproendothelin-1 promoter. In transgenic lineages with three to eight transgene copies, bovine eNOS-specific mRNA, protein expression in the particulate fractions, and calcium-dependent NOS activity were confirmed by RNase protection assay, immunoblotting, and L-arginine/citrulline conversion. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that eNOS protein was predominantly localized in the endothelial cells of aorta, heart, and lung. Blood pressure was significantly lower in eNOS-overexpressing mice than in control littermates. In the transgenic aorta, basal NO release (estimated by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-induced facilitation of the contraction by prostaglandin F2alpha) and basal cGMP levels (measured by enzyme immunoassay) were significantly increased. In contrast, relaxations of transgenic aorta in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were significantly attenuated, and the reduced vascular reactivity was associated with reduced response of cGMP elevation to these agents as compared with control aortas. Thus, our novel mouse model of chronic eNOS overexpression demonstrates that, in addition to the essential role of eNOS in blood pressure regulation, tonic NO release by eNOS in the endothelium induces the reduced vascular reactivity to NO-mediated vasodilators, providing several insights into the pathogenesis of nitrate tolerance.
Project description:AIMS:Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial cells (ECs) exert important functions in the regulation of blood pressure. A novel gene, IC53, as an isoform of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-binding protein gene C53, is mainly expressed in vascular ECs and is upregulated in the failing heart of rats. Overexpression of IC53 promotes proliferation of ECs. To examine whether IC53 plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure, we constructed a transgenic (tg) mouse model of the IC53 gene and studied its phenotypes relevant to vascular function. METHODS AND RESULTS:IC53 cDNA was cloned from a human aorta cDNA library. Using the endothelium-specific VE-cadherin promoter, we constructed tg mice in which IC53 was specifically overexpressed in vascular endothelia and found that the tg mice exhibit elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in contrast to the wild-type (wt) controls. Further studies revealed impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, reduced nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression, and activity in the tg mice. Inhibition of IC53 in human umbilical vein ECs induces upregulation of eNOS activity. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that IC53 participates in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. Endothelium-specific overexpression of IC53 is associated with elevated SBP, which may be in part attributed to the downregulation of eNOS signalling.
Project description:Chlorine gas (Cl(2)) exposure during accidents or in the military setting results primarily in injury to the lungs. However, the potential for Cl(2) exposure to promote injury to the systemic vasculature leading to compromised vascular function has not been studied. We hypothesized that Cl(2) promotes extrapulmonary endothelial dysfunction characterized by a loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived signaling. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to Cl(2) for 30 minutes, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation of aorta as a function of Cl(2) dose (0-400 ppm) and time after exposure (0-48 h) were determined. Exposure to Cl(2) (250-400 ppm) significantly inhibited eNOS-dependent vasodilation (stimulated by acetycholine) at 24 to 48 hours after exposure without affecting constriction responses to phenylephrine or vasodilation responses to an NO donor, suggesting decreased NO formation. Consistent with this hypothesis, eNOS protein expression was significantly decreased (? 60%) in aorta isolated from Cl(2)-exposed versus air-exposed rats. Moreover, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was up-regulated in circulating leukocytes and aorta isolated 24 hours after Cl(2) exposure, suggesting stimulation of inflammation in the systemic vasculature. Despite decreased eNOS expression and activity, no changes in mean arterial blood pressure were observed. However, injection of 1400W, a selective inhibitor of iNOS, increased mean arterial blood pressure only in Cl(2)-exposed animals, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO compensates for decreased eNOS-derived NO. These results highlight the potential for Cl(2) exposure to promote postexposure systemic endothelial dysfunction via disruption of vascular NO homeostasis mechanisms.
Project description:Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is a complex process that warrants cell migration, proliferation, tip cell formation, ring formation, and finally tube formation. Angiogenesis is initiated by a single leader endothelial cell called "tip cell," followed by vessel elongation by "stalk cells." Tip cells are characterized by their long filopodial extensions and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and endocan. Although nitric oxide (NO) is an important modulator of angiogenesis, its role in angiogenic sprouting and specifically in tip cell formation is poorly understood. The present study tested the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling in tip cell formation. In primary endothelial cell culture, about 40% of the tip cells showed characteristic sub-cellular localization of eNOS toward the anterior progressive end of the tip cells, and eNOS became phosphorylated at serine 1177. Loss of eNOS suppressed tip cell formation. Live cell NO imaging demonstrated approximately 35% more NO in tip cells compared with stalk cells. Tip cells showed increased level of cGMP relative to stalk cells. Further, the dissection of NO downstream signaling using pharmacological inhibitors and inducers indicates that NO uses the sGC/cGMP pathway in tip cells to lead angiogenesis. Taken together, the present study confirms that eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling defines the direction of tip cell migration and thereby initiates new blood vessel formation.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a unique gasotransmitter, with regulatory roles in the cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Some of the vascular actions of H(2)S (stimulation of angiogenesis, relaxation of vascular smooth muscle) resemble those of nitric oxide (NO). Although it was generally assumed that H(2)S and NO exert their effects via separate pathways, the results of the current study show that H(2)S and NO are mutually required to elicit angiogenesis and vasodilatation. Exposure of endothelial cells to H(2)S increases intracellular cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in a NO-dependent manner, and activated protein kinase G (PKG) and its downstream effector, the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). Inhibition of endothelial isoform of NO synthase (eNOS) or PKG-I abolishes the H(2)S-stimulated angiogenic response, and attenuated H(2)S-stimulated vasorelaxation, demonstrating the requirement of NO in vascular H(2)S signaling. Conversely, silencing of the H(2)S-producing enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase abolishes NO-stimulated cGMP accumulation and angiogenesis and attenuates the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation, indicating a partial requirement of H(2)S in the vascular activity of NO. The actions of H(2)S and NO converge at cGMP; though H(2)S does not directly activate soluble guanylyl cyclase, it maintains a tonic inhibitory effect on PDE5, thereby delaying the degradation of cGMP. H(2)S also activates PI3K/Akt, and increases eNOS phosphorylation at its activating site S1177. The cooperative action of the two gasotransmitters on increasing and maintaining intracellular cGMP is essential for PKG activation and angiogenesis and vasorelaxation. H(2)S-induced wound healing and microvessel growth in matrigel plugs is suppressed by pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of eNOS. Thus, NO and H(2)S are mutually required for the physiological control of vascular function.
Project description:Obesity is characterized by chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, which contributes to insulin resistance and diabetes. Although nitric oxide (NO) signaling has antiinflammatory effects in the vasculature, whether reduced NO contributes to adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We sought to determine whether (1) obesity induced by high-fat (HF) diet reduces endothelial nitric oxide signaling in adipose tissue, (2) reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling is sufficient to induce adipose tissue inflammation independent of diet, and (3) increased cGMP signaling can block adipose tissue inflammation induced by HF feeding.Relative to mice fed a low-fat diet, an HF diet markedly reduced phospho-eNOS and phospho-vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (phospho-VASP), markers of vascular NO signaling. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines was increased in adipose tissue of eNOS-/- mice. Conversely, enhancement of signaling downstream of NO by phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition using sildenafil attenuated HF-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression and the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue. Finally, we implicate a role for VASP, a downstream mediator of NO-cGMP signaling in mediating eNOS-induced antiinflammatory effects because VASP-/- mice recapitulated the proinflammatory phenotype displayed by eNOS-/- mice.These results imply a physiological role for endothelial NO to limit obesity-associated inflammation in adipose tissue and hence identify the NO-cGMP-VASP pathway as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes.
Project description:BPC 157-activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is associated with tissue repair and angiogenesis as reported in previous studies. However, how BPC 157 regulates the vasomotor tone and intracellular Src-Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-eNOS signaling is not yet clear. The present study demonstrated a concentration-dependent vasodilation effect of BPC 157 in isolated rat aorta. Attenuation of this vasodilation effect in the absence of endothelium suggested an endothelium-dependent vasodilation effect of BPC 157. Although slightly increased vasorelaxation in aorta without endothelium was noticed at high concentration of BPC 157, there was no direct relaxation effect on three-dimensional model made of vascular smooth muscle cells. The vasodilation effect of BPC 157 was nitric oxide mediated because the addition of L-NAME or hemoglobin inhibited the vasodilation of aorta. Nitric oxide generation was induced by BPC 157 as detected by intracellular DFA-FM DA labeling which was capable of promoting the migration of vascular endothelial cells. BPC 157 enhanced the phosphorylation of Src, Cav-1 and eNOS which was abolished by pretreatment with Src inhibitor, confirming the upstream role of Src in this signal pathway. Activation of eNOS required the released binding with Cav-1 in advance. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that BPC 157 could reduce the binding between Cav-1 and eNOS. Together, the present study demonstrates that BPC 157 can modulate the vasomotor tone of an isolated aorta in a concentration- and nitric oxide-dependent manner. BPC 157 can induce nitric oxide generation likely through the activation of Src-Cav-1-eNOS pathway.
Project description:Jujuboside B has been reported to have protective effect on many cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of Jujuboside B on vascular tension and endothelial function are unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Jujuboside B on reducing vascular tension, protecting endothelial function and the potential mechanisms. The tension of isolated rat thoracic aorta ring was measured by Wire myograph system. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were determined by Griess reagent method and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. The protein levels of eNOS and p-eNOS at Serine-1177 were determined by western blot analysis. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration in HAECs was measured by laser confocal imaging microscopy. Results showed that Jujuboside B reduced the tension of rat thoracic aorta rings with intact endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. L-NAME, KN93, EGTA, SKF96365, iberiotoxin and glibenclamide significantly attenuated Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact tissues. In contrast, indometacin and 4-DAMP had no such effects. Jujuboside B also promoted NO generation and increased eNOS activity, which were attenuated by L-NAME, EGTA and SKF96365. Moreover, Jujuboside B increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration dose-dependently, which was inhibited by EGTA and SKF96365. Besides, Jujuboside B induced a rapid Ca2+ influx instantaneously after depleting intracellular Ca2+ store, which was significantly inhibited by SKF96365. In conclusion, this study preliminarily confirmed that Jujuboside B reduced vascular tension endothelium-dependently. The underlying mechanisms involved that Jujuboside B increased extracellular Ca2+ influx through endothelial transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, phosphorylated eNOS and promoted NO generation in vascular endothelial cells. In addition, Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation involved endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizaiton through endothelial potassium channels. Jujuboside B is a natural compound with new pharmacological effects on improving endothelial dysfunction and treating vascular diseases.
Project description:RATIONALE:Endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic feature of diabetes and obesity in animal models and humans. Deficits in nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are associated with insulin resistance, which is exacerbated by high-fat diet. Nevertheless, the metabolic effects of increasing eNOS levels have not been studied. OBJECTIVE:The current study was designed to test whether overexpression of eNOS would prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS:In db/db mice and in high-fat diet-fed wild-type C57BL/6J mice, the abundance of eNOS protein in adipose tissue was decreased without significant changes in eNOS levels in skeletal muscle or aorta. Mice overexpressing eNOS (eNOS transgenic mice) were resistant to diet-induced obesity and hyperinsulinemia, although systemic glucose intolerance remained largely unaffected. In comparison with wild-type mice, high-fat diet-fed eNOS transgenic mice displayed a higher metabolic rate and attenuated hypertrophy of white adipocytes. Overexpression of eNOS did not affect food consumption or diet-induced changes in plasma cholesterol or leptin levels, yet plasma triglycerides and fatty acids were decreased. Metabolomic analysis of adipose tissue indicated that eNOS overexpression primarily affected amino acid and lipid metabolism; subpathway analysis suggested changes in fatty acid oxidation. In agreement with these findings, adipose tissue from eNOS transgenic mice showed higher levels of PPAR-? and PPAR-? gene expression, elevated abundance of mitochondrial proteins, and a higher rate of oxygen consumption. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate that increased eNOS activity prevents the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet without affecting systemic insulin resistance, in part, by stimulating metabolic activity in adipose tissue.
Project description:We present a biochemical model of the wall shear stress-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in an endothelial cell. The model includes three key mechanotransducers: mechanosensing ion channels, integrins, and G protein-coupled receptors. The reaction cascade consists of two interconnected parts. The first is rapid activation of calcium, which results in formation of calcium-calmodulin complexes, followed by recruitment of eNOS from caveolae. The second is phosphorylation of eNOS by protein kinases PKC and AKT. The model also includes a negative feedback loop due to inhibition of calcium influx into the cell by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In this feedback, increased nitric oxide (NO) levels cause an increase in cGMP levels, so that cGMP inhibition of calcium influx can limit NO production. The model was used to predict the dynamics of NO production by an endothelial cell subjected to a step increase of wall shear stress from zero to a finite physiologically relevant value. Among several experimentally observed features, the model predicts a highly nonlinear, biphasic transient behavior of eNOS activation and NO production: a rapid initial activation due to the very rapid influx of calcium into the cytosol (occurring within 1-5 min) is followed by a sustained period of activation due to protein kinases.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a central role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis by controlling NO bioavailability. The activity of eNOS in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) largely depends on posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation. Because the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in ECs can be increased by multiple cardiovascular events, we studied the phosphorylation of eNOS Ser633 by AMPK and examined its functional relevance in the mouse models. Shear stress, atorvastatin, and adiponectin all increased AMPK Thr172 and eNOS Ser633 phosphorylations, which were abolished if AMPK was pharmacologically inhibited or genetically ablated. The constitutively active form of AMPK or an AMPK agonist caused a sustained Ser633 phosphorylation. Expression of gain-/loss-of-function eNOS mutants revealed that Ser633 phosphorylation is important for NO production. The aorta of AMPKalpha2(-/-) mice showed attenuated atorvastatin-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) confirmed that eNOS Ser633 was able to compete with Ser1177 or acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase Ser79 for AMPKalpha phosphorylation. Nano-LC/MS/MS confirmed that eNOS purified from AICAR-treated ECs was phosphorylated at both Ser633 and Ser1177. Our results indicate that AMPK phosphorylation of eNOS Ser633 is a functional signaling event for NO bioavailability in ECs.