Novel AE1 mutations in recessive distal renal tubular acidosis. Loss-of-function is rescued by glycophorin A.
ABSTRACT: The AE1 gene encodes band 3 Cl-/HCO3- exchangers that are expressed both in the erythrocyte and in the acid-secreting, type A intercalated cells of the kidney. Kidney AE1 contributes to urinary acidification by providing the major exit route for HCO3- across the basolateral membrane. Several AE1 mutations cosegregate with dominantly transmitted nonsyndromic renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, the modest degree of in vitro hypofunction exhibited by these dRTA-associated mutations fails to explain the disease phenotype in light of the normal urinary acidification associated with the complete loss-of-function exhibited by AE1 mutations linked to dominant spherocytosis. We report here novel AE1 mutations linked to a recessive syndrome of dRTA and hemolytic anemia in which red cell anion transport is normal. Both affected individuals were triply homozygous for two benign mutations M31T and K56E and for the loss-of-function mutation, G701D. AE1 G701D loss-of-function was accompanied by impaired trafficking to the Xenopus oocyte surface. Coexpression with AE1 G701D of the erythroid AE1 chaperonin, glycophorin A, rescued both AE1-mediated Cl- transport and AE1 surface expression in oocytes. The genetic and functional data both suggest that the homozygous AE1 G701D mutation causes recessively transmitted dRTA in this kindred with apparently normal erythroid anion transport.
Project description:All affected patients in four families with autosomal dominant familial renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) were heterozygous for mutations in their red cell HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, band 3 (AE1, SLC4A1) genes, and these mutations were not found in any of the nine normal family members studied. The mutation Arg589--> His was present in two families, while Arg589--> Cys and Ser613--> Phe changes were found in the other families. Linkage studies confirmed the co-segregation of the disease with a genetic marker close to AE1. The affected individuals with the Arg589 mutations had reduced red cell sulfate transport and altered glycosylation of the red cell band 3 N-glycan chain. The red cells of individuals with the Ser613--> Phe mutation had markedly increased red cell sulfate transport but almost normal red cell iodide transport. The erythroid and kidney isoforms of the mutant band 3 proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and all showed significant chloride transport activity. We conclude that dominantly inherited dRTA is associated with mutations in band 3; but both the disease and its autosomal dominant inheritance are not related simply to the anion transport activity of the mutant proteins.
Project description:Various conditions including distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can induce stone formation in the kidney. dRTA is characterized by an impairment of urine acidification in the distal nephron. dRTA is caused by variations in genes functioning in intercalated cells including SLC4A1/AE1/Band3 transcribing two kinds of mRNAs encoding the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in erythrocytes and that expressed in α-intercalated cells (kAE1). With the acid-loading test, 25% of urolithiasis patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA. In erythroid intron 3 containing the promoter region of kAE1, rs999716 SNP showed a significantly higher minor allele A frequency in incomplete dRTA compared with non-dRTA patients. The promoter regions of the kAE1 gene with the minor allele A at rs999716 downstream of the TATA box showed reduced promoter activities compared that with the major allele G. Patients with the A allele at rs999716 may express less kAE1 mRNA and protein in the intercalated cells, developing incomplete dRTA.
Project description:Anion Exchanger 1 (AE1) and stomatin are integral proteins of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane. Erythroid and kidney AE1 play a major role in HCO3- and Cl- exchange. Stomatins down-regulate the activity of many channels and transporters. Biochemical studies suggested an interaction of erythroid AE1 with stomatin. Moreover, we previously reported normal AE1 expression level in stomatin-deficient RBCs. Here, the ability of stomatin to modulate AE1-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchange was evaluated using stopped-flow methods. In HEK293 cells expressing recombinant AE1 and stomatin, the permeabilities associated with AE1 activity were 30% higher in cells overexpressing stomatin, compared to cells with only endogenous stomatin expression. Ghosts from stomatin-deficient RBCs and controls were resealed in the presence of pH- or chloride-sensitive fluorescent probes and submitted to inward HCO3- and outward Cl- gradients. From alkalinization rate constants, we deduced a 47% decreased permeability to HCO3- for stomatin-deficient patients. Similarly, kinetics of Cl- efflux, followed by the probe dequenching, revealed a significant 42% decrease in patients. In situ Proximity Ligation Assays confirmed an interaction of AE1 with stomatin, in both HEK recombinant cells and RBCs. Here we show that stomatin modulates the transport activity of AE1 through a direct protein-protein interaction.
Project description:Autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare disorder caused by a mutation in the AE1 gene encoding the chloride-bicarbonate (Cl-/HCO3-) anion exchanger 1 (AE1). Most patients with this disorder present with clinical symptoms in adulthood and their phenotype is milder than that of those with autosomal recessive dRTA. In this report, we describe a Japanese family with autosomal dominant dRTA in which the mother and her daughter presented with severe symptoms caused by hypokalemia at 2 years of age. The heterozygous AE1 mutation G609R, which is a known causative mutation of dRTA, was identified in both patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Japanese family with autosomal dominant type dRTA caused by an AE1 mutation. We, therefore, propose that alterations of AE1 should be considered causative of autosomal dominant dRTA even if typical symptoms appear during early childhood and the clinical features are severe.
Project description:Distal nephron acid secretion is mediated by highly specialized type A intercalated cells (A-ICs), which contain vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-type ATPase)-rich vesicles that fuse with the apical plasma membrane on demand. Intracellular bicarbonate generated by luminal H+ secretion is removed by the basolateral anion-exchanger AE1. Chronically reduced renal acid excretion in distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) may lead to nephrocalcinosis and renal failure. Studies in MDCK monolayers led to the proposal of a dominant-negative trafficking mechanism to explain AE1-associated dominant dRTA. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated an Ae1 R607H knockin mouse, which corresponds to the most common dominant dRTA mutation in human AE1, R589H. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous and homozygous R607H knockin mice displayed incomplete dRTA characterized by compensatory upregulation of the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1. Red blood cell Ae1-mediated anion-exchange activity and surface polypeptide expression did not change. Mutant mice expressed far less Ae1 in A-ICs, but basolateral targeting of the mutant protein was preserved. Notably, mutant mice also exhibited reduced expression of V-type ATPase and compromised targeting of this proton pump to the plasma membrane upon acid challenge. Accumulation of p62- and ubiquitin-positive material in A-ICs of knockin mice suggested a defect in the degradative pathway, which may explain the observed loss of A-ICs. R607H knockin did not affect type B intercalated cells. We propose that reduced basolateral anion-exchange activity in A-ICs inhibits trafficking and regulation of V-type ATPase, compromising luminal H+ secretion and possibly lysosomal acidification.
Project description:Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by impaired distal acidification due to a failure of type A intercalated cells (A-ICs) in the collecting tubule. dRTA is characterized by persistent hyperchloremia, a normal plasma anion gap, and the inability to maximally lower urinary pH in the presence of systemic metabolic acidosis. Common clinical features of dRTA include vomiting, failure to thrive, polyuria, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, growth delay, and rickets. Mutations in genes encoding three distinct transport proteins in A-ICs have been identified as causes of dRTA, including the B1/ATP6V1B1 and a4/ATP6V0A4 subunits of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (H+-ATPase) and the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger AE1/SLC4A1. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 lead to autosomal recessive (AR) dRTA. dRTA caused by SLC4A1 mutations can occur with either autosomal dominant or AR transmission. Red blood cell abnormalities have been associated with AR dRTA due to SLC4A1 mutations, including hereditary spherocytosis, Southeast Asia ovalocytosis, and others. Some patients with dRTA exhibit atypical clinical features, including transient and reversible proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperammonemia. Incomplete dRTA presents with inadequate urinary acidification, but without spontaneous metabolic acidosis and recurrent urinary stones. Heterozygous mutations in the AE1 or H+-ATPase genes have recently been reported in patients with incomplete dRTA. Early and sufficient doses of alkali treatment are needed for patients with dRTA. Normalized serum bicarbonate, urinary calcium excretion, urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels, and growth rate are good markers of adherence to and/or efficacy of treatment. The prognosis of dRTA is generally good in patients with appropriate treatment. However, recent studies showed an increased frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with dRTA during long-term follow-up. The precise pathogenic mechanisms of CKD in patients with dRTA are unknown.
Project description:Autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) has been associated with several mutations in the anion exchanger AE1 gene. The effect of an 11-amino-acid C-terminal dRTA truncation mutation (901 stop) on the expression of kidney AE1 (kAE1) and erythroid AE1 was examined in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. Unlike the wild-type proteins, kAE1 901 stop and AE1 901 stop mutants exhibited impaired trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane as determined by immunolocalization, cell-surface biotinylation, oligosaccharide processing and pulse-chase experiments. The 901 stop mutants were able to bind to an inhibitor affinity resin, suggesting that these mutant membrane proteins were not grossly misfolded. Co-expression of wild-type and mutant kAE1 or AE1 resulted in intracellular retention of the wild-type proteins in a pre-medial Golgi compartment. This dominant negative effect was due to hetero-oligomer formation of the mutant and wild-type proteins. Intracellular retention of kAE1 in the alpha-intercalated cells of the kidney would account for the impaired acid secretion into the urine characteristic of dRTA.
Project description:We describe three mutations of the red-cell anion exchangerband 3 (AE1, SLC4A1) gene associated with distalrenal tubular acidosis (dRTA) in families from Malaysia and Papua NewGuinea: Gly(701)-->Asp (G701D), Ala(858)-->Asp(A858D) and deletion of Val(850) (DeltaV850). The mutationsA858D and DeltaV850 are novel; all three mutations seem to berestricted to South-East Asian populations. South-East Asianovalocytosis (SAO), resulting from the band 3 deletion of residues400-408, occurred in many of the families but did not itselfresult in dRTA. Compound heterozygotes of each of the dRTA mutationswith SAO all had dRTA, evidence of haemolytic anaemia and abnormal red-cell properties. The A858D mutation showed dominant inheritance and therecessive DeltaV850 and G701D mutations showed a pseudo-dominantphenotype when the transport-inactive SAO allele was also present. Red-cell and Xenopus oocyte expression studies showed that theDeltaV850 and A858D mutant proteins have greatly decreased aniontransport when present as compound heterozygotes (DeltaV850/A858D,DeltaV850/SAO or A858D/SAO). Red cells with A858D/SAO had only 3% ofthe SO(4)(2-) efflux of normal cells, thelowest anion transport activity so far reported for human red cells. The results suggest dRTA might arise by a different mechanism for eachmutation. We confirm that the G701D mutant protein has an absoluterequirement for glycophorin A for movement to the cell surface. Wesuggest that the dominant A858D mutant protein is possibly mis-targetedto an inappropriate plasma membrane domain in the renal tubular cell,and that the recessive DeltaV850 mutation might give dRTA because ofits decreased anion transport activity.
Project description:We report the novel, heterozygous AE1 mutation R730C associated with dominant, overhydrated, cation leak stomatocytosis and well-compensated anemia. Parallel elevations of red blood cell cation leak and ouabain-sensitive Na(+) efflux (pump activity) were apparently unaccompanied by increased erythroid cation channel-like activity, and defined ouabain-insensitive Na(+) efflux pathways of nystatin-treated cells were reduced. Epitope-tagged AE1 R730C at the Xenopus laevis oocyte surface exhibited severely reduced Cl(-) transport insensitive to rescue by glycophorin A (GPA) coexpression or by methanethiosulfonate (MTS) treatment. AE1 mutant R730K preserved Cl(-) transport activity, but R730 substitution with I, E, or H inactivated Cl(-) transport. AE1 R730C expression substantially increased endogenous oocyte Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-mediated (86)Rb(+) influx, but ouabain-insensitive flux was minimally increased and GPA-insensitive. The reduced AE1 R730C-mediated sulfate influx did not exhibit the wild-type pattern of stimulation by acidic extracellular pH (pH(o)) and, unexpectedly, was partially rescued by exposure to sodium 2-sulfonatoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) but not to 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate hydrobromide (MTSEA) or 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET). AE1 R730E correspondingly exhibited acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake at rates exceeding those of wild-type AE1 and AE1 R730K, whereas mutants R730I and R730H were inactive and pH(o) insensitive. MTSES-treated oocytes expressing AE1 R730C and untreated oocytes expressing AE1 R730E also exhibited unprecedented stimulation of Cl(-) influx by acid pH(o). Thus recombinant cation-leak stomatocytosis mutant AE1 R730C exhibits severely reduced anion transport unaccompanied by increased Rb(+) and Li(+) influxes. Selective rescue of acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake and conferral of acid pH(o)-stimulated Cl(-) influx, by AE1 R730E and MTSES-treated R730C, define residue R730 as critical to selectivity and regulation of anion transport by AE1.
Project description:Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a membrane glycoprotein found in erythrocytes and as a truncated form (kAE1) in the BLM (basolateral membrane) of a-intercalated cells of the distal nephron, where they carry out electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange. SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) is a dominant inherited haematological condition arising from deletion of Ala400-Ala408 in AE1, resulting in a misfolded and transport-inactive protein present in the ovalocyte membrane. Heterozygotes with SAO are able to acidify their urine, without symptoms of dRTA (distal renal tubular acidosis) that can be associated with mutations in kAE1. We examined the effect of the SAO deletion on stability and trafficking of AE1 and kAE1 in transfected HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and kAE1 in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells. In HEK-293 cells, expression levels and stabilities of SAO proteins were significantly reduced, and no mutant protein was detected at the cell surface. The intracellular retention of AE1 SAO in transfected HEK-293 cells suggests that erythroid-specific factors lacking in HEK-293 cells may be required for cell-surface expression. Although misfolded, SAO proteins could form heterodimers with the normal proteins, as well as homodimers. In MDCK cells, kAE1 was localized to the cell surface or the BLM after polarization, while kAE1 SAO was retained intracellularly. When kAE1 SAO was co-expressed with kAE1 in MDCK cells, kAE1 SAO was largely retained intracellularly; however, it also co-localized with kAE1 at the cell surface. We propose that, in the kidney of heterozygous SAO patients, dimers of kAE1 and heterodimers of kAE1 SAO and kAE1 traffic to the BLM of a-intercalated cells, while homodimers of kAE1 SAO are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. This results in sufficient cell-surface expression of kAE1 to maintain adequate bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion without dRTA.