Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibition protects cardiomyocytes from inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by structural alterations such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, necrosis and focal fibrosis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme which can be activated by DNA damage and plays a critical role in various diseases. We hypothesized that PARP-1 may play an important role in DCM and that its inhibition may protect cardiomyocytes from inflammation and apoptosis in DCM. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were treated with normal glucose, mannitol or high glucose (HG). Male C57BL/6 mice or PARP-1-/- mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) by intraperitoneal injection for 5 consecutive days to induce diabetes. In vitro, HG stimulation induced oxidative stress and DNA damage and increased PARP-1 expression and activity. Compared with the control, pretreatment with PARP-1 siRNA signiï¬?cantly reduced HG-induced inflammatory response, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-6 secretion, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. PARP-1 inhibition reduced HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through downregulation of cleaved caspases and activation of IGF-1R/Akt pathway. In vivo, hyperglycemia increased the protein expression of nitrotyrosine and PARP-1 as well as PARP-1 activity. PARP-1 gene deletion significantly improved cardiac dysfunction and reduced inflammatory response and apoptosis. This work demonstrated the critical role of PARP-1 in diabetic heart injury, and suggested that PARP-1 inhibition may be a feasible strategy for the treatment of DCM.
Project description:Bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) is a tumour suppressor that is known to regulate many pathological processes including cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis plays a key role in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the molecular mechanism of hyperglycaemia-induced myocardial apoptosis is still unclear. We intended to determine the role of BRD7 in high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. In vivo, we established a type 1 diabetic rat model by injecting a high-dose streptozotocin (STZ), and lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to inhibit BRD7 expression. Rats with DCM exhibited severe myocardial remodelling, fibrosis, left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial apoptosis. The expression of BRD7 was up-regulated in the heart of diabetic rats, and inhibition of BRD7 had beneficial effects against diabetes-induced heart damage. In vitro, H9c2 cardiomyoblasts was used to investigate the mechanism of BRD7 in HG-induced apoptosis. Treating H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with HG elevated the level of BRD7 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and increased ER stress-induced apoptosis by detecting spliced/active X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Furthermore, down-regulation of BRD7 attenuated HG-induced expression of CHOP via inhibiting nuclear translocation of XBP-1s without affecting the total expression of XBP-1s. In conclusion, inhibition of BRD7 appeared to protect against hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress signalling pathway.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired Ca<sup>2+</sup> handling are involved in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Dynamic relative protein 1 (Drp1) regulates mitochondrial fission by changing its level of phosphorylation, and the Orai1 (Ca<sup>2+</sup> release-activated calcium channel protein 1) calcium channel is important for the increase in Ca<sup>2+</sup> entry into cardiomyocytes. We aimed to explore the mechanism of Drp1 and Orai1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy caused by high glucose (HG). We found that Zucker diabetic fat rats induced by administration of a high-fat diet develop cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function, accompanied by the activation of mitochondrial dynamics and calcium handling pathway-related proteins. Moreover, HG induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, accompanied by abnormal mitochondrial morphology and function, and increased Orai1-mediated Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx. Mechanistically, the Drp1 inhibitor mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1) prevents cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by HG by reducing phosphorylation of Drp1 at serine 616 (S616) and increasing phosphorylation at S637. Inhibition of Orai1 with single guide RNA (sgOrai1) or an inhibitor (BTP2) not only suppressed Drp1 activity and calmodulin-binding catalytic subunit A (CnA) and phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) expression but also alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy caused by HG. In addition, the CnA inhibitor cyclosporin A and p-ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 improved HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by promoting and inhibiting phosphorylation of Drp1 at S637 and S616, respectively. In summary, we identified Drp1 as a downstream target of Orai1-mediated Ca<sup>2+</sup> entry, via activation by p-ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation at S616 or CnA-mediated dephosphorylation at S637 in DCM. Thus, the Orai1-Drp1 axis is a novel target for treating DCM.
Project description:Hyperglycemia is a well-characterized contributing factor for cardiac dysfunction and heart failure among diabetic patients. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes plays a major role during the onset and pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nonetheless, the molecular machinery underlying hyperglycemia-induced cardiac damage and cell death remains elusive. In the present study, we found that chloride channel blockers, 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'- disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), inhibited high glucose-activated volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl- channel and improved the viability of cardiomyocytes. High glucose induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by suppressing the autophagic stress, which can be reversed via blockade of VSOR Cl- channel. VSOR activation in high glucose-treated cardiomyocytes was attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, our study unraveled a role of VSOR chloride currents in impaired autophagy and increased apoptosis of high glucose-exposed cardiomyocyte, and has implications for a therapeutic potential of VSOR chloride channel blockers in DCM.
Project description:Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a complication of diabetes that can cause damage to myocardial structure and function. Metformin (Met) is a widely used type 2 diabetes treatment drug that exerts cardioprotective effects through multiple pathways. Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is a small-molecule secreted protein that plays pivotal parts in cardiomyocyte survival and angiogenesis. However, the role of Met in regulating the PK2 signaling pathway in DCM remains unclear. This experiment explored the effects of Met on high glucose (HG)-induced injury through the PK2/PKR pathway in vivo and in vitro. Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult or AKT-knockout mice were treated with HG (33 mmol/L) and PK2 or AKT1/2 kinase inhibitor (AKT inhibitor). Heart contraction properties based on cell shortening were evaluated; these properties included the resting cell length, peak shortening (PS), maximum speed of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), time to 90% relengthening (TR90), and time to peak shortening (TPS). Mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with Met to evaluate cardiac function, myocardial structure, and the PK2/PKR and AKT/GSK3? pathways. Moreover, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to HG in the absence or presence of Met with or without the PK2 antagonist PKRA7 or the AKT inhibitor, and apoptotic proteins such as Bax and Bcl-2 and the PK2/PKR and AKT/GSK3? pathways were evaluated using western blot analysis. The prolongation of TR90 and decreases in PS and ±dL/dt caused by HG were ameliorated by PK2 in cardiomyocytes, but the effects of PK2 were ameliorated or negated by the AKT inhibitor and in AKT-knockout mice. Diabetic mice showed metabolic abnormalities, aberrant myocardial enzyme levels, declines in myocardial systolic and diastolic function associated with myocardial fibrosis, and pronounced apoptosis, but these effects were greatly rescued by Met treatment. Moreover, PK2, PKR1, and PKR2 expression and p-AKT/AKT and p-GSK3?/GSK3? ratios were decreased in diabetic mice, and these decreases were attenuated by Met. Likewise, H9c2 cells exposed to HG showed reduced PK2/PKR expression and decreased p-AKT/AKT and p-GSK3?/GSK3? ratios, and these effects were nullified by Met. In addition, the effects of Met on cardiomyocytes exposed to HG were abolished after intervention with PKRA7 or the AKT inhibitor. These results suggest that Met can activate the PK2/PKR-mediated AKT/GSK3? pathway, thus improving cardiac function and alleviating apoptosis in DM mice.
Project description:Mitophagy eliminates dysfunctional mitochondria and thus plays a cardinal role in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We observed the favourable effects of melatonin on cardiomyocyte mitophagy in mice with DCM and elucidated their underlying mechanisms. Electron microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that melatonin reduced the number of impaired mitochondria in the diabetic heart. Other than decreasing mitochondrial biogenesis, melatonin increased the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria in mice with DCM. Melatonin increased LC3 II expression as well as the colocalization of mitochondria and lysosomes in HG-treated cardiomyocytes and the number of typical autophagosomes engulfing mitochondria in the DCM heart. These results indicated that melatonin promoted mitophagy. When probing the mechanism, increased Parkin translocation to the mitochondria may be responsible for the up-regulated mitophagy exerted by melatonin. Parkin knockout counteracted the beneficial effects of melatonin on the cardiac mitochondrial morphology and bioenergetic disorders, thus abolishing the substantial effects of melatonin on cardiac remodelling with DCM. Furthermore, melatonin inhibited Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) phosphorylation, thus enhancing Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which contributed to mitochondrial quality control. In summary, this study confirms that melatonin rescues the impaired mitophagy activity of DCM. The underlying mechanism may be attributed to activation of Parkin translocation via inhibition of Mst1.
Project description:We previously established a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and found that the expression of long non-coding RNA myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) was significantly upregulated. The present study was aimed to determine the pathologic role of MIAT in the development of DCM. MIAT knockdown was found to reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve left ventricular function in diabetic rats. High glucose could increase MIAT expression and induce apoptosis in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. The results of luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay revealed that MIAT was targeted by miR-22-3p in an AGO2-dependent manner. In addition, the 3'-untranslated region of DAPK2 was fused to the luciferase coding region and transfected into HEK293 cells with miR-22-3p mimic, and the results showed that DAPK2 was a direct target of miR-22-3p. Our findings also indicated that MIAT overexpression could counteract the inhibitory effect of miR-22-3p on DAPK2. Moreover, MIAT knockdown was found to reduce DAPK2 expression and inhibit apoptosis in cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that MIAT may function as a competing endogenous RNA to upregulate DAPK2 expression by sponging miR-22-3p, which consequently leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis involved in the pathogenesis of DCM.
Project description:Recent studies reported that atorvastatin (ATOR) alleviated progression of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), possibly by protecting against apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain unclear. Therefore, our study investigated the role of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?-protein phosphatase 2A(PP2A)-NF-?B signaling pathway in the anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective effects of ATOR on cardiomyocytes cultured in high glucose (HG) and in DCM. Our results showed that, in HG-cultured cardiomyocytes, phosphorylation of GSK-3? was decreased, while that of the PP2A catalytic subunit C (PP2Ac) and IKK/I?B? was increased, followed by NF-?B nuclear translocation and apoptosis. IKK/I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B nuclear translocation were also increased by treatment of cells with okadaic acid (OA), a selective PP2A inhibitor, or by silencing PP2Ac expression. The opposite results were obtained by silencing GSK-3? expression, which resulted in PP2Ac activation. Furthermore, IKK/I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B nuclear translocation were markedly inhibited and apoptosis attenuated in cells treated with ATOR. These effects occurred through inactivation of GSK-3? and subsequent activation of PP2Ac. They were abolished by treatment of cells with OA or PP2Ac siRNA. In mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus, treatment with ATOR, at 10 mg-kg-1-d-1, significantly suppressed GSK-3? activation, IKK/I?B? phosphorylation, NF-?B nuclear translocation and caspase-3 activation, while also activating PP2Ac. Finally, improvements in histological abnormalities, fibrosis, apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction were observed in diabetic mice treated with ATOR. These findings demonstrated that ATOR protected against HG-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and alleviated experimental DCM by regulating the GSK-3?-PP2A-NF-?B signaling pathway.
Project description:Myocardial contractile dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyocytes is a significant promoter of heart failure. Herein, we investigated the effect of icariin, a flavonoid monomer isolated from Epimedium, on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and explored the mechanisms underlying its unique pharmacological cardioprotective functions. High glucose (HG) conditions were simulated in vitro using cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal C57 mice, while DCM was stimulated in vivo in db/db mice. Mice and cardiomyocytes were treated with icariin, with or without overexpression or silencing of Apelin and Sirt3 via transfection with adenoviral vectors (Ad-RNA) and specific small hairpin RNAs (Ad-sh-RNA), respectively. Icariin markedly improved mitochondrial function both in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by an increased level of mitochondrial-related proteins via western blot analysis (PGC-1?, Mfn2, and Cyt-b) and an increased mitochondrial membrane potential, as observed via JC-1 staining. Further, icariin treatment decreased cardiac fibrogenesis (Masson staining), and inhibited apoptosis (TUNEL staining). Together, these changes improved cardiac function, according to multiple transthoracic echocardiography parameters, including LVEF, LVSF, LVESD, and LVEDD. Moreover, icariin significantly activated Apelin and Sirt3, which were inhibited by HG and DCM. Importantly, when Ad-sh-Apelin and Ad-sh-Sirt3 were transfected in cardiomyocytes or injected into the heart of db/db mice, the cardioprotective effects of icariin were abolished and mitochondrial homeostasis was disrupted. Further, it was postulated that since Ad-Apelin induced different results following increased Sirt3 expression, icariin may have attenuated DCM development by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction through the Apelin/Sirt3 pathway. Hence, protection against mitochondrial dysfunction using icariin may prove to be a promising therapeutic strategy against DCM in diabetes.
Project description:Increasing evidence has implicated the important role of mitochondrial pathology in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), while the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the pathogenesis of DCM and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Obese diabetic (db/db) and lean control (db/+) mice were used in this study. Mitochondrial dynamics were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy in vivo and by confocal microscopy in vitro. Results: Diabetic hearts from 12-week-old db/db mice showed excessive mitochondrial fission and significant reduced expression of Mfn2, while there was no significant alteration or slight change in the expression of other dynamic-related proteins. Reconstitution of Mfn2 in diabetic hearts inhibited mitochondrial fission and prevented the progression of DCM. In an in-vitro study, cardiomyocytes cultured in high-glucose and high-fat (HG/HF) medium showed excessive mitochondrial fission and decreased Mfn2 expression. Reconstitution of Mfn2 restored mitochondrial membrane potential, suppressed mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial function in HG/HF-treated cardiomyocytes through promoting mitochondrial fusion. In addition, the down-regulation of Mfn2 expression in HG/HF-treated cardiomyocytes was induced by reduced expression of PPAR?, which positively regulated the expression of Mfn2 by directly binding to its promoter. Conclusion: Our study provides the first evidence that imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics induced by down-regulated Mfn2 contributes to the development of DCM. Targeting mitochondrial dynamics by regulating Mfn2 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for DCM.
Project description:Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disorder of the myocardium in diabetic patients, which is one of the critical complications of diabetes giving rise to an increased mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms of DCM remain incompletely understood presently. This study was designed to screen the potential molecules and pathways implicated with DCM. GSE26887 involving 5 control individuals and 7 DCM patients was selected from the GEO database to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DAVID was applied to perform gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was also constructed to visualize the interactions among these DEGs. To further validate significant genes and pathways, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot were performed. A total of 236 DEGs were captured, including 134 upregulated and 102 downregulated genes. GO, KEGG, and the PPI network disclosed that inflammation, immune disorders, metabolic disturbance, and mitochondrial dysfunction were significantly enriched in the development of DCM. Notably, IL6 was an upregulated hub gene with the highest connectivity degree, suggesting that it may interact with a great many molecules and pathways. Meanwhile, SOCS3 was also one of the top 15 hub genes in the PPI network. Herein, we detected the protein level of STAT3 and SOCS3 in a mouse model with DCM. Western blot results showed that the protein level of SOCS3 was significantly lower while phosphorylated-STAT3 (P-STAT3) was activated in mice with DCM. In vitro results also uncovered the similar alterations of SOCS3 and P-STAT3 in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts induced by high glucose (HG). However, overexpression of SOCS3 could significantly reverse HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and collagen synthesis of cardiac fibroblasts. Taken together, our analysis unveiled potential biomarkers and molecular mechanisms in DCM, which could be helpful to the diagnosis and treatment of DCM.