Behavioural Phenotyping of APPswe/PS1?E9 Mice: Age-Rrelated Changes and Effect of Long-Term Paroxetine Treatment.
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating illness characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive, social, and emotional functions, including memory impairments and more global cognitive deficits. Clinical-epidemiological evidence suggests that neuropsychiatric symptoms precede the onset of cognitive symptoms both in humans with early and late onset AD. The behavioural profile promoted by the AD pathology is believed to associate with degeneration of the serotonergic system. Using the APPswe/PS1?E9 model of AD-like pathology starting with 9 months old mice, we characterised long term non-cognitive behavioural changes measured at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months of age and applied principal component analysis on data obtained from open field, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests. Long-term treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine was applied to assess the role of 5-HT on the behavioural profile; duration of treatment was 9 months, initiated when mice were 9 months of age. Treatment with paroxetine delays the decline in locomotion, in exploration and risk assessment behaviour, found in the APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice also exhibit low social activity and less aggressiveness, both of which are not affected by treatment with paroxetine. The APP/PS1 behavioural phenotype, demonstrated in this study, only begins to manifest itself from 12 months of age. Our results indicate that treatment with SSRI might ameliorate some of the behavioural deficits found in aged APP/PS1 mice.
Project description:Dysfunction of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system has been implicated in the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of toxic amyloid-? (A?) species is a hallmark of AD and an instigator of pathology. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation therapy by treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with AD has had mixed success in improving cognitive function, whereas SSRI administration to mice with AD-like disease has been shown to reduce A? pathology. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an increase in extracellular levels of 5-HT induced by chronic SSRI treatment reduces A? pathology and whether 5-HTergic deafferentation of the cerebral cortex could worsen A? pathology in the APPswe/PS1?E9 (APP/PS1) mouse model of AD.We administered a therapeutic dose of the SSRI escitalopram (5 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water of 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice to increase levels of 5-HT, and we performed intracerebroventricular injections of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (DHT) to remove 5-HTergic afferents. We validated the effectiveness of these interventions by serotonin transporter autoradiography (neocortex 79.7?±?7.6%) and by high-performance liquid chromatography for 5-HT (neocortex 64% reduction). After 6 months of escitalopram treatment or housing after DHT-induced lesion, we evaluated brain tissue by mesoscale multiplex analysis and sections by IHC analysis.Amyloid-?-containing plaques had formed in the neocortex and hippocampus of 9-month-old APP/PS1 mice after 6 months of escitalopram treatment and 5-HTergic deafferentation. Unexpectedly, levels of insoluble A?42 were unaffected in the neocortex and hippocampus after both types of interventions. Levels of insoluble A?40 increased in the neocortex of SSRI-treated mice compared with those treated with vehicle control, but they were unaffected in the hippocampus. 5-HTergic deafferentation was without effect on the levels of insoluble/soluble A?42 and A?40 in both the neocortex and hippocampus. However, levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein ? were reduced in the neocortex after 5-HTergic deafferentation.Because this study shows that modulation of the 5-HTergic system has either no effect or increases levels of insoluble/soluble A?42 and A?40 in the cerebral cortex of APP/PS1 mice, our observations do not support 5-HT augmentation therapy as a preventive strategy for reducing A? pathology.
Project description:Epidemiological studies indicate that isolated persons have increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the cellular mechanisms of how social isolation influenced amyloid ? peptide (A?) accumulation and affected the severity of AD-associated cognitive decline in a mouse model of AD. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double-transgenic (APP/PS1) mice were placed either in isolation or in group from postnatal day 28 and tested for cognitive performance at the age of 3 months with fear-conditioning paradigms. We found that social isolation accelerated impairment of contextual fear memory in the APP/PS1 mice. The magnitude of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 neurons was significantly lower in the isolated APP/PS1 mice compared with group APP/PS1 and wild-type mice. Hippocampal level of A? was significantly elevated in the isolated APP/PS1 mice, which was accompanied by an increased calpain activity and p25/p35 ratio. In addition, surface expression of GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptor was decreased by social isolation. The association of p35, and ?-CaMKII was significantly less in the isolated APP/PS1 mice indicating that their interaction was impaired. These results suggest that social isolation exacerbates memory deficit by increasing A? level, leading to the increased calpain activity, conversion of p35 to p25 and decrease in association of p35, ?-CaMKII, and GluR1, resulting in the endocytosis of AMPA receptors.
Project description:<b>This study was designed to examine whether AD pathological phenotype in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice exposed to continuous high-fat diet predispose these murine models to metabolic dysfunction and neuropathological impairments. One-month old male APP/PS1 and C57BL/6J mice were provided with 60% high-fat diet for 6.5 months. After dietary intervention, metabolic phenotyping, cognitive behaviors, AD-related brain pathological changes and insulin signaling were compared. high fat diet induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and aggravated inflammatory stress in both APP/PS1 and C57BL/6J mice. Compared with C57BL/6J control mice, APP/PS1 mice showed lower glucose transporter protein expression in liver, muscle, and brain. High-fat diet caused a decrease of glucose transporter protein expression in muscle and liver but increased cortical glucose transporter protein expression in APP/PS1 mice. High-fat diet-fed APP/PS1 mice demonstrated decreased cognitive function, as well as elevated cortical soluble amyloid-? levels and APP protein expression. Decrease in cortical IR, p-IR protein expression and p-GSK3?/GSK3? ratio were observed in high-fat diet-fed APP/PS1 mice. High-fat diet caused discrepant peripheral and central nervous system metabolic phenotype in APP/PS1 and C57BL/6J mice. AD pathological phenotype might accelerate metabolic changes and cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice treated with HFD.</b>
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (A?) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice have been developed as an AD model and are characterized by plaque formation at 4-6 months of age. Here, we sought to better understand AD-related cognitive decline by characterizing various types of memory. In order to better understand how memory declines with AD, APP/PS1 mice were bred with ArcCreERT2 mice. In this line, neural ensembles activated during memory encoding can be indelibly tagged and directly compared with neural ensembles activated during memory retrieval (i.e., memory traces/engrams). We first administered a battery of tests examining depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as spatial, social, and cognitive memory to APP/PS1 × ArcCreERT2 × channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) mice. Dentate gyrus (DG) neural ensembles were then optogenetically stimulated in these mice to improve memory impairment. AD mice had the most extensive differences in fear memory, as assessed by contextual fear conditioning (CFC), which was accompanied by impaired DG memory traces. Optogenetic stimulation of DG neural ensembles representing a CFC memory increased memory retrieval in the appropriate context in AD mice when compared with control (Ctrl) mice. Moreover, optogenetic stimulation facilitated reactivation of the neural ensembles that were previously activated during memory encoding. These data suggest that activating previously learned DG memory traces can rescue cognitive impairments and point to DG manipulation as a potential target to treat memory loss commonly seen in AD.
Project description:Advanced age and mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin (PS1) are two serious risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Finding common pathogenic changes originating from these risks may lead to a new therapeutic strategy. We observed a decline in memory performance and reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in both mature adult (9-15 months) transgenic APP/PS1 mice and old (19-25 months) non-transgenic (nonTg) mice. By contrast, in the presence of bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, LTP in adult APP/PS1 mice and old nonTg mice was larger than that in adult nonTg mice. The increased LTP levels in bicuculline-treated slices suggested that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition in adult APP/PS1 and old nonTg mice was upregulated. Assuming that enhanced inhibition of LTP mediates memory decline in APP/PS1 mice, we rescued memory deficits in adult APP/PS1 mice by treating them with another GABA(A) receptor antagonist, picrotoxin (PTX), at a non-epileptic dose for 10 days. Among the saline vehicle-treated groups, substantially higher levels of synaptic proteins such as GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit, PSD95, and NR2B were observed in APP/PS1 mice than in nonTg control mice. This difference was insignificant among PTX-treated groups, suggesting that memory decline in APP/PS1 mice may result from changes in synaptic protein levels through homeostatic mechanisms. Several independent studies reported previously in aged rodents both an increased level of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit and improvement of cognitive functions by long term GABA(A) receptor antagonist treatment. Therefore, reduced LTP linked to enhanced GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition may be triggered by aging and may be accelerated by familial AD-linked gene products like Abeta and mutant PS1, leading to cognitive decline that is pharmacologically treatable at least at this stage of disease progression in mice.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome actively regulates cognitive functions and that gut microbiome imbalance is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. However, the changes in gut microbiome composition in AD and their association with disease pathology, especially in the early stages, are unclear. Here, we compared the profiles of gut microbiota between APP/PS1 transgenic mice (an AD mouse model) and their wild-type littermates at different ages by amplicon-based sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Microbiota composition started diverging between the APP/PS1 and wild-type mice at young ages (i.e., 1-3 months), before obvious amyloid deposition and plaque-localized microglial activation in the cerebral cortex in APP/PS1 mice. At later ages (i.e., 6 and 9 months), there were distinct changes in the abundance of inflammation-related bacterial taxa including Escherichia-Shigella, Desulfovibrio, Akkermansia, and Blautia in APP/PS1 mice. These findings suggest that gut microbiota alterations precede the development of key pathological features of AD, including amyloidosis and plaque-localized neuroinflammation. Thus, the investigation of gut microbiota might provide new avenues for developing diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AD.
Project description:Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of gut microbiota, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms by which TMAO influence cognitive and pathological processes in the AD have not been investigated. In this study, we found that the circulating TMAO levels displayed an age-related increase in both WT and APP/PS1 mice and association with AD-like behavioral and pathological profile. Reduced TMAO by 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) treatment ameliorated the cognitive deterioration and long-term potentiation (LTP) in APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, DMB treatment also induced a decrease in the Amyloid-? (A?)1-42, ?-secretase, and ?-secretase-cleaved C-terminal fragment (?CTF) levels in the hippocampus. Finally, the effects obtained after treatment with DMB were accompanied by a reduction in circulating clusterin levels and hippocampal neuroinflammatory status in APP/PS1 mice. These findings demonstrate that elevated circulating TMAO during the aging process might deteriorate cognitive function and pathology in APP/PS1 mice.
Project description:Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plaques in the brain and decreased cognitive function leading to dementia. We determined if hydroxyurea (HU), a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor known to activate adaptive cellular stress responses in fibroblasts, could protect rat hippocampal neurons against oxidative-, excitatory-, mitochondrial-, and Aβ-induced stress and if HU treatment could improve learning and memory in a mouse model of AD (APP/PS1 double mutant transgenic mice). HU treatment attenuated the loss of cell viability induced by treatment of hippocampal neurons with hydrogen peroxide, glutamate, rotenone, and Aβ1-42. HU treatment also attenuated reductions of mitochondrial reserve capacity, maximal respiration, and cellular ATP content induced by hydrogen peroxide treatment. In vivo, treatment of APP/PS1 AD mice with HU (45 mg/kg/day) improved spatial memory performance in the hippocampus-dependent Morris water maze task. In summary, HU provides neuroprotection against toxic insults, improves mitochondrial bioenergetics, and improves spatial memory in a mouse model of AD. HU may offer a new therapeutic approach to delay cognitive decline in AD. Overall design: RNA extracted from hippocampi from four APP/PS1 mice nontransgenic control littermates treated with HU (45 mg/kg/day) for 2.5 months were compared to that of four untreated control animals.
Project description:Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 strain (SAMP8) and PrP-hA?PPswe/PS1?E9 (APP/PS1) mice are classic animal models of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and familial AD respectively. Our study showed that object recognition memory, spatial learning and memory, active and passive avoidance were deteriorated and neuroendocrine immunomodulation (NIM) network was imbalance in SAMP8 and APP/PS1 mice. SAMP8 and APP/PS1 mice had their own specific phenotype of cognition, neuroendocrine, immune and NIM molecular network. The endocrine hormone corticosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, chemotactic factor monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor and eotaxin, pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-23, and the Th1 cell acting as cell immunity accounted for cognitive deficiencies in SAMP8 mice, while adrenocorticotropic hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone, colony stimulating factor granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and Th2 cell acting as humoral immunity in APP/PS1 mice. On the pathway level, chemokine signaling and T cell receptor signaling pathway played the key role in cognition impairments of two models, while cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity were more important in cognitive deterioration of SAMP8 mice than APP/PS1 mice. This mechanisms of NIM network underlying cognitive impairment is significant for further understanding the pathogenesis of AD and can provide useful information for development of AD therapeutic drug.
Project description:Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common form of dementia characterized by amyloid plaque deposition, TAU pathology, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Mouse models recapitulate some key features of AD. For instance, the B6.APP/PS1 model (carrying human transgenes for mutant forms of APP and PSEN1) shows plaque deposition and associated neuroinflammatory responses involving both astrocytes and microglia beginning around 6 months of age. However, in our colony, TAU pathology, significant neurodegeneration and cognitive decline are not apparent in this model even at older ages. Therefore, this model is ideal for studying neuroinflammatory responses to amyloid deposition. Here, RNA sequencing of brain and retinal tissue, generalized linear modeling (GLM), functional annotation followed by validation by immunofluorescence (IF) was performed in B6.APP/PS1 mice to determine the earliest molecular changes prior to and around the onset of plaque deposition (2-6 months of age). Overall design: Brain transcriptomes of 2, 4, 5 and 6-month old, and retina transcriptomes from 2 and 6-month old wild type (WT) and APP/PS1 female mice from C57BL/6J (B6) were generated.