Selective anticancer activity of hydroxyapatite/chitosan-poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide particles loaded with an androstane-based cancer inhibitor.
ABSTRACT: In an earlier study we demonstrated that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles coated with chitosan-poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide (HAp/Ch-PLGA) target lungs following their intravenous injection into mice. In this study we utilize an emulsification process and freeze drying to load the composite HAp/Ch-PLGA particles with 17?-hydroxy-17?-picolyl-androst-5-en-3?-yl-acetate (A), a chemotherapeutic derivative of androstane and a novel compound with a selective anticancer activity against lung cancer cells. 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques confirmed the intact structure of the derivative A following its entrapment within HAp/Ch-PLGA particles. The thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses coupled with mass spectrometry were used to assess the thermal degradation products and properties of A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA. The loading efficiency, as indicated by the comparison of enthalpies of phase transitions in pure A and A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA, equaled 7.47wt.%. The release of A from HAp/Ch-PLGA was sustained, neither exhibiting a burst release nor plateauing after three weeks. Atomic force microscopy and particle size distribution analyses were used to confirm that the particles were spherical with a uniform size distribution of d50=168nm. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays demonstrated that the particles were cytotoxic to the A549 human lung carcinoma cell line (46±2%), while simultaneously preserving high viability (83±3%) of regular MRC5 human lung fibroblasts and causing no harm to primary mouse lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, composite A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA particles could be seen as promising drug delivery platforms for selective cancer therapies, targeting malignant cells for destruction, while having a significantly lesser cytotoxic effect on the healthy cells.
Project description:Tumor heterogeneity makes combination chemotherapy one of the preferred modes of treatment regimens. In this work, sequential exposure of two anticancer agents, paclitaxel (Tx) followed by topotecan (TPT), was shown to have a synergistic effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, NCI-H460. In order to improve patient compliance, the aforementioned concept was translated into a drug delivery system comprising of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-chitosan composite particles. TPT-containing chitosan micro-/nanoparticles were prepared by the facile technique of electrospraying and encapsulated within PLGA microparticles using emulsion-solvent evaporation technique for delayed release of TPT. The formulation containing Tx- and TPT-loaded composite particles demonstrated synergism when exposed to NCI-H460 cellular aggregates (tumoroids) generated in vitro. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated the potential of the formulation containing Tx and PLGA-chitosan (TPT-loaded) composite particles for the treatment of lung cancer.
Project description:A water-soluble anthracycline antibiotic drug (daunorubicin, DNR) was loaded into oxidized porous silicon (pSiO2) microparticles and then encapsulated with a layer of polymer (poly lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA) to investigate their synergistic effects in control of DNR release. Similarly fabricated PLGA-DNR microspheres without pSiO2, and pSiO2 microparticles without PLGA were used as control particles. The composite microparticles synthesized by a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion method have mean diameters of 52.33±16.37?m for PLGA-pSiO2_21/40-DNR and the mean diameter of 49.31±8.87?m for PLGA-pSiO2_6/20-DNR. The mean size, 26.00±8?m, of PLGA-DNR was significantly smaller, compared with the other two (P<0.0001). Optical microscopy revealed that PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microspheres contained multiple pSiO2 particles. In vitro release experiments determined that control PLGA-DNR microspheres completely released DNR within 38days and control pSiO2-DNR microparticles (with no PLGA coating) released DNR within 14days, while the PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microspheres released DNR for 74days. Temporal release profiles of DNR from PLGA-pSiO2 composite particles indicated that both PLGA and pSiO2 contribute to the sustained release of the payload. The PLGA-pSiO2 composite displayed a more constant rate of DNR release than the pSiO2 control formulation, and displayed a significantly slower release of DNR than either the PLGA or pSiO2 formulations. We conclude that this system may be useful in managing unwanted ocular proliferation when formulated with antiproliferation compounds such as DNR.
Project description:Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the most commonly used biomaterial in modern bone regeneration studies because of its chemical similarity to bone, biocompatibility with different polymers, osteoconductivity, low cost, and lack of immune response. However, to overcome the disadvantages of HAp, which include fragility and low mechanical strength, current studies typically focus on property modification through the addition of other materials. Objective. To develop and evaluate the biocompatibility of a HAp material extracted from eggshells and modified with silicon (Si) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). Materials and Methods. An in vitro experimental study in which a HAp material prepared from eggshells was synthesized by wet chemical and conventional chemical precipitation. Subsequently, this material was reinforced with Si/PLGA using the freezing/lyophilization method, and then osteoblast cells were seeded on the experimental material (HAp/Si/PLGA). To analyse the biocompatibility of this composite material, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) techniques were used. PLGA, bovine bone/PLGA (BB/PLGA), and HAp/PLGA were used as controls. Results. A cellular viability of 96% was observed for the experimental HAp/Si/PLGA material as well as for the PLGA. The viability for the BB/PLGA material was 90%, and the viability for the HAp/PLGA was 86%. Cell adhesion was observed on the exterior surface of all materials. However, a continuous monolayer and the presence of filopodia were observed over both external and internal surface of the experimental materials. Conclusions. The HAp/Si/PLGA material is highly biocompatible with osteoblastic cells and can be considered promising for the construction of three-dimensional scaffolds for bone regeneration in dentistry.
Project description:Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), which has been previously reported to promote bone repair, is proposed to be a noninvasive form of therapy for the treatment of osteonecrosis. Bone fillers made from composite scaffolds have been demonstrated to be effective for preventing bone defects such as osteonecrosis. The present study aimed to investigate whether the application of LIPUS combined with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-loaded poly-L-lactic acid/polylactic-co-glycolic acid/poly-?-caprolactone (PLLA/PLGA/PCL) composite scaffolds can improve recovery in a rat model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). BMP-2-loaded PLGA microspheres incorporated into PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds were constructed. Bilateral femoral head LIPUS intervention was conducted in rats with steroid-induced ONFH. LIPUS intervention alone contributed to the alleviation of osteonecrosis, in addition to improving load-carrying capacity and accelerated bone formation, angiogenesis and differentiation. Subsequently, femoral head parameters and assessment of load-carrying capacity, bone formation-related factors, and angiogenesis- and differentiation-related factors were measured in rats with or without implanted BMP-2-loaded PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds. LIPUS combined with the implantation of PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds loaded with BMP-2 microspheres protected rats against steroid-induced ONFH and improved load-carrying capacity, bone formation, angiogenesis and differentiation. Together, these data support the use of BMP-2-loaded PLLA/PLGA/PCL composite scaffolds combined with LIPUS for ONFH as a potential alternative curative solution for treating bone diseases.
Project description:Adequate bony support is the key to re-establish both function and esthetics in the craniofacial region. Autologous bone grafting has been the gold standard for regeneration of problematic large bone defects. However, poor graft availability and donor-site complications have led to alternative bone tissue-engineering approaches combining osteoinductive biomaterials and three-dimensional cell aggregates in scaffolds or constructs. The goal of the present study was to generate novel cell aggregate-loaded macroporous scaffolds combining the osteoinductive properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with hydroxyapatite-gelatin nanocomposites (HAP-GEL) for regeneration of craniofacial defects. Here we investigated the in vivo applicability of macroporous (TiO2)-enriched HAP-GEL scaffolds with undifferentiated and osteogenically differentiated multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC and OD-MAPC, respectively) aggregates for calvaria bone regeneration. The silane-coated HAP-GEL with and without TiO2 additives were polymerized and molded to produce macroporous scaffolds. Aggregates of the rat MAPC were precultured, loaded into each scaffold, and implanted to rat calvaria critical-size defects to study bone regeneration. Bone autografts were used as positive controls and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold for comparison purposes. Preimplanted scaffolds and calvaria bone from pig were tested for ultimate compressive strength with an Instron 4411(®) and for porosity with microcomputerized tomography (μCT). Osteointegration and newly formed bone (NFB) were assessed by μCT and nondecalcified histology, and quantified by calcium fluorescence labeling. Results showed that the macroporous TiO2-HAP-GEL scaffold had a comparable strength relative to the natural calvaria bone (13.8±4.5 MPa and 24.5±8.3 MPa, respectively). Porosity was 1.52±0.8 mm and 0.64±0.4 mm for TiO2-HAP-GEL and calvaria bone, respectively. At 8 and 12 weeks postimplantation into rat calvaria defects, greater osteointegration and NFB were significantly present in the TiO2-enriched HAP-GEL constructs with OD-MAPCs, compared to the undifferentiated MAPC-loaded constructs, cell-free HAP-GEL with and without titanium, and PLGA scaffolds. The tissue-engineered TiO2-enriched HAP-GEL constructs with OD-MAPC aggregates present a potential useful therapeutic approach for calvaria bone regeneration.
Project description:Presently, tissue engineering approaches have been focused toward finding new potential scaffolds with osteoconductivity on bone-disease-affected cells. This work focused on the cisplatin (CDDP)-loaded graphene oxide (GO)/hydroxyapatite (HAP)/chitosan (CS) composite for enhancing the growth of osteoblast cells and prevent the development of osteosarcoma cells. The prepared composites were characterized for the confirmation of composite formation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. A flowerlike morphology was observed for the GO/HAP/CS-3/CDDP composite. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to observe the controlled release of CDDP from the GO/HAP/CS-3/CDDP composite, and 67.34% of CDDP was released from the composite over a time period of 10 days. The GO/HAP/CS-3/CDDP nanocomposites showed higher viability in comparison with GO/HAP/CS-3 on MG63 osteoblast-like cells and higher cytotoxicity against cancer cells (A549). The synthesized composite was found to show enhanced proliferative, adhesive, and osteoinductive effects on the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like cells. Our results suggested that the CDDP-loaded GO/HAP/CS-3 nanocomposite has an immense prospective as a bone tissue replacement in the bone-cancer-affected tissues.
Project description:Background:N-acetylcarnosine (NAC), a dipeptide with powerful antioxidant properties that is extensively used as a pharmaceutical prodrug for the treatment of cataract and acute gastric disease, was investigated by molecular dynamics with the GROMACS program in order to understand the solvent effect on peptide conformation of the peptide molecule used as a component of a drug and which presents substantial information on where drug molecules bind and how they exert their effects. Besides, molecular docking simulation was performed by using the AutoDock Vina program which identify the kind of interaction between the drug and proteins. A delivery system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with NAC (NAC-PLGA-NPs) for the treatment of cataract was prepared for the first time in this study in order to enhance drug bioavailability and biocompatibility. The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate the structural formulation, characterization, and cytotoxicity studies of NAC-loaded NPs based on PLGA for cataract treatment. Methods:PLGA and NAC-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared using the double emulsion (w/o/w) method, and characterizations of the NPs were carried out with UV-Vis spectrometer to determine drug concentration, the Zeta-sizer system to analyze size and zeta potential, FTIR spectrometer to determine the incorporation of drug and PLGA, and TEM analysis for morphological evaluation. Results:NAC-loaded PLGA NPs were successfully obtained according to UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, Zeta-sizer system. And it was clearly observed from the TEM analysis that the peptide-loaded NPs had spherical and non-aggregated morphology. Also, the NPs had low toxicity at lower concentrations, and toxicity was augmented by increasing the concentration of the drug. Discussion:The NAC molecule, which has been investigated as a drug molecule due to its antioxidant and oxidative stress-reducing properties, especially in cataract treatment, was encapsulated with a PLGA polymer in order to increase drug bioavailability. This study may contribute to the design of drugs for cataract treatment with better reactivity and stability.
Project description:This study aimed to develop an anti-inflammation system consisting of epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG) encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles to promote wound healing.Nano- and microscale PLGA particles were fabricated using a water/oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The optimal particle size was determined based on drug delivery efficiency and biocompatibility. The particles were loaded with EGCG. The anti-inflammatory effects of the particles were evaluated in an in vitro cell-based inflammation model.Nano- and microscale PLGA particles were produced. The microscale particles showed better biocompatibility than the nanoscale particles. In addition, the microscale particles released ~60% of the loaded drug, while the nanoscale particles released ~50%, within 48 hours. Thus, microscale particles were selected as the carriers. The optimal EGCG working concentration was determined based on the effects on cell viability and inflammation. A high EGCG dose (100 ?M) resulted in poor cell viability; therefore, a lower dose (?50 ?M) was used. Moreover, 50 ?M EGCG had a greater anti-inflammatory effect than 10 ?M concentration on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Therefore, 50 ?M EGCG was selected as the working dose. EGCG-loaded microparticles inhibited inflammation in human dermal fibroblasts. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects persisted after replacement of the drug-loaded particle suspension solution with fresh medium.The EGCG-loaded microscale particles are biocompatible and exert a sustained anti-inflammatory effect.
Project description:In the context of using bone graft materials to restore and improve the function of damaged bone tissues, macroporous biodegradable composite bone graft scaffolds have osteoinductive properties that allow them to provide a suitable environment for bone regeneration. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and whitlockite (WLKT) are the two major components of hard tissues such as bone and teeth. Because of their biocompatibility and osteoinductivity, we synthesized HAP (nHAP) and WLKT nanoparticles (nWLKT) by using the chemical precipitation method. The nanoparticles were separately incorporated within poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. Following this, the composite microspheres were converted to macroporous bone grafts with sufficient mechanical strength in pin or screw shape through surface sintering. We characterized physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the nanoparticles and composites. The biocompatibility of the grafts was further tested through in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation studies using rabbit bone marrow stem cells. The ability to promote osteogenic differentiation was tested through alkaline phosphate activity and immunofluorescence staining of bone marker proteins. For in vivo study, the bone pins were implanted in tibia bone defects in rabbits to compare the bone regeneration ability though H&E, Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed similar physico-chemical characteristics and cellular response of PLGA/nHAP and PLGA/nWLKT scaffolds but the latter is associated with higher osteogenic potential towards BMSCs, pointing out the possibility to use this ceramic nanoparticle to prepare a sintered composite microsphere scaffold for potential bone grafts and tissue engineered implants.
Project description:Novel biocomposites of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLLGA) with 10 wt.% of surface-modified hydroxyapatite particles, designed for applications in bone tissue engineering, are presented in this paper. The surface of hydroxyapatite (HAP) was modified with polyethylene glycol by using l-lysine as a linker molecule. The modification strategy fulfilled two important goals: improvement of the adhesion between the HAP surface and PLLA and PLLGA matrices, and enhancement of the osteological bioactivity of the composites. The surface modifications of HAP were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), TGA, and elemental composition analysis. The influence of hydroxyapatite surface functionalization on the thermal and in vitro biological properties of PLLA- and PLLGA-based composites was investigated. Due to HAP modification with polyethylene glycol, the glass transition temperature of PLLA was reduced by about 24.5 °C, and melt and cold crystallization abilities were significantly improved. These achievements were scored based on respective shifting of onset of melt and cold crystallization temperatures and 1.6 times higher melt crystallization enthalpy compared with neat PLLA. The results showed that the surface-modified HAP particles were multifunctional and can act as nucleating agents, plasticizers, and bioactive moieties. Moreover, due to the presented surface modification of HAP, the crystallinity degree of PLLA and PLLGA and the polymorphic form of PLLA, the most important factors affecting mechanical properties and degradation behaviors, can be controlled.