Gene expression profiles and protein-protein interaction networks in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with C9orf72 mutation.
ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that involves the death of neurons. ALS is associated with many gene mutations as previously studied. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying ALS with C9orf72 mutation, gene expression profiles of ALS fibroblasts and control fibroblasts were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Genes with critical functional roles can be detected by a measure of node centrality in biological networks. In gene co-expression networks, highly connected genes called as candidate hubs have been associated with key disease-related pathways. Herein, this method was applied to find the hub genes related to ALS disease.Illumina HiSeq microarray gene expression dataset GSE51684 was retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database which included four Sporadic ALS, twelve Familial ALS and eight control samples. Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) were identified using the Student's t test statistical method and gene co-expression networking. Gene ontology (GO) function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed using the DAVID online tool. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by mapping the DEGs onto protein-protein interaction data from publicly available databases to identify the pathways where DEGs are involved in. PPI interaction network was divided into subnetworks using MCODE algorithm and was analyzed using Cytoscape.The results revealed that the expression of DEGs was mainly involved in cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling, Extra cellular matrix region GO processes and focal adhesion, neuroactive ligand receptor interaction, Extracellular matrix receptor interaction. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Endothelin 1 (EDN1), Angiotensin (AGT) and many cell adhesion molecules (CAM) were detected as hub genes that can be targeted as novel therapeutic targets for ALS disease.These analyses and findings enhance the understanding of ALS pathogenesis and provide references for ALS therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trastuzumab has been prevailingly accepted as a beneficial treatment for gastric cancer (GC) by targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive. However, the therapeutic resistance of trastuzumab remains a major obstacle, restricting the therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, identifying potential key genes and pathways is crucial to maximize the overall clinical benefits. METHODS:The gene expression profile GSE77346 was retrieved to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the trastuzumab resistance in GC. Next, the DEGs were annotated by the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The DEGs-coded protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and the prognostic values of the 20 hub genes were determined. Correlation of the hub genes were analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas. The prognostic values of hub genes were further validated by Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter. RESULTS:A total of 849 DEGs were identified, with 374 in upregulation and 475 in downregulation. Epithelium development was the most significantly enriched term in biological processes while membrane-bounded vesicle was in cellular compartments and cell adhesion molecular binding was in molecular functions. Pathways in cancer and ECM-receptor interaction were the most significantly enriched for all DEGs. Among the PPI networks, 20 hub genes were defined, including CD44 molecule (CD44), HER-2, and cadherin 1 (CDH1). Six hub genes were associated with favorable OS while eight were associated with poor OS. Mechanistically, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, 3 (OAS1, OAS3) and CDH1 featured high degrees and strong correlations with other hub genes. CONCLUSIONS:This bioinformatics analysis identified key genes and pathways for potential targets and survival predictors for trastuzumab treatment in GC.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is one of the most common malignancies, and is a serious threat to human health. The aim of the present study was to assess potential biomarkers for the prognosis of LUAD through the analysis of gene expression microarrays. METHODS:The gene expression data for GSE118370 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal lung and LUAD samples were screened using the R language. The DAVID database was used to analyze the functions and pathways of DEGs. The STRING database was used to the map protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, and these were visualized with the Cytoscape software. Finally, the prognostic analysis of the hub gene in the PPI network was performed using the Kaplan-Meier tool. RESULTS:A total of 406 downregulated and 203 upregulated DEGs were identified. The GO analysis results revealed that downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in angiogenesis, calcium ion binding and cell adhesion. The upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in the extracellular matrix disassembly, collagen catabolic process, chemokine-mediated signaling pathway and endopeptidase inhibitor activity. The KEGG pathway analysis revealed that downregulated DEGs were enriched in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, hematopoietic cell lineage and vascular smooth muscle contraction, while upregulated DEGs were enriched in phototransduction. In addition, the top 10 hub genes and the most closely interacting modules of the top 3 proteins in the PPI network were screened. Finally, the independent prognostic value of each hub gene in LUAD patients was analyzed through the Kaplan-Meier plotter. Seven hub genes (ADCY4, S1PR1, FPR2, PPBP, NMU, PF4, and GCG) were closely correlated to overall survival time. CONCLUSION:The discovery of these candidate genes and pathways reveals the etiology and molecular mechanisms of LUAD, providing ideas and guidance for the development of new therapeutic approaches to LUAD.
Project description:The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and genes in tumor microenvironment (TME) has been associated with the pathogenesis of colon cancer. An integrative exploration of transcriptional markers (gene signatures) and miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks in colon tumor stroma (CTS) remains lacking. Using two datasets of mRNA and miRNA expression profiling in CTS, we identified differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CTS and normal stroma. Furthermore, we identified the transcriptional markers which were both gene targets of DEmiRs and hub genes in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs. Moreover, we investigated the associations between the transcriptional markers and tumor immunity in colon cancer. We identified 17 upregulated and seven downregulated DEmiRs in CTS relative to normal stroma based on a miRNA expression profiling dataset. Pathway analysis revealed that the downregulated DEmiRs were significantly involved in 25 KEGG pathways (such as TGF-?, Wnt, cell adhesion molecules, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction), and the upregulated DEmiRs were involved in 10 pathways (such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and proteoglycans in cancer). Moreover, we identified 460 DEGs in CTS versus normal stroma by a meta-analysis of two gene expression profiling datasets. Among them, eight upregulated DEGs were both hub genes in the PPI network of DEGs and target genes of the downregulated DEmiRs. We found that three of the eight DEGs were negative prognostic factors consistently in two colon cancer cohorts, including COL5A2, EDNRA, and OLR1. The identification of transcriptional markers and miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks in CTS may provide insights into the mechanism of tumor immune microenvironment regulation in colon cancer.
Project description:Background:This study aim to identify the core pathogenic genes and explore the potential molecular mechanisms of human coronary artery disease (CAD). Methodology:Two gene profiles of epicardial adipose tissue from CAD patients including GSE 18612 and GSE 64554 were downloaded and integrated by R software packages. All the coexpression of deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) were picked out and analyzed by DAVID online bioinformatic tools. In addition, the DEGs were totally typed into protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to get the interaction data among all coexpression genes. Pictures were drawn by cytoscape software with the PPI networks data. CytoHubba were used to predict the hub genes by degree analysis. Finally all the top 10 hub genes and prediction genes in Molecular complex detection were analyzed by Gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis. qRT-PCR were used to identified all the 10 hub genes. Results:The top 10 hub genes calculated by the degree method were AKT1, MYC, EGFR, ACTB, CDC42, IGF1, FGF2, CXCR4, MMP2 and LYN, which relevant with the focal adhesion pathway. Module analysis revealed that the focal adhesion was also acted an important role in CAD, which was consistence with cytoHubba. All the top 10 hub genes were verified by qRT-PCR which presented that AKT1, EGFR, CDC42, FGF2, and MMP2 were significantly decreased in epicardial adipose tissue of CAD samples (p < 0.05) and MYC, ACTB, IGF1, CXCR4, and LYN were significantly increased (p < 0.05). Conclusions:These candidate genes could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of CAD.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate the key pathways and genes in the progression of cervical cancer. The gene expression profiles GSE7803 and GSE63514 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using GEO2R and the limma package, and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The hub genes were identified using Cytoscape and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed using the STRING database. A total of 127 and 99 DEGs were identified in the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer, respectively. GO enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs in pre-invasive cervical cancer were primarily associated with the 'protein binding', 'single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity', 'DNA replication origin binding' and 'microtubule binding' terms, whereas the DEGs in invasive cervical cancer were associated with the 'extracellular matrix (ECM) structural constituent', 'heparin binding' and 'integrin binding'. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the pre-invasive DEGs were significantly enriched in the 'cell cycle', 'DNA replication' and 'p53 signaling pathway' terms, while the invasive DEGs were enriched in the 'amoebiasis', 'focal adhesion', 'ECM-receptor interaction' and 'platelet activation' terms. The PPI network identified 4 key genes (PCNA, CDK2, VEGFA and PIK3CA), which were hub genes for pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer. In conclusion, bioinformatics analysis identified 4 key genes in cervical cancer progression (PCNA, CDK2, VEGFA and PIK3CA), which may be potential biomarkers for differentiating normal cervical epithelial tissue from cervical cancer.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to analyze potential therapy targets for prostate cancer using integrated analysis of two gene expression profiles. First, gene expression profiles GSE38241 and GSE3933 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between prostate cancer and normal control samples were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was performed using Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of DEGs were constructed, on the basis of the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database. The Molecular Complex Detection was utilized to perform module analysis of the PPI networks. In addition, transcriptional regulatory networks were constructed on the basis of the associations between transcription factors (TFs) and target genes. A total of 529 DEGs were identified, including 129 upregulated genes that were primarily associated with to the cell cycle. Additionally, 400 downregulated genes were identified, which were principally enriched in the pathways associated with vascular smooth muscle contraction and focal adhesion. Cell Division Cycle Associated 8, Cell Division Cycle 45, Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme E2 C and Thymidine Kinase 1 were identified as hub genes in the upregulated sub-network. Furthermore, the upregulated TF E2F, and the downregulated TF Early Growth Response 1, were identified to be critical in the transcriptional regulatory networks. The identified DEGs and TFs may have critical roles in the progression of prostate cancer, and may be used as target molecules for treating prostate cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND This bioinformatics study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks associated with functional pathways in ulcerative colitis based on 3 Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. MATERIAL AND METHODS The GSE87466, GSE75214, and GSE48958 MINiML formatted family files were downloaded from the GEO database. DEGs were identified from the 3 datasets, and volcano maps and heat maps were drawn after R language standardization and analysis, respectively. Venn diagram software was used to identify common DEGs. PPI analysis of common DEGs was performed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. Gene modules and hub genes were visualized in the PPI network using Cytoscape. Enrichment analysis was performed for all common DEGs, module genes, and hub genes. RESULTS A total of 90 DEGs were selected, which included 3 functional modules and 1 hub gene module. CXCL8 module genes were mainly enriched in cytokine-mediated signaling pathways and interleukin (IL)-10 signaling. CCL20 module genes were mainly enriched in the IL-17 signaling pathway and cellular response to IL-1. Hub gene modules mainly involved IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 signaling pathways. CXCL8, CXCL1, and IL-1ß were the top 3 hub genes and were mainly involved in IL-10 signaling. CONCLUSIONS Bioinformatics analysis using 3 GEO datasets identified CXCL8, CXCL1, and IL-1ß, which are involved in IL-10 signaling, as the top 3 hub genes in ulcerative colitis. The findings from this study remain to be validated, but they may contribute to the further understanding of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
Project description:Coronary artery atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. This study aimed to identify the key changes of gene expression between early and advanced carotid atherosclerotic plaque in human.Gene expression dataset GSE28829 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), including 16 advanced and 13 early stage atherosclerotic plaque samples from human carotid. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed.42,450 genes were obtained from the dataset. Top 100 up- and downregulated DEGs were listed. Functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) identification were performed. The result of functional and pathway enrichment analysis indicted that the immune system process played a critical role in the progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were performed either. Top 10 hub genes were identified from PPI network and top 6 modules were inferred. These genes were mainly involved in chemokine signaling pathway, cell cycle, B cell receptor signaling pathway, focal adhesion, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton.The present study indicated that analysis of DEGs would make a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis development and they might be used as molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Methylation plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to identify aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways in CRC by comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. METHODS:Data of gene expression microarrays (GSE68468, GSE44076) and gene methylation microarrays (GSE29490, GSE17648) were downloaded from GEO database. Aberrantly methylated-DEGs were obtained by GEO2R. Functional and enrichment analyses of selected genes were performed using DAVID database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING and visualized in Cytoscape. MCODE was used for module analysis of the PPI network. RESULTS:Totally 411 hypomethylation-high expression genes were identified, which were enriched in biological processes of response to wounding or inflammation, cell proliferation and adhesion. Pathway enrichment showed cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, p53 signaling and cell cycle. The top 5 hub genes of PPI network were CAD, CCND1, ATM, RB1 and MET. Additionally, 239 hypermethylation-low expression genes were identified, which demonstrated enrichment in biological processes including cell-cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, etc. Pathway analysis indicated enrichment in calcium signaling, maturity onset diabetes of the young, cell adhesion molecules, etc. The top 5 hub genes of PPI network were EGFR, ACTA1, SST, ESR1 and DNM2. After validation in TCGA database, most hub genes still remained significant. CONCLUSION:In summary, our study indicated possible aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes and pathways in CRC by bioinformatics analysis, which may provide novel insights for unraveling pathogenesis of CRC. Hub genes including CAD, CCND1, ATM, RB1, MET, EGFR, ACTA1, SST, ESR1 and DNM2 might serve as aberrantly methylation-based biomarkers for precise diagnosis and treatment of CRC in the future.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common type of mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study aimed to identify the potential candidate biomarkers that may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of v?kit Hardy?Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT)/platelet?derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA) wild?type GISTs. A joint bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in wild?type GIST samples compared with KIT/PDGFRA mutant GIST samples. Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and KEGG Orthology?Based Annotation System (KOBAS) online tools, respectively. Protein?protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes online tool and Cytoscape, and divided into sub?networks using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug?in. Furthermore, enrichment analysis of DEGs in the modules was analyzed with KOBAS. In total, 546 DEGs were identified, including 238 upregulated genes primarily enriched in 'cell adhesion', 'biological adhesion', 'cell?cell signaling', 'PI3K?Akt signaling pathway' and 'ECM?receptor interaction', while the 308 downregulated genes were predominantly involved in 'inflammatory response', 'sterol metabolic process' and 'fatty acid metabolic process', 'small GTPase mediated signal transduction', 'cAMP signaling pathway' and 'proteoglycans in cancer'. A total of 25 hub genes were obtained and four modules were mined from the PPI network, and sub?networks also revealed these genes were primarily involved in significant pathways, including 'PI3K?Akt signaling pathway', 'proteoglycans in cancer', 'pathways in cancer', 'Rap1 signaling pathway', 'ECM?receptor interaction', 'phospholipase D signaling pathway', 'ras signaling pathway' and 'cGMP?PKG signaling pathway'. These results suggested that several key hub DEGs may serve as potential candidate biomarkers for wild?type GISTs, including phosphatidylinositol?4,5?bisphosphate 3?kinase, catalytic subunit ?, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, hepatocyte growth factor, thrombospondin 1, Erb?B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 and matrix metallopeptidase 2. However, further experiments are required to confirm these results.