Is frequency of fast food and sit-down restaurant eating occasions differentially associated with less healthful eating habits?
ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that frequency of fast food restaurant eating and sit-down restaurant eating is differentially associated with nutrient intakes and biometric outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine whether frequency of fast food and sit-down restaurant eating occasions was differentially associated with less healthful eating habits, independent of demographic characteristics. Data were collected from participants in 2015 enrolled in a worksite nutrition intervention trial (n = 388) in North Carolina who completed self-administered questionnaires at baseline. We used multiple logistic regressions to estimate associations between frequency of restaurant eating occasions and four less healthful eating habits, controlling for age, sex, race, education, marital status, and worksite. On average, participants in the highest tertile of fast food restaurant eating (vs. lowest tertile) had increased odds of usual intake of processed meat (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.71, 5.28), red meat (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.33, 4.00), refined grain bread (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.23, 4.10), and sweet baked goods and candy (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 2.00, 6.12). No associations were found between frequency of sit-down restaurant eating and less healthful eating habits. We conclude that greater frequency of fast food restaurant eating is associated with less healthful eating habits. Our findings suggest that taste preferences or other factors, independent of demographic characteristics, might explain the decision to eat at fast food or sit-down restaurants.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine longitudinal pathways from multiple types of neighborhood restaurants and food stores to BMI, through dietary behaviors. METHODS:We used data from participants (n=5114) in the United States-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study and a structural equation model to estimate longitudinal (1985-86 to 2005-06) pathways simultaneously from neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, supermarkets, and convenience stores to BMI through dietary behaviors, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity. RESULTS:Higher numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and lower numbers of sit-down restaurants were associated with higher consumption of an obesogenic fast food-type diet. The pathways from food stores to BMI through diet were inconsistent in magnitude and statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS:Efforts to decrease the numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and to increase the numbers of sit-down restaurant options could influence diet behaviors. Availability of neighborhood fast food and sit-down restaurants may play comparatively stronger roles than food stores in shaping dietary behaviors and BMI.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals from full service and fast food restaurants in five countries and compare values with US data. DESIGN:Cross sectional survey. SETTING:223 meals from 111 randomly selected full service and fast food restaurants serving popular cuisines in Brazil, China, Finland, Ghana, and India were the primary sampling unit; 10 meals from five worksite canteens were also studied in Finland. The observational unit was frequently ordered meals in selected restaurants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Meal energy content, measured by bomb calorimetry. RESULTS:Compared with the US, weighted mean energy of restaurant meals was lower only in China (719 (95% confidence interval 646 to 799) kcal versus 1088 (1002 to 1181) kcal; P<0.001). In analysis of variance models, fast food contained 33% less energy than full service meals (P<0.001). In Finland, worksite canteens provided 25% less energy than full service and fast food restaurants (mean 880 (SD 156) versus 1166 (298); P=0.009). Country, restaurant type, number of meal components, and meal weight predicted meal energy in a factorial analysis of variance (R2=0.62, P<0.001). Ninety four per cent of full service meals and 72% of fast food meals contained at least 600 kcal. Modeling indicated that, except in China, consuming current servings of a full service and a fast food meal daily would supply between 70% and 120% of the daily energy requirements for a sedentary woman, without additional meals, drinks, snacks, appetizers, or desserts. CONCLUSION:Very high dietary energy content of both full service and fast food restaurant meals is a widespread phenomenon that is probably supporting global obesity and provides a valid intervention target.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent attempts to improve the healthfulness of away-from-home eating include regulations requiring restaurants to post nutrition information. The impact of such regulations on restaurant environments is unknown.<h4>Purpose</h4>To examine changes in restaurant environments from before to after nutrition-labeling regulation in a newly regulated county versus a nonregulated county.<h4>Methods</h4>Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Restaurant version audit, environments within the same quick-service chain restaurants were evaluated in King County (regulated) before and 6 and 18 months after regulation enforcement and in Multnomah County (nonregulated) restaurants over a 6-month period. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyses conducted in 2011.<h4>Results</h4>Overall availability of healthy options and facilitation of healthy eating did not increase differentially in King County versus Multnomah County restaurants aside from the substantial increase in onsite nutrition information posting in King County restaurants required by the new regulation. Barriers to healthful eating decreased in King County relative to Multnomah County restaurants, particularly in food-oriented establishments. King County restaurants demonstrated modest increases in signage that promotes healthy eating, although the frequency of such promotion remained low, and the availability of reduced portions decreased in these restaurants. The healthfulness of children's menus improved modestly over time, but not differentially by county.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A restaurant nutrition-labeling regulation was accompanied by some, but not uniform, improvements in other aspects of restaurant environments in the regulated compared to the nonregulated county. Additional opportunities exist for improving the healthfulness of away-from-home eating beyond menu labeling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Eating food away from home and restaurant consumption have increased over the past few decades.<h4>Purpose</h4>To examine recent changes in calories from fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and to assess characteristics associated with consumption.<h4>Methods</h4>Analyses of 24-hour dietary recalls from children, adolescents, and adults using nationally representative data from the 2003-2004 through 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, including analysis by gender, ethnicity, income, and location of consumption. Multivariate regression analyses of associations between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food and full-service restaurants.<h4>Results</h4>In 2007-2008, 33%, 41%, and 36% of children, adolescents, and adults, respectively, consumed foods and/or beverages from fast-food restaurant sources and 12%, 18%, and 27% consumed from full-service restaurants. Their respective mean daily caloric intake from fast food was 191, 404, and 315 kcal, down by 25% (p ? 0.05), 3%, and 9% from 2003-2004; and among consumers, intake was 576, 988, and 877 kcal, respectively, down by 12% (p ? 0.05), 2%, and 7%. There were no changes in daily calories consumed from full-service restaurants. Consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food (adults only) and full-service restaurants (all age groups) were higher when consumed away from home versus at home. There were some demographic and socioeconomic associations with the likelihood of fast-food consumption, but characteristics generally were not associated with the extent of caloric intake among those who consumed from fast-food or from full-service restaurants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In 2007-2008, fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption remained prevalent and a source of substantial energy intake.
Project description:This paper investigates eating behaviours and motivations of early career military trainees from two pathways (officer cadets and army recruits) to understand whether, and to what extent, healthful eating behaviours were present, and what motivates eating in general and healthful habits specifically. The study also sought to understand whether groups need strategies that are pathway specific or are transferrable across different trainee populations. Participants were recruited via email to complete an online survey and through in-person invitations to ensure a diverse cross section of trainees (n = 195) and recruits (n = 297). Two-step cluster analysis revealed three distinct segments with education, opportunity and motivation being the most important variables within a wider multivariate segment formation and stepwise linear regression was performed to identify the most optimal model with the least number of predictors for each segment. The ideal model for the uninterested segment contained nine predictors, seven predictors for the Breakfast skippers segment and eight predictors for the Weight conscious segment. This study found that there is room for improvement in the eating habits of military trainees across military training pathways. Eating motivations, and their associations with healthful eating habits, indicate a need for strategies that are broader than instilling or reinforcing health motivations. Strategies that can be implemented to support healthful eating for military trainees include provision of food preparation and cooking skills training, coupled with provision of social support and environments that facilitate healthful eating. Furthermore, three distinct segments were discovered within the trainee population, indicating that strategies for positively changing trainees' eating behaviours may not need to be pathway specific, rather it may be possible to introduce the same group of segmented strategies across both pathways. Future research directions and limitations are outlined.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality.<h4>Methods</h4>Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey.<h4>Results</h4>The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Few worksite trials have examined the impact of diabetes prevention interventions on psychological and behavioral outcomes. Thus, the impact of a worksite lifestyle intervention on psychosocial outcomes, food group intake, and step counts for physical activity (PA) was evaluated. METHOD:A randomized pretest/posttest control group design with 3-month follow-up was employed from October 2012 to May 2014 at a U.S. university worksite among employees with prediabetes. The experimental group (n=35) received a 16-week group-based intervention while the control group received usual care (n=33). Repeated measures analysis of variance compared the change in outcomes between groups across time. RESULTS:A significant difference occurred between groups post-intervention for self-efficacy associated with eating and PA; goal commitment and difficulty; satisfaction with weight loss and physical fitness; peer social support for healthful eating; generation of alternatives for problem solving; and intake of fruits, meat, fish, poultry, nuts, and seeds (all ps < .05). The experimental group significantly increased step counts post-intervention (p = .0279) and were significantly more likely to report completing their work at study end (p = .0231). CONCLUSION:The worksite trial facilitated improvement in modifiable psychosocial outcomes, dietary patterns, and step counts; the long-term impact on diabetes prevention warrants further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01682954.
Project description:Although many studies that have examined the relationship of type and amount of food and the frequency of eating with new onset of diabetes, there are few reports on the relationship between how meals are eaten, such as skipping breakfast, snacking or food ingestion speed, and the onset of diabetes. We investigated the relationship between eating speed, as well as other eating habits such as snacking and skip breakfast, and new onset of diabetes in a nation-wide Japanese cohort. We obtained data from the nation-wide annual health check program in Japan. In 197,825 participants without diabetes in 2008, questionnaires recorded data on the diet habits (eating speed, snack after supper or before sleep, and skipping breakfast) and unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to measure the odds ratio of new-onset diabetes mellitus in a 3-year follow up. The proportion of fast eaters, those who snack after supper, snack before sleep, and skip breakfast was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the group who did not develop diabetes mellitus. As compared with the non-fast eater group, fast eaters were generally younger, had higher BMI, had more weight gain from 20 years onwards, and experienced frequent weight fluctuations of ?3?kg within 1 year. The risk of fast eaters developing diabetes mellitus remained even after correction for multiple factors including age, body weight, rate of weight change, blood pressure, smoking, and alcohol consumption. No other eating habits were independent predictors for onset of diabetes mellitus. Results show that fast eating is a sole predisposing factor among eating habits for new-onset diabetes. Future studies were warranted to evaluate whether avoidance of fast eating is beneficial for prevention of diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Eating out-of-home is associated with higher energy intakes in children. The continued high prevalence of childhood obesity requires a greater understanding of child menu options and eating out frequency to inform appropriate regulatory initiatives. The majority of studies to date have focused on menus from fast-food outlets with few focused on non-fast-food outlets. This study aimed to describe parents' reports of their child(ren)'s (aged up to 6 years) frequency of consuming foods at non-fast-food outlets, observations of child menus at these outlets, and their purchasing behaviours and future preferences regarding these menus; and if their responses were influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Ninety-five parents completed a 15-item cross-sectional survey. Overall, children from 54% of families consumed food from non-fast-food outlets at least monthly. Of the 87 parents who reported that their child eats at a non-fast-food restaurant, 71 had children who ordered from child menus every time (7%, n = 5), often (29%, n = 22), sometimes (42%, n = 32) or rarely (16%, n = 12), with a further 7% (n = 5) never ordering from these menus. All parents indicated that they would like to see a higher proportion of healthy child menu items than is currently offered. Parents' responses were not influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Parents' views support implementation of initiatives to increase availability of healthy options on child menus at non-fast-food outlets.
Project description:To explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status.Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6261) completed a brief health survey before participation in a weight loss program.Employees' access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower body mass index (BMI), whereas access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines was directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI.Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status, providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss.