The Sublethal Effects of β-Ecdysterone, a Highly Active Compound from Achyranthes bidentata Blume, on Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch.
ABSTRACT: Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae), is a very destructive insect pest of grapevines. Intercropping of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (f. Amaranthaceae) and Vitis spp. grapevines can be useful to control this pest. In the present study, the toxicity of 22 compounds, known to be present in A. bidentata, to grape phylloxera was evaluated. All treatments were toxic towards grape phylloxera but the degree of toxicity differed between treatments. Among the 22 tested compounds, several of which proved toxic towards grape phylloxera. However β-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects against grape phylloxera, with LC50 values of 175.73 mg a.i. liter-1. In addition, we assessed the sublethal effects of LC10, LC20 and LC40 of β-ecdysterone on grape phylloxera. The fourth instar and adult developmental periods and total life span were significantly prolonged by LC40 of β-ecdysterone. Fecundity decreased when grape phylloxera were exposed to LC20 and LC40 of β-ecdysterone. In addition, LC40 of β-ecdysterone decreased the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (λ) and prolonged the population doubling time (DT). The net reproductive rate (R0) was significantly reduced by both the LC20 and LC40 β-ecdysterone treatments. Our results demonstrated that β-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects and significant sublethal effects on grape phylloxera, and showed potential control of grape phylloxera.
Project description:Grape phylloxera is one of the most dangerous insect pests for worldwide viticulture. The leaf- and root-galling phylloxerid has been managed by grafting European grapevines onto American rootstock hybrids. Recent reports pinpoint the appearance of host-adapted biotypes, but information about the biomolecular characteristics underlying grape phylloxera biotypisation and its role in host performance is scarce. Using RNA-sequencing, we sequenced the transcriptome of two larval stages: L1 (probing) and L2-3 (feeding) larvae of two root-feeding grape phylloxera lineages feeding on the rootstock Teleki 5C (biotype C) and V. vinifera Riesling (biotype A). In total, 7501 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were commonly modulated by the two biotypes. For the probing larvae, we found an increased number of DEGs functionally associated with insect chemoreception traits, such as odorant-binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, ionotropic, odorant, and gustatory receptors. The transcriptomic profile of feeding larvae was enriched with DEGs associated with the primary metabolism. Larvae feeding on the tolerant rootstock Teleki 5C exhibited higher numbers of plant defense suppression-associated DEGs than larvae feeding on the susceptible host. Based on the identified DEGs, we discuss their potential role for the compatible grape phylloxera-Vitis interaction belowground. This study was the first to compare the transcriptomes of two grape phylloxera lineages feeding on a tolerant and susceptible host, respectively, and to identify DEGs involved in the molecular interaction with these hosts. Our data provide a source for future studies on host adaptation mechanisms of grape phylloxera and help to elucidate grape phylloxera resistance further.
Project description:Achyranthes bidentata is a popular perennial medicine herb used for 1000s of years in China to treat various diseases. Although this herb has multiple pharmaceutical purposes in China, no transcriptomic information has been reported for this species. In addition, the understanding of several key pathways and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of oleanolic acid and ecdysterone, two pharmacologically active classes of metabolites and major chemical constituents of A. bidentata root extracts, is limited. The aim of the present study was to characterize the transcriptome profile of the roots and leaves of A. bidentata to uncover the biosynthetic and transport mechanisms of the active components. In this study, we identified 100,987 transcripts, with an average length of 1146.8 base pairs. A total of 31,634 (31.33%) unigenes were annotated, and 12,762 unigenes were mapped to 303 pathways according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Moreover, we identified a total of 260 oleanolic acid and ecdysterone genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Furthermore, the key enzymes involved in the oleanolic acid and ecdysterone synthesis pathways were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, revealing that the roots expressed these enzymes to a greater extent than the leaves. In addition, we identified 85 ATP-binding cassette transporters, some of which might be involved in the translocation of secondary metabolites.
Project description:Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) is a destructive insect pest of grapevines that is highly invasive worldwide, despite strict biosecurity containment measures in place at farm and regional levels. Current phylloxera identification by visual inspection and laboratory-based molecular methods is time-consuming and costly. More rapid and cost-effective methods for identification of this pest would benefit industry, growers, and biosecurity services. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a new portable technology available for rapid and accurate in-field molecular diagnostics. This study outlines the development of a new LAMP assay to enable the identification of phylloxera specimens. New LAMP primers were developed to specifically amplify phylloxera mitochondrial DNA (5'-COI), which we have shown is effective as a DNA barcode for identification of phylloxera, using LAMP technology. Positive LAMP reactions, containing phylloxera DNA, amplified in less than twelve minutes with an anneal derivative temperature of approximately 79 °C to 80 °C compared to a newly designed synthetic DNA (gBlock) fragment which had an anneal derivative temperature of 82 °C. No LAMP amplification was detected in any of the non-target species tested, i.e. no false-positive identification resulted for these species. We also successfully optimised a non-destructive DNA extraction procedure, HotSHOT "HS6", for use in the field on phylloxera adults, nymphs and eggs, to retain physical specimens. DNA extracted using this method was also suitable for species and genotype molecular identification methods, such as DNA barcoding, qPCR and microsatellite genotyping. The new LAMP assay provides a novel visual molecular tool for accurate diagnostics of phylloxera in the laboratory and field.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is a major insect pest that negatively impacts commercial grapevine performance worldwide. Consequently, the use of phylloxera resistant rootstocks is an essential component of vineyard management. However, the majority of commercially available rootstocks used in viticulture production provide limited levels of grape phylloxera resistance, in part due to the adaptation of phylloxera biotypes to different Vitis species. Therefore, there is pressing need to develop new rootstocks better adapted to specific grape growing regions with complete resistance to grape phylloxera biotypes. RESULTS:Grapevine rootstock breeding material, including an accession of Vitis cinerea and V. aestivalis, DRX55 ([M. rotundifolia x V. vinifera] x open pollinated) and MS27-31 (M. rotundifolia specific hybrid), provided complete resistance to grape phylloxera in potted plant assays. To map the genetic factor(s) of grape phylloxera resistance, a F1 V. cinerea x V. vinifera Riesling population was screened for resistance. Heritability analysis indicates that the V. cinerea accession contained a single allele referred as RESISTANCE TO DAKTULOSPHAIRA VITIFOLIAE 2 (RDV2) that confers grape phylloxera resistance. Using genetic maps constructed with pseudo-testcross markers for V. cinerea and Riesling, a single phylloxera resistance locus was identified in V. cinerea. After validating SNPs at the RDV2 locus, interval and linkage mapping showed that grape phylloxera resistance mapped to linkage group 14 at position 16.7 cM. CONCLUSION:The mapping of RDV2 and the validation of markers linked to grape phylloxera resistance provides the basis to breed new rootstocks via marker-assisted selection that improve vineyard performance.
Project description:Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, is a gall-forming insect that feeds on the leaves and roots of many Vitis species. The roots of the cultivated V. vinifera cultivars and hybrids are highly susceptible to grape phylloxera feeding damage. The native range of this insect covers most of North America, and it is particularly abundant in the eastern and central United States. Phylloxera was introduced from North America to almost all grape-growing regions across five of the temperate zone continents. It devastated vineyards in each of these regions causing large-scale disruptions to grape growers, wine makers and national economies. In order to understand the population diversity of grape phylloxera in its native range, more than 500 samples from 19 States and 34 samples from the introduced range (northern California, Europe and South America) were genotyped with 32 simple sequence repeat markers. STRUCTURE, a model based clustering method identified five populations within these samples. The five populations were confirmed by a neighbor-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). These populations were distinguished by their Vitis species hosts and their geographic locations. Samples collected from California, Europe and South America traced back to phylloxera sampled in the northeastern United States on V. riparia, with some influence from phylloxera collected along the Atlantic Coast and Central Plains on V. vulpina. Reproductive statistics conclusively confirmed that sexual reproduction is common in the native range and is combined with cyclical parthenogenesis. Native grape phylloxera populations were identified to be under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The identification of admixed samples between many of these populations indicates that shared environments facilitate sexual reproduction between different host associated populations to create new genotypes of phylloxera. This study also found that assortative mating might occur across the sympatric range of the V. vulpina west and V. cinerea populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interaction between the gall-forming grapevine parasite, phylloxera, and the susceptible grapevine species Vitis vinifera was investigated. METHODS: Phylloxera and grapevines were cocultivated using both potted and micropropagated grapevines. Development of nodosities on primary roots was studied by microscopy and histochemistry, and nodosities were analysed for biochemical changes and changes in gene expression. KEY RESULTS: Within a nodosity, phylloxera fed at a site in the root cortex. Nodosity development was characterized by swelling of the root tissue distal to the feeding site, lack of development of a suberized endodermis, and starch and amino acid accumulation, and was eventually followed by root necrosis. No evidence of a defence response was observed in pre-necrotic nodosities, but defence-type responses were observed in tissue adjacent to necrotic regions. Changes in gene expression were not detected by northern hybridization using DNA probes encoding a range of V. vinifera transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: Nodosities on V. vinifera potentially function as nutrient reservoirs, and defence responses to phylloxera attack were not detected.
Project description:Grape phylloxera is native to North America, where Vitis spp. acquired different mechanisms of resistance to leaf and root attack. Its appearance in European vineyards at the beginning of the 1860s, where the phylloxera-susceptible grapevine species V. vinifera L. is majorly cultivated, caused the devastation of a great number of vineyards, generating a deep crisis in the European wine production and trade industries. However, the origin and genetic structure of this pest across European vineyards still remain controversial and uncertain. Herein, we analysed the genetic structure of 1173 grape phylloxera individuals collected from 100 locations across eight European countries. Structure and phylogenetic analyses show that contemporary grape phylloxera populations in Europe are the result of at least two independent introductions from the native range that mirrors the historical records that also suggest two major outbreaks in Europe. The comparative analysis with samples from the native range trace back one of these two genetic groups to plants imported from the North East coast of North America, where the American species V. riparia and V. labrusca dominate. This study clarifies the level of genetic diversity of grape phylloxera in Europe and provides relevant information to resolve previous controversy about its origin.
Project description:The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a major insect pest of cereal crops in many countries. Imidacloprid has been widely used for controlling piercing-sucking insect pests worldwide, but its sublethal effects on R. padi have not been well addressed. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on biological parameters and five enzyme activities of R. padi. The LC10, LC20, and LC25 of imidacloprid to adult aphids were 0.0053, 0.0329 and 0.0659 mg L-1, respectively. These concentrations significantly decreased pre-adult survival rate, but prolonged the development duration of 1st instar nymphs, pre-oviposition period, and adult longevity. Adult oviposition period was also extended by LC20. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0), and finite rate (?) decreased at all three concentrations, whereas mean generation time (T) increased. Moreover, LC20 and LC25 significantly inhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but increased catalase (CAT) activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity also increased at LC20. However, cytochrome P450 enzyme and peroxidase (POD) activity did not differ between imidacloprid treatments and the control. In conclusion, the imidacloprid concentrations tested here have negative impacts on the performance of R. padi by reducing its nymphal survival, extending the development duration of some stages, decreasing the rate of population growth, and altering enzyme activities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although native to North America, the invasion of the aphid-like grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae across the globe altered the course of grape cultivation. For the past 150?years, viticulture relied on grafting-resistant North American Vitis species as rootstocks, thereby limiting genetic stocks tolerant to other stressors such as pathogens and climate change. Limited understanding of the insect genetics resulted in successive outbreaks across the globe when rootstocks failed. Here we report the 294-Mb genome of D. vitifoliae as a basic tool to understand host plant manipulation, nutritional endosymbiosis, and enhance global viticulture. RESULTS:Using a combination of genome, RNA, and population resequencing, we found grape phylloxera showed high duplication rates since its common ancestor with aphids, but similarity in most metabolic genes, despite lacking obligate nutritional symbioses and feeding from parenchyma. Similarly, no enrichment occurred in development genes in relation to viviparity. However, phylloxera evolved >?2700 unique genes that resemble putative effectors and are active during feeding. Population sequencing revealed the global invasion began from the upper Mississippi River in North America, spread to Europe and from there to the rest of the world. CONCLUSIONS:The grape phylloxera genome reveals genetic architecture relative to the evolution of nutritional endosymbiosis, viviparity, and herbivory. The extraordinary expansion in effector genes also suggests novel adaptations to plant feeding and how insects induce complex plant phenotypes, for instance galls. Finally, our understanding of the origin of this invasive species and its genome provide genetics resources to alleviate rootstock bottlenecks restricting the advancement of viticulture.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors are involved in defense responses caused by biotic stresses. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), a pest widespread in viticulture, elicits transcriptional reprogramming of plant defense-associated components, such as regulons related to WRKYs and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. In this study, we characterized WRKY46, a WRKY transcription factor responsible for phylloxera attack, and revealed the molecular mechanism for WRKY-mediated defense responses to phylloxera. qRT-PCR and GUS staining analyses revealed that WRKY46 is induced in response to phylloxera damage and mechanical wounding. VvWRKY46 is a nuclear-localized transcription factor that activates its downstream target VvCHIB by direct protein-DNA interaction. Regulons involved in the SA-mediated defense response were regulated during incompatible interactions between "1103 Paulsen" rootstock and phylloxera. In addition, WRKY46 exhibited a higher transcript abundance in "1103 Paulsen" than in "Crimson Seedless", regardless of whether the plants were infected with phylloxera. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of VvWRKY46 significantly attenuated phylloxera attack and delayed nymph development of composite grape plants. In summary, we demonstrated that WRKY46 plays a role in the SA-mediated defense-regulatory network by directly binding to the downstream structural gene VvCHIB. The phylloxera-responsive gene WRKY46 was identified, which could improve the understanding of the basic mechanism of grapevine in response to phylloxera.