Somatic Variations in Cervical Cancers in Indian Patients.
ABSTRACT: There are very few reports that describe the mutational landscape of cervical cancer, one of the leading cancers in Indian women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the somatic mutations that occur in cervical cancer. Whole exome sequencing of 10 treatment naïve tumour biopsies with matched blood samples, from a cohort of Indian patients with locally advanced disease, was performed. The data revealed missense mutations across 1282 genes, out of 1831 genes harbouring somatic mutations. These missense mutations (nonsynonymous + stop-gained) when compared with pre-existing mutations in the COSMIC database showed that 272 mutations in 250 genes were already reported although from cancers other than cervical cancer. More than 1000 novel somatic variations were obtained in matched tumour samples. Pathways / genes that are frequently mutated in various other cancers were found to be mutated in cervical cancers. A significant enrichment of somatic mutations in the MAPK pathway was observed, some of which could be potentially targetable. This is the first report of whole exome sequencing of well annotated cervical cancer samples from Indian women and helps identify trends in mutation profiles that are found in an Indian cohort of cervical cancer.
Project description:Cervical small cell neuroendocrine tumors (CSCNETs) are rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Reliable diagnostic and prognostic CSCNET markers are lacking, making diagnosis and prognosis prediction difficult, and treatment strategies limited. Here we provide mutation profiles for five tumor-normal paired CSCNETs using whole exome sequencing (WES). We expanded our assessment of frequently mutated genes to include publicly available data from 55 small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, 10 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, 42 small cell lung cancers, six NET cell lines, and 188 cervical cancers, along with our five CSCNETs. We identified 1,968 somatic mutations, including 1,710 missense, 106 nonsense, 144 splice site, 4 lncRNA, 3 nonstop, and 1 start codon mutation. We assigned functions to the 114 most frequently mutated genes based on gene ontology. ATRX, ERBB4, and genes in the Akt/mTOR pathway were most frequently mutated. Positive cytoplasmic ERBB4 immunohistochemical staining was detected in all CSCNET tumors tested, but not in adjacent normal tissues. To our knowledge, this study is the first to utilize WES in matched CSCNET and normal tissues to identify somatic mutations. Further studies will improve our understanding of how ATRX and ERBB4 mutations and AKT/mTOR signaling promote CSCNET tumorigenesis, and may be leveraged in novel anti-cancer treatment strategies.
Project description:Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. The aim of this study is to exploit novel pathogenic genes in cervical carcinogenesis.The somatic mutations from 194 patients with cervical cancer were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) publically accessible exome-sequencing database. We investigated mutated gene enrichment in the 12 cancer core pathways and predicted possible post-translational modifications. Additionally, we predicted the impact of mutations by scores quantifying the deleterious effects of the mutations. We also examined the immunogenicity of the mutations based on the mutant peptides' strong binding with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I). The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the survival analysis.We observed that the chromatin modification pathway was significantly mutated across all clinical stages. Among the mutated genes involved in this pathway, we observed that the histone modification regulators were primarily mutated. Interestingly, of the 197 mutations in the 26 epigenetic regulators in this pathway, 25 missense mutations in 13 genes were predicted in or around the phosphorylation sites. Only mutations in the histone methyltransferase MLL2 exhibited poor survival. Compared to other mutations in MLL2 mutant patients, we noticed that the mutational scores prioritized mutations in MLL2, which indicates that it is more likely to have deleterious effects to the human genome. Around half of all of the mutations were found to bind strongly to MHC-I, suggesting that patients are likely to benefit from immunotherapy.Our results highlight the emerging role of mutations in epigenetic regulators, particularly MLL2, in cervical carcinogenesis, which suggests a potential disruption of histone modifications. These data have implications for further investigation of the mechanism of epigenetic dysregulation and for treatment of cervical cancer.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Serous borderline tumor (SBT) is a unique histopathologic entity of the ovary, believed to be intermediate between benign cystadenoma and invasive low-grade serous carcinoma. While somatic mutations in the KRAS or BRAF, and rarely ERBB2, genes have been well characterized in SBTs, other genetic alterations have not been described. Toward a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular genetic architecture of SBTs, we undertook whole exome sequencing of this tumor type. METHODS:Following pathologic review and laser capture microdissection to enrich for tumor cells, whole exomes were prepared from DNA of two independent SBTs and subjected to massively parallel DNA sequencing. RESULTS:Both tumors contained an activating mutation of the BRAF gene. A total of 15 additional somatic mutations were identified, nine in one tumor and six in the other. Eleven were missense mutations and four were nonsense or deletion mutations. Fourteen of the 16 genes found to be mutated in this study have been reported to be mutated in other cancers. Furthermore, 12 of these genes are mutated in ovarian cancers. The FBXW7 and KIAA1462 genes are noteworthy candidates for a pathogenic role in serous borderline tumorigenesis. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that a very small number of somatic genetic mutations are characteristic of SBTs of the ovary, thus supporting their classification as a relatively genetically stable tumor type. The mutant genes described herein represent novel candidates for the pathogenesis of ovarian SBT.
Project description:As subsets of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) lack a defined molecular etiology, we sought to characterize the mutational landscape of PCCs to identify novel gene candidates involved in disease development. A discovery cohort of 15 PCCs wild type for mutations in PCC susceptibility genes underwent whole-exome sequencing, and an additional 83 PCCs served as a verification cohort for targeted sequencing of candidate mutations. A low rate of nonsilent single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was detected (6.1/sample). Somatic HRAS and EPAS1 mutations were observed in one case each, whereas the remaining 13 cases did not exhibit variants in established PCC genes. SNVs aggregated in apoptosis-related pathways, and mutations in COSMIC genes not previously reported in PCCs included ZAN, MITF, WDTC1, and CAMTA1. Two somatic mutations and one constitutional variant in the well-established cancer gene lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D, MLL2) were discovered in one sample each, prompting KMT2D screening using focused exome-sequencing in the verification cohort. An additional 11 PCCs displayed KMT2D variants, of which two were recurrent. In total, missense KMT2D variants were found in 14 (11 somatic, two constitutional, one undetermined) of 99 PCCs (14%). Five cases displayed somatic mutations in the functional FYR/SET domains of KMT2D, constituting 36% of all KMT2D-mutated PCCs. KMT2D expression was upregulated in PCCs compared to normal adrenals, and KMT2D overexpression positively affected cell migration in a PCC cell line. We conclude that KMT2D represents a recurrently mutated gene with potential implication for PCC development.
Project description:Endometrial cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, causing ~74,000 deaths annually. Serous endometrial cancers are a clinically aggressive subtype with a poorly defined genetic etiology. We used whole-exome sequencing to comprehensively search for somatic mutations within ~22,000 protein-encoding genes in 13 primary serous endometrial tumors. We subsequently resequenced 18 genes, which were mutated in more than 1 tumor and/or were components of an enriched functional grouping, from 40 additional serous tumors. We identified high frequencies of somatic mutations in CHD4 (17%), EP300 (8%), ARID1A (6%), TSPYL2 (6%), FBXW7 (29%), SPOP (8%), MAP3K4 (6%) and ABCC9 (6%). Overall, 36.5% of serous tumors had a mutated chromatin-remodeling gene, and 35% had a mutated ubiquitin ligase complex gene, implicating frequent mutational disruption of these processes in the molecular pathogenesis of one of the deadliest forms of endometrial cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancers arise from multiple acquired mutations, which presumably occur over many years. Early stages in cancer development might be present years before cancers become clinically apparent. METHODS:We analyzed data from whole-exome sequencing of DNA in peripheral-blood cells from 12,380 persons, unselected for cancer or hematologic phenotypes. We identified somatic mutations on the basis of unusual allelic fractions. We used data from Swedish national patient registers to follow health outcomes for 2 to 7 years after DNA sampling. RESULTS:Clonal hematopoiesis with somatic mutations was observed in 10% of persons older than 65 years of age but in only 1% of those younger than 50 years of age. Detectable clonal expansions most frequently involved somatic mutations in three genes (DNMT3A, ASXL1, and TET2) that have previously been implicated in hematologic cancers. Clonal hematopoiesis was a strong risk factor for subsequent hematologic cancer (hazard ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.8 to 28.7). Approximately 42% of hematologic cancers in this cohort arose in persons who had clonality at the time of DNA sampling, more than 6 months before a first diagnosis of cancer. Analysis of bone marrow-biopsy specimens obtained from two patients at the time of diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia revealed that their cancers arose from the earlier clones. CONCLUSIONS:Clonal hematopoiesis with somatic mutations is readily detected by means of DNA sequencing, is increasingly common as people age, and is associated with increased risks of hematologic cancer and death. A subset of the genes that are mutated in patients with myeloid cancers is frequently mutated in apparently healthy persons; these mutations may represent characteristic early events in the development of hematologic cancers. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute and others.).
Project description:Papanicolaou (Pap) smears have revolutionized the management of patients with cervical cancers by permitting the detection of early, surgically curable tumors and their precursors. In recent years, the traditional Pap smear has been replaced by a liquid-based method, which allows not only cytologic evaluation but also collection of DNA for detection of human papillomavirus, the causative agent of cervical cancer. We reasoned that this routinely collected DNA could be exploited to detect somatic mutations present in rare tumor cells that accumulate in the cervix once shed from endometrial or ovarian cancers. A panel of genes that are commonly mutated in endometrial and ovarian cancers was assembled with new whole-exome sequencing data from 22 endometrial cancers and previously published data on other tumor types. We used this panel to search for mutations in 24 endometrial and 22 ovarian cancers and identified mutations in all 46 samples. With a sensitive massively parallel sequencing method, we were able to identify the same mutations in the DNA from liquid Pap smear specimens in 100% of endometrial cancers (24 of 24) and in 41% of ovarian cancers (9 of 22). Prompted by these findings, we developed a sequence-based method to query mutations in 12 genes in a single liquid Pap smear specimen without previous knowledge of the tumor's genotype. When applied to 14 samples selected from the positive cases described above, the expected tumor-specific mutations were identified. These results demonstrate that DNA from most endometrial and a fraction of ovarian cancers can be detected in a standard liquid-based Pap smear specimen obtained during routine pelvic examination. Although improvements need to be made before applying this test in a routine clinical manner, it represents a promising step toward a broadly applicable screening methodology for the early detection of gynecologic malignancies.
Project description:A major goal of cancer genomics is to identify somatic mutations that play a role in tumor initiation or progression. Somatic mutations within transcription factors are of particular interest, as gene expression dysregulation is widespread in cancers. The substantial gene expression variation evident across tumors suggests that numerous regulatory factors are likely to be involved and that somatic mutations within them may not occur at high frequencies across patient cohorts, thereby complicating efforts to uncover which ones are cancer-relevant. Here we analyze somatic mutations within the largest family of human transcription factors, namely those that bind DNA via Cys2His2 zinc finger domains. Specifically, to hone in on important mutations within these genes, we aggregated somatic mutations across all of them by their positions within Cys2His2 zinc finger domains. Remarkably, we found that for three classes of cancers profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma, Colon and Rectal Adenocarcinomas, and Skin Cutaneous Melanoma-two specific, functionally important positions within zinc finger domains are mutated significantly more often than expected by chance, with alterations in 18%, 10% and 43% of tumors, respectively. Numerous zinc finger genes are affected, with those containing Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) repressor domains preferentially targeted by these mutations. Further, the genes with these mutations also have high overall missense mutation rates, are expressed at levels comparable to those of known cancer genes, and together have biological process annotations that are consistent with roles in cancers. Altogether, we introduce evidence broadly implicating mutations within a diverse set of zinc finger proteins as relevant for cancer, and propose that they contribute to the widespread transcriptional dysregulation observed in cancer cells.
Project description:Although a few cancer genes are mutated in a high proportion of tumours of a given type (>20%), most are mutated at intermediate frequencies (2-20%). To explore the feasibility of creating a comprehensive catalogue of cancer genes, we analysed somatic point mutations in exome sequences from 4,742 human cancers and their matched normal-tissue samples across 21 cancer types. We found that large-scale genomic analysis can identify nearly all known cancer genes in these tumour types. Our analysis also identified 33 genes that were not previously known to be significantly mutated in cancer, including genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, genome stability, chromatin regulation, immune evasion, RNA processing and protein homeostasis. Down-sampling analysis indicates that larger sample sizes will reveal many more genes mutated at clinically important frequencies. We estimate that near-saturation may be achieved with 600-5,000 samples per tumour type, depending on background mutation frequency. The results may help to guide the next stage of cancer genomics.
Project description:Cancer is predominantly a somatic disease. A mutant allele found in cancer cell genome is considered somatic when it is absent in paired normal genome and dbSNP, the most comprehensive public SNP database. However, dbSNP inadequately represents several non-Caucasian populations including that from the Indian subcontinent, posing a limitation in cancer genomic analyses of data from these populations. We present TMC-SNPdb, as the first open source freely accessible (through ANNOVAR), flexible and upgradable SNP database from whole exome data of 62 normal samples derived from cancer patients of Indian origin, representing 114,309 unique germline variants. TMC-SNPdb is presented with a companion subtraction tool that can be executed with command line option or an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) with the ability to deplete additional Indian population specific SNPs over and above that possible with dbSNP and 1000 Genomes databases. Using an institutional generated whole exome data set of 132 samples of Indian origin, we demonstrate that TMC-SNPdb reduced 42%, 33% and 28% false positive somatic events post dbSNP depletion in Indian origin tongue, gallbladder, and cervical cancer samples, respectively. Beyond cancer somatic analyses, we anticipate utility of TMC-SNPdb in several Mendelian germline diseases.