Prolonged Treatment of Peanut-Allergic Mice with Bortezomib Significantly Reduces Serum Anti-Peanut IgE but Does Not Affect Allergic Symptoms.
ABSTRACT: Anti-peanut immunoglobulin E (anti-Pn IgE) can persist throughout life, suggesting that this condition could be maintained by long-lived antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). To determine the role of long-lived ASCs, peanut-allergic mice underwent prolonged treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Bz).Intravenous Bz was given twice weekly for 21 weeks to peanut-allergic mice. During treatment, serum anti-Pn IgE was measured, and the mice were rechallenged at the end of treatment. Cell populations were measured, and Pn-specific IgG, total IgG, and total IgE ASCs were enumerated in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen (SPL).Prolonged treatment with Bz significantly reduced serum anti-Pn IgE and IgG1 but did not affect symptoms following challenge with Pn, even in mice with undetectable serum anti-Pn IgE. Numbers of CD138+ cells were significantly reduced in the BM but were unaffected in the SPL. Unexpectedly, Bz did not affect numbers of Pn-specific IgG, total IgG, or total IgE ASCs in either the BM or SPL.Cells that maintain long-lived serum anti-Pn IgE are sensitive to Bz. However, prolonged depletion of serum Pn-specific IgE does not result in a decrease of symptoms following challenge with Pn.
Project description:Peanut allergy (PNA) has been reported to be transferred to tolerant recipients through organ and bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The roles T and B cells play in establishing, and the roles B cell subsets play in maintaining lifelong anti-peanut IgE levels are unknown.To determine the cellular requirements for the transfer of murine PNA and to determine the role CD20(+) cells play in maintaining long-lived anti-peanut IgE levels.We developed a novel adoptive transfer model to investigate the cellular requirements for transferring murine PNA. We also treated peanut-allergic (PA) mice with anti-CD20 antibody and measured IgE levels throughout treatment.Purified B220(+) cells from PA splenocytes and purified CD4(+) cells from naïve (NA) splenocytes are the minimal requirements for the adoptive transfer of PNA. Prolonged treatment of allergic mice with anti-CD20 antibody results in significant depletion of B cell subsets but does not affect anti-peanut IgE levels, symptoms, or numbers of IgE antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in the BM. Adoptive transfer of BM and spleen cells from allergic donors treated with anti-CD20 antibody does not result in the transfer of PNA in NA recipients, demonstrating that anti-CD20 antibody treatment depletes B cells capable of differentiating into peanut-specific IgE ASCs.Peanut allergy can be established in a NA hosts with B220(+) cells from PA donors and CD4(+) cells from peanut-NA donors. However, long-term depletion of B220(+) cells with anti-CD20 antibody does not affect anti-peanut IgE levels. These results highlight a novel role for B cells in the development of PNA and provide evidence that long-lived anti-peanut IgE levels may be maintained by long-lived ASCs.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND:The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. METHODS:Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. RESULTS:The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. CONCLUSIONS:The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.
Project description:IgG-mediated anaphylaxis occurs in mice and may contribute to human reactions to infused drugs. To distinguish IgE- from putative IgG-mediated human anaphylaxis, we developed blood markers for murine anaphylaxis and evaluated their human relevance. Both IgG- and IgE-mediated anaphylaxis were characterized by decreased basophil and monocyte percentages and an increased neutrophil percentage in mouse blood. IgE- but not IgG-mediated murine anaphylaxis was accompanied by large increases in IL-4 secretion, plasma soluble IL-4 receptor-? (IL-4R?) concentration, and T-cell membrane IL-4R? expression. T-cell IL-4R? expression also increased when mice that express human Fc? receptor I? were sensitized with IgG-depleted serum from a peanut-allergic individual and challenged with peanut extract. Increased T-cell IL-4R? expression is likely to also be a marker for human IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, because IgE-activated human basophils secrete IL-4, and IL-4 increases human T-cell IL-4R? expression in vitro. Murine IgG- but not IgE-mediated anaphylaxis was characterized by decreased neutrophil Fc? receptor III (Fc?RIII) expression that was observed even when the antigen dose was insufficient to induce shock. Human neutrophils cultured with IgG immune complexes also lost Fc?RIII. These observations suggest that decreased blood neutrophil Fc?RIII expression without increased IL-4R? expression can be used to determine whether and when IgG-mediated anaphylaxis occurs in man.
Project description:Patients with peanut allergy have highly stable pathologic antibody repertoires to the immunodominant B-cell epitopes of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1 to 3.We used a peptide microarray technique to analyze the effect of treatment with peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) on such repertoires.Measurements of total peanut-specific IgE (psIgE) and peanut-specific IgG(4) (psIgG(4)) were made with CAP-FEIA. We analyzed sera from 22 patients with OIT and 6 control subjects and measured serum specific IgE and IgG(4) binding to epitopes of Ara h 1 to 3 using a high-throughput peptide microarray technique. Antibody affinity was measured by using a competitive peptide microarray, as previously described.At baseline, psIgE and psIgG(4) diversity was similar between patients and control subjects, and there was broad variation in epitope recognition. After a median of 41 months of OIT, polyclonal psIgG(4) levels increased from a median of 0.3 ?g/mL (interquartile range [25% to 75%], 0.1-0.43 ?g/mL) at baseline to 10.5 ?g/mL (interquartile range [25% to 75%], 3.95-45.48 ?g/mL; P < .0001) and included de novo specificities. psIgE levels were reduced from a median baseline of 85.45 kU(A)/L (23.05-101.0 kU(A)/L) to 7.75 kU(A)/L (2.58-30.55 kU(A)/L, P < .0001). Affinity was unaffected. Although the psIgE repertoire contracted in most OIT-treated patients, several subjects generated new IgE specificities, even as the total psIgE level decreased. Global epitope-specific shifts from IgE to IgG(4) binding occurred, including at an informative epitope of Ara h 2.OIT differentially alters Ara h 1 to 3 binding patterns. These changes are variable between patients, are not observed in control subjects, and include a progressive polyclonal increase in IgG(4) levels, with concurrent reduction in IgE amount and diversity.
Project description:Cross-linking of IgE antibody by specific epitopes on the surface of mast cells is a prerequisite for triggering symptoms of peanut allergy. IgE epitopes are frequently categorized as linear or conformational epitopes. Although linear IgE-binding epitopes of peanut allergens have been defined, little is known about conformational IgE-binding epitopes.To identify clinically relevant conformational IgE epitopes of the two most important peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, using phage peptide library.A phage 12mer peptide library was screened with allergen-specific IgE from 4 peanut-allergic patients. Binding of the mimotopes to IgE from a total of 29 peanut-allergic subjects was measured by ELISA. The mimotope sequences were mapped on the surface areas of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 using EpiSearch.Forty-one individual mimotopes were identified that specifically bind anti- Ara h 2/Ara h 6 IgE as well as rabbit anti-Ara h 2 and anti-Ara h 6 IgG. Sequence alignment showed that none of the mimotope sequences match a linear segment of the Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 sequences. EpiSearch analysis showed that all the mimotopes mapped to surface patches of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. Eight of the mimotopes were recognized by more than 90% of the patients, suggesting immunodominance. Each patient had distinct IgE recognition patterns but the recognition frequency was not correlated to the concentration of peanut specific IgE or to clinical history.The mimotopes identified in this study represent conformational epitopes. Identification of similar surface patches on Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 further underscores the similarities between these two potent allergens.
Project description:Long-lived antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are critical for the maintenance of humoral immunity through the continued production of antibodies specific for previously encountered pathogen or vaccine antigens. Recent reports describing humoral immune memory have suggested the importance of long-lived CD19- bone marrow (BM) ASCs, which secrete antibodies recognizing previously encountered vaccine antigens. However, these reports do not agree upon the unique contribution of the CD19+ BM ASC subset toward humoral immunity. Here, we found both CD19+ and negative ASCs from human BM were similar in functional capacity to react to a number of vaccine antigens via ELISpot assays. The CD19+ cells were the predominant ASC population found in lymphoid tissues, and unlike the CD19- ASCs, which were found only in spleen and BM, the CD19+ ASCs were found in tonsil and blood. CD19+ ASCs from the BM, spleen, and tonsil were capable of recognizing polio vaccine antigens, indicating the CD19+ ASC cells play a novel role in long-lasting immune defense. Comparative gene expression analysis indicated CD19+ and negative BM ASCs differed significantly by only 14 distinct messenger RNAs and exhibited similar gene expression for cell cycle, autophagy, and apoptosis control necessary for long life. In addition, we show identical CDR-H3 sequences found on both BM ASC subsets, indicating a shared developmental path. Together, these results provide novel insight for the distribution, function, genetic regulation, and development of long-lived ASCs and may not only impact improved cell therapies but also enhance strategies for vaccine development.
Project description:Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been thought to induce clinical desensitization to allergenic foods, but trials coupling the clinical response and immunologic effects of peanut OIT have not been reported.The study objective was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunologic changes associated with OIT.Children with peanut allergy underwent an OIT protocol including initial day escalation, buildup, and maintenance phases, and then oral food challenge. Clinical response and immunologic changes were evaluated.Of 29 subjects who completed the protocol, 27 ingested 3.9 g peanut protein during food challenge. Most symptoms noted during OIT resolved spontaneously or with antihistamines. By 6 months, titrated skin prick tests and activation of basophils significantly declined. Peanut-specific IgE decreased by 12 to 18 months, whereas IgG(4) increased significantly. Serum factors inhibited IgE-peanut complex formation in an IgE-facilitated allergen binding assay. Secretion of IL-10, IL-5, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha from PBMCs increased over a period of 6 to 12 months. Peanut-specific forkhead box protein 3 T cells increased until 12 months and decreased thereafter. In addition, T-cell microarrays showed downregulation of genes in apoptotic pathways.Oral immunotherapy induces clinical desensitization to peanut, with significant longer-term humoral and cellular changes. Microarray data suggest a novel role for apoptosis in OIT.
Project description:To investigate the mechanism by which interferon-? (IFN?) accelerates systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in (NZB×NZW)F1 (NZB/NZW) mice.NZB/NZW mice were treated with an adenovirus expressing IFN?. In some mice, T cells were depleted with an anti-CD4 antibody. The production of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Germinal centers and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in spleens and IgG deposition and leukocyte infiltrates in kidneys were visualized by immunofluorescence staining. The phenotype of splenic cells was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, somatic hypermutation and gene usage in VH regions of IgG2a and IgG3 were studied by single-cell polymerase chain reaction.IFN?-accelerated lupus in NZB/NZW mice was associated with elevated serum levels of IgG2 and IgG3 anti-dsDNA antibodies and accumulation of many IgG ASCs in the spleen, which did not develop into long-lived plasma cells. Furthermore, IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies in the mice were highly somatically mutated and used distinct repertoires of VH genes. The induction of SLE in the mice was associated with an increase in B cell Toll-like receptor 7 expression, increased serum levels of BAFF, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor ?, and induction of T cells expressing IL-21. Although IFN? drove a T cell-independent increase in serum levels of IgG, autoantibody induction and the development of nephritis were both completely dependent on CD4+ T cell help.These findings demonstrate that, although IFN? activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in NZB/NZW mice, CD4+ T cells are necessary for IFN?-driven induction of anti-dsDNA antibodies and clinical SLE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mechanism(s) responsible for acquisition of maternal antibody isotypes other than IgG are not fully understood. This uncertainty is a major reason underlying the continued controversy regarding whether cord blood (CB) IgE originates in the mother or fetus. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the capacity of maternal IgE to be transported across the placenta in the form of IgG anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes (ICs) and to determine the role of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in mediating this process. METHODS:Maternal and CB serum concentrations of IgE, IgG anti-IgE, and IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs were determined in a cohort of allergic and non-allergic mother/infant dyads. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with human FcRn were used to study the binding and transcytosis of IgE in the form of IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs. RESULTS:Maternal and CB serum concentrations of IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs were highly correlated, regardless of maternal allergic status. IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs generated in vitro bound strongly to FcRn-expressing MDCK cells and were transcytosed in an FcRn-dependent manner. Conversely, monomeric IgE did not bind to FcRn and was not transcytosed. IgE was detected in solutions of transcytosed IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs, even though essentially all the IgE remained in complex form. Similarly, the majority of IgE in CB sera was found to be complexed to IgG. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:These data indicate that human FcRn facilitates the transepithelial transport of IgE in the form of IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs. They also strongly suggest that the majority of IgE in CB sera is the result of FcRn-mediated transcytosis of maternal-derived IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs. These findings challenge the widespread perception that maternal IgE does not cross the placenta. Measuring maternal or CB levels of IgG anti-IgE/IgE ICs may be a more accurate predictor of allergic risk.
Project description:Current models hold that serum Ab titers are maintained chiefly by long-lived bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PCs). In this study, we characterize the role of subpopulations of BM PCs in long-term humoral responses to T cell-dependent Ag. Surprisingly, our results indicate that 40-50% of BM PCs are recently formed cells, defined, in part, by rapid steady-state turnover kinetics and secretion of low-affinity IgM Abs. Further, for months after immunization with a hapten-protein conjugate, newly formed Ag-induced, IgM-secreting BM PCs were detected in parallel with longer-lived IgG-secreting cells, suggesting ongoing and parallel input to the BM PC pool from two distinct pools of activated B cells. Consistent with this interpretation, IgM and IgG Abs secreted by cells within distinct PC subsets exhibited distinct L chain usage. We conclude that long-term Ab responses are maintained by a dynamic BM PC pool composed of both recently formed and long-lived PCs drawn from clonally disparate precursors.