Exome-first approach identified a novel gloss deletion associated with Lowe syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Lowe syndrome (LS) is an X-linked disorder affecting the eyes, nervous system and kidneys, typically caused by missense or nonsense/frameshift OCRL mutations. We report a 6-month-old male clinically suspected to have LS, but without the Fanconi-type renal dysfunction. Using a targeted-exome sequencing-first approach, LS was diagnosed by the identification of a deletion involving 1.7 Mb at Xq25-q26.1, encompassing the entire OCRL gene and neighboring loci.
Project description:The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is a multisystem disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, mental retardation, and renal Fanconi syndrome. The OCRL1 gene, which, when mutated, is responsible for OCRL, encodes a 105-kD Golgi protein with phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIn[4,5]P2) 5-phosphatase activity. We have examined the OCRL1 gene in 12 independent patients with OCRL and have found 11 different mutations. Six were nonsense mutations, and one a deletion of one or two nucleotides that leads to frameshift and premature termination. In one, a 1.2-kb genomic deletion of exon 14 was identified. In four others, missense mutations or the deletion of a single codon were found to involve amino acid residues known to be highly conserved among proteins with PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase activity. All patients had markedly reduced PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase activity in their fibroblasts, whereas the ocrl1 protein was detectable by immunoblotting in some patients with either missense mutations or a codon deletion but was not detectable in those with premature termination mutations. These results confirm and extend our previous observation that the OCRL phenotype results from loss of function of the ocrl1 protein and that mutations are generally heterogeneous. Missense mutations that abolish enzyme activity but not expression of the protein will be useful for studying structure-function relationships in PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatases.
Project description:The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe is a rare X-linked multisystemic disorder characterized by the triad of congenital cataracts, intellectual disability, and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Whereas the ocular manifestations and severe muscular hypotonia are the typical first diagnostic clues apparent at birth, the manifestations of incomplete renal Fanconi syndrome are often recognized only later in life. Other characteristic features are progressive severe growth retardation and behavioral problems, with tantrums. Many patients develop a debilitating arthropathy. Treatment is symptomatic, and the life span rarely exceeds 40 years. The causative oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe gene (OCRL) encodes the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL-1. OCRL variants have not only been found in classic Lowe syndrome, but also in patients with a predominantly renal phenotype classified as Dent disease type 2 (Dent-2). Recent data indicate that there is a phenotypic continuum between Dent-2 disease and Lowe syndrome, suggesting that there are individual differences in the ability to compensate for the loss of enzyme function. Extensive research has demonstrated that OCRL-1 is involved in multiple intracellular processes involving endocytic trafficking and actin skeleton dynamics. This explains the multi-organ manifestations of the disease. Still, the mechanisms underlying the wide phenotypic spectrum are poorly understood, and we are far from a causative therapy. In this review, we provide an update on clinical and molecular genetic findings in Lowe syndrome and the cellular and physiological functions of OCRL-1.
Project description:The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked disorder characterized by major abnormalities of eyes, nervous system, and kidneys. Mutations in the OCRL1 gene have been associated with the disease. OCRL1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P2) 5-phosphatase. We have examined the OCRL1 gene in eight unrelated patients with OCRL and have found seven new mutations and one recurrent in-frame deletion. Among the new mutations, two nonsense mutations (R317X and E558X) and three other frameshift mutations caused premature termination of the protein. A missense mutation, R483G, was located in the highly conserved PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase domain. Finally, one frameshift mutation, 2799delC, modifies the C-terminal part of OCRL1, with an extension of six amino acids. Altogether, 70% of missense mutations are located in exon 15, and 52% of all mutations cluster in exons 11-15. We also identified two new microsatellite markers for the OCRL1 locus, and we detected a germline mosaicism in one family. This observation has direct implications for genetic counseling of Lowe syndrome families.
Project description:Disturbances in the form of microduplications and microdeletions have been found throughout the genome and have been associated with autism, intellectual disability, and recognizable malformation syndromes. In our study of 187 probands with autism, we have identified a duplication in Xq25 including full gene duplication of OCRL and six flanking genes. Activity of the enzyme gene product in fibroblasts was elevated to over twice the level in control fibroblasts. The boy had no somatic or neurological findings reminiscent of Lowe syndrome.
Project description:Lowe syndrome is defined by congenital cataracts, mental retardation, and proximal tubulopathy and is due to mutations in OCRL. Recently, mutations in OCRL were found to underlie some patients with Dent disease, characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. This phenotypic heterogeneity is poorly understood.The renal phenotype of 16 patients with Lowe syndrome (10.9 +/- 7.0 yr) under care of the authors was characterized to define overlap of symptoms with Dent disease and infer clues about OCRL function. Medical charts of patients were reviewed for data regarding glomerular filtration rate and markers of proximal tubular function.All patients had low molecular weight proteinuria and albuminuria. Lysosomal enzymuria was elevated in all 11 patients assessed. Fifteen patients had hypercalciuria, and 14 aminoaciduria. Seven patients required bicarbonate and three required phosphate replacement; all others maintained normal serum values without supplementation. None of the patients had detectable glycosuria, and none had clinically overt rickets. GFR was mildly to moderately impaired and highly variable, with a trend of deterioration with age.Patients with Lowe syndrome do not have renal Fanconi syndrome but a selective proximal tubulopathy, variable in extent and dominated by low molecular weight proteinuria and hypercalciuria, the classical features of Dent disease. These findings suggest that OCRL and ClC-5, the chloride channel mutated in Dent disease, are involved in similar reabsorption pathways in the proximal tubule.
Project description:Mutations of the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL cause Lowe syndrome (LS), characterized by congenital cataract, low IQ, and defective kidney proximal tubule resorption. A key subset of LS mutants abolishes OCRL's interactions with endocytic adaptors containing F&H peptide motifs. Converging unbiased methods examining human peptides and the unicellular phagocytic organism Dictyostelium discoideum reveal that, like OCRL, the Dictyostelium OCRL orthologue Dd5P4 binds two proteins closely related to the F&H proteins APPL1 and Ses1/2 (also referred to as IPIP27A/B). In addition, a novel conserved F&H interactor was identified, GxcU (in Dictyostelium) and the Cdc42-GEF FGD1-related F-actin binding protein (Frabin) (in human cells). Examining these proteins in D. discoideum, we find that, like OCRL, Dd5P4 acts at well-conserved and physically distinct endocytic stations. Dd5P4 functions in coordination with F&H proteins to control membrane deformation at multiple stages of endocytosis and suppresses GxcU-mediated activity during fluid-phase micropinocytosis. We also reveal that OCRL/Dd5P4 acts at the contractile vacuole, an exocytic osmoregulatory organelle. We propose F&H peptide-containing proteins may be key modifiers of LS phenotypes.
Project description:Mutations in the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL are responsible for Lowe syndrome, whose manifestations include mental retardation and renal Fanconi syndrome. OCRL has been implicated in membrane trafficking, but disease mechanisms remain unclear. We show that OCRL visits late-stage, endocytic clathrin-coated pits and binds the Rab5 effector APPL1 on peripheral early endosomes. The interaction with APPL1, which is mediated by the ASH-RhoGAP-like domains of OCRL and is abolished by disease mutations, provides a link to protein networks implicated in the reabsorptive function of the kidney and in the trafficking and signaling of growth factor receptors in the brain. Crystallographic studies reveal a role of the ASH-RhoGAP-like domains in positioning the phosphatase domain at the membrane interface and a clathrin box protruding from the RhoGAP-like domain. Our results support a role of OCRL in the early endocytic pathway, consistent with the predominant localization of its preferred substrates, PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3), at the cell surface.
Project description:Oculocerebral renal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL or Lowe syndrome), a severe X-linked congenital disorder characterized by congenital cataracts and glaucoma, mental retardation and kidney dysfunction, is caused by mutations in the OCRL gene. OCRL is a phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase that interacts with small GTPases and is involved in intracellular trafficking. Despite extensive studies, it is unclear how OCRL mutations result in a myriad of phenotypes found in Lowe syndrome. Our results show that OCRL localizes to the primary cilium of retinal pigment epithelial cells, fibroblasts and kidney tubular cells. Lowe syndrome-associated mutations in OCRL result in shortened cilia and this phenotype can be rescued by the introduction of wild-type OCRL; in vivo, knockdown of ocrl in zebrafish embryos results in defective cilia formation in Kupffer vesicles and cilia-dependent phenotypes. Cumulatively, our data provide evidence for a role of OCRL in cilia maintenance and suggest the involvement of ciliary dysfunction in the manifestation of Lowe syndrome.
Project description:Lowe syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts and glaucoma, mental retardation, and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Mutations in OCRL, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase that dephosphorylates PI(4,5)P2, cause Lowe syndrome. Previously we showed that OCRL localizes to the primary cilium, which has a distinct membrane phospholipid composition, but disruption of phosphoinositides in the ciliary membrane is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cilia from Lowe syndrome patient fibroblasts exhibit increased levels of PI(4,5)P2 and decreased levels of PI4P. In particular, subcellular distribution of PI(4,5)P2 build-up was observed at the transition zone. Accumulation of ciliary PI(4,5)P2 was pronounced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Lowe syndrome mouse model as well as in Ocrl-null MEFs, which was reversed by reintroduction of OCRL. Similarly, expression of wild-type OCRL reversed the elevated PI(4,5)P2 in Lowe patient cells. Accumulation of sonic hedgehog protein in response to hedgehog agonist was decreased in MEFs derived from a Lowe syndrome mouse model. Together, our findings show for the first time an abnormality in ciliary phosphoinositides of both human and mouse cell models of Lowe syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lowe syndrome is a rare X-linked syndrome that is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular basis of four patients with congenital cataract, infantile congenital hypotonia, and proximal renal tubular defect. METHODS:Four children who met the clinical manifestations of Lowe syndrome were enrolled in this study. Patients' clinical information on eyes, central nervous system, kidneys, and family histories, etc., were reviewed and analyzed. After obtaining informed consent, we performed a mutation analysis of OCRL gene using direct sequencing. Because of failure of PCR amplification, low coverage shortread whole genome sequencing (CNVseq) analysis was performed on one proband. Real-time PCR was subsequently performed to confirm the CNV that was detected from the CNVseq results. RESULTS:We identified three OCRL allelic variants, including two novel missense mutations (c.1423C>T/p.Pro475Ser, c.1502T>G/p.Ile501Ser) and one recurrent nonsense mutation (c.2464C>T/p.Arg822Ter). Various bioinformatic tools revealed scores associated with potential pathogenic effects for the two missense variants, and protein alignments revealed that both variants affected an amino acid highly conserved among species. Since deletion of the entire gene was suspected in a patient, CNVseq was used, identifying an interstitial deletion to approximately 190 kb, encompassing OCRL, and SMARCA1 gene. Moreover, the hemizygous CNV was confirmed by qPCR. Reviewing another case reported in the literature, we found that the deletion of OCRL and nearby genes may contribute to a more severe phenotype and premature death. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report of an interstitial deletion encompassing OCRL and SMARCA1 gene in Lowe syndrome. Our results expand the spectrum of mutations of the OCRL gene in Chinese population. Moreover, whole-genome sequencing presents a comprehensive and reliable approach for detecting genomic copy number variation in patients or carriers in the family with rare inherited disorders.