Enantioselective Generation of Adjacent Stereocenters in a Copper-Catalyzed Three-Component Coupling of Imines, Allenes, and Diboranes.
ABSTRACT: A highly enantio- and diastereoselective copper-catalyzed three-component coupling affords the first general synthesis of homoallylic amines bearing adjacent stereocenters from achiral starting materials. The method utilizes a commercially available NHC ligand and copper source, operates at ambient temperature, couples readily available simple imines, allenes, and diboranes, and yields high-value homoallylic amines that exhibit versatile amino, alkenyl, and boryl units.
Project description:A copper-catalyzed three-component coupling of allenes, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and imines allows regio-, chemo-, and diastereoselective assembly of branched ?,?-substituted-?-boryl homoallylic amines, that is, products bearing versatile amino, alkenyl, and borane functionality. Alternatively, convenient oxidative workup allows access to ?-substituted-?-amino ketones. A computational study has been used to probe the stereochemical course of the cross-coupling.
Project description:The one-pot hydrozirconation of allenes and nitriles followed by an in situ transmetalation of the allylzirconocene with dimethylzinc or zinc chloride provides functionalized homoallylic amines. An intramolecular version of this process leads to 3-aminotetrahydrofurans and 3-aminotetrahydropyrans.
Project description:The general enantioselective synthesis of axially chiral disubstituted allenes from prochiral starting materials remains a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis. Here, we report an efficient enantio- and chemoselective copper hydride catalyzed semireduction of conjugated enynes to furnish 1,3-disubstituted allenes using water as the proton source. This protocol is sufficiently mild to accommodate an assortment of functional groups including keto, ester, amino, halo, and hydroxyl groups. Additionally, applications of this method for the selective synthesis of monodeuterated allenes and chiral 2,5-dihydropyrroles are described.
Project description:Several alkylidenesilacyclopropanes were prepared by silver-mediated silylene transfer to allenes. Oxasilacyclopentanes derived from allenes were prepared with high regio- and diastereoselectivity by a two-step, one-flask silacyclopropanation/carbonyl insertion reaction. Triols and homoallylic alcohols were formed diastereoselectively by functionalizing the oxasilacyclopentanes. An optically active allene (>98% ee) was utilized to synthesize an enantiopure homoallylic alcohol in 96% ee.
Project description:Rh-hydride catalysis solves a synthetic challenge by affording the enantioselective reduction of allenes, thereby yielding access to motifs commonly used in medicinal chemistry. A designer Josiphos ligand promotes the generation of chiral benzylic isomers, when combined with a Hantzsch ester as the reductant. This semireduction proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups, which are typically reduced using conventional hydrogenations. Isotopic labelling studies support a mechanism where the hydride is delivered to the branched position of a Rh-allyl intermediate.Reduction of allenes poses several challenges in terms of chemo-, regio- and enantio-selectivity. Here, the authors report a rhodium-Josiphos catalytic system that reduces a variety of aryl allenes to chiral benzylic compounds with excellent selectivity and functional group tolerance.
Project description:Under the conditions of ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation employing 2-propanol as the terminal reductant, 1,1-disubstituted allenes 1a- h engage in reductive coupling to paraformaldehyde to furnish homoallylic alcohols 2a- h. Under identical transfer hydrogenation conditions, 1,1-disubstituted allenes engage in reductive coupling to aldehydes 3a- f to furnish homoallylic alcohols 4a- n. In all cases, reductive coupling occurs with branched regioselectivity to deliver homoallylic alcohols bearing all-carbon quaternary centers.
Project description:A copper-catalyzed, chemoselective hydrometalation process enables the use of simple allenes as allylmetal nucleophile surrogates in imine allylation reactions. By modulating the nitrogen-protecting group, either highly branched- or linear-selective addition can be achieved from the same allene. Both reactions exhibit excellent diastereoselectivity and broad functional-group tolerance. Preliminary results indicate that good enantioselectivity can also be achieved in the linear-selective reaction. Finally, a mechanistic model for the regiodivergence is proposed on the basis of density functional theory calculations.
Project description:Herein, we report a modular synthetic route to linear and branched homoallylic amines that operates through a sequential one-pot Lewis base/transition-metal catalyzed allylic alkylation/Hofmann rearrangement strategy. This protocol is operationally trivial, proceeds from simple and easily prepared substrates and catalysts, and enables all aspects of regio- and stereoselectivity to be controlled through a conserved experimental protocol. Overall, the high levels of enantio-, regio-, and diastereoselectivity obtained, in concert with the ability to access orthogonally protected or free amines, render this a straightforward and effective approach for the preparation of useful enantioenriched homoallylic amines. We have also demonstrated the utility of the products in the context of pharmaceutical synthesis.
Project description:A cationic (CAAC)gold(I) complex promotes the addition of all types of nontertiary amines to a variety of allenes, affording allylic amines in good to excellent yields; the amino fragment always adds to the less substituted terminus of the CCC skeleton.
Project description:Ruthenium(II) complexes catalyze the C?C coupling of 1,1-disubstituted allenes and fluorinated alcohols to form homoallylic alcohols bearing all-carbon quaternary centers with good to complete levels of diastereoselectivity. Whereas fluorinated alcohols are relatively abundant and tractable, the corresponding aldehydes are often not commercially available because of their instability.