Efficacy and Acceptability of Different Auxiliary Drugs in Pediatric Sevoflurane Anesthesia: A Network Meta-analysis of Mixed Treatment Comparisons.
ABSTRACT: Emergence agitation preventive medicine should be combined with pediatric anesthesia because of the high frequency of emergence agitation. However, it is challenging to determine the most appropriate medication that can be introduced into pediatric anesthesia for the sake of emergence agitation prevention. We reviewed and retrieved the data from PubMed and Embase. Various medications were assessed based on several endpoints including Emergence agitation outcomes (EA), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), the number of patients who required analgesic (RA), pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED), the extubation time, the emergency time and the duration of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Both traditional and network meta-analysis were carried in this study. A total of 45 articles were complied with the selection criteria and the corresponding articles were reviewed. Fentanyl demonstrated the highest cumulative ranking probability which was followed by those of ketamine and dexmedetomidine with respect to EA and PAED. When PONV and RA were concerned together, clonidine exhibited the highest cumulative ranking probability compared to other medications. Our study suggested that dexmedetomidine perhaps is the most appropriate prophylactic treatment which can be introduced into anesthesia for preventing emergence agitation.
Project description:Emergence agitation (EA) is frequently observed in children undergoing general anaesthesia. This study tested whether the addition of an intra-operative low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine to fentanyl treatment reduced the incidence of emergence delirium following desflurane anesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgery.A total of 96 children (1-5 years old) undergoing strabismus surgery were enrolled. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with desflurane. After induction, fentanyl (1 ?g/kg) was administered to all children. During surgery, patients were infused with 0.2 ?g/(kg·h)?¹ dexmedetomidine (Group FD, n=47) or normal saline (Group F, n=47). Postoperative objective pain score (OPS), Paediatric Agitation and Emergence Delirium (PAED) score, and EA score were documented every 10 minutes in the post-anaesthesia care unit.There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic characteristics and haemodynamic changes. The mean values of maximum EA, maximum PAED, and maximum OPS score were significantly lower in Group FD than in Group F at 0, 10, and 20 minutes after arrival at the post-anaesthesia care unit (p<0.001). The frequency of fentanyl rescue was lower in Group FD than in Group F (p<0.001). The incidence of severe EA was significantly lower in Group FD than in Group F (12.8% vs. 74.5%, p<0.001).Intra-operative low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine in addition to fentanyl reduces EA following desflurane anaesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgeries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Common complications of pediatric strabismus surgery, including emergence agitation (EA), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and postoperative pain, may be prevented using dexmedetomidine, which is an anxiolytic and analgesic. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of dexmedetomidine in patients who had undergone pediatric strabismus surgery. METHOD:Five databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published from database inception to April 2020 that compared dexmedetomidine use with placebo or active comparator use and evaluated EA, PONV, or postoperative pain incidence (main outcomes) in patients who had undergone pediatric strabismus surgery. Oculocardiac reflex (OCR) incidence and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay duration were considered as safety outcomes. All meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model. RESULTS:In the nine studies meeting our inclusion criteria, compared with placebo use, dexmedetomidine use reduced EA incidence [risk ratio (RR): 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.62, I2 = 66%], severe EA incidence (RR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17-0.43, I2 = 0%), PONV incidence (RR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.21-0.54, I2 = 0%), analgesia requirement (RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.25-0.57, I2 = 0%), and pain scores (standardized mean difference: -1.02, 95% CI: -1.44 to -0.61, I2 = 75%). Dexmedetomidine also led to lower EA incidence in the sevoflurane group than in the desflurane group (RR: 0.26 for sevoflurane vs. 0.45 for desflurane). Continuous dexmedetomidine infusion (RR: 0.19) led to better EA incidence reduction than did bolus dexmedetomidine infusion at the end of surgery (RR: 0.26) or during the peri-induction period (RR: 0.36). Compared with placebo use, dexmedetomidine use reduced OCR incidence (RR: 0.63; I2 = 40%). No significant between-group differences were noted for PACU stay duration. CONCLUSION:In patients who have undergone pediatric strabismus surgery, dexmedetomidine use may alleviate EA, PONV, and postoperative pain and reduce OCR incidence. Moreover, dexmedetomidine use does not affect the PACU stay duration.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Emergence agitation (EA) is a common complication in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine on EA in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials that evaluated the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine and placebo on EA in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. The search collected trials from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase, and Web of Science. Analysis was conducted using STATA version 12.0. Data from each trial were pooled using relative ratio (RR) for dichotomous data or weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity assessment, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were performed. RESULTS: Twelve trials, in which 459 patients received dexmedetomidine and 353 patients received placebo, were included in this analysis. We found that intravenous dexmedetomidine decreased the incidences of EA (RR = 0.346, 95% CI 0.263 to 0.453, P<0.001), and postoperative pain (RR = 0.405, 95% CI 0.253 to 0.649, P<0.001). Intravenous dexmedetomidine also prolonged extubation time (WMD = 0.617, 95% CI 0.276 to 958, P<0.001), and emergence time (WMD = 0.997, 95% CI 0.392 to 1.561, P = 0.001). Further evidences are required to evaluate the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Sensitivity analysis strengthened evidences for lower incidences of EA, pain, and prolonged extubation time, and emergence time. Funnel plots did not detect any significant publication bias. CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis demonstrated that dexmedetomidine decreased the incidence of EA in children under sevoflurane anesthesia.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to observe whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) combined with sufentanil decreased emergence agitation (EA) in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery. Children undergoing elective cleft palate repair surgery were randomly allocated into the DEX + sufentanil group (group DS; n=50) and the normal saline + fentanyl group (group SF; n=50). Patients in group DS were treated with 0.5 µg/kg DEX prior to induction of anesthesia, whereas patients in group SF received an equal volume of normal saline. Sufentanil (0.2 µg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia, and 30 min before the end of surgery for patients in group DS. Fentanyl (2 µg/kg) was administered at the same time point for patients in group SF. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), duration of surgery and anesthesia, and the dosage of remifentanil were assessed. EA score, Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) score and the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) score were documented every 15 min in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). The number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) and the recovery profile data were analyzed. Compared with group DS (P<0.05) and the baseline (P<0.05), HR and MAP were significantly increased in group SF immediately following tracheal intubation and extubation. Mean values of maximum EA, PAED and CHIPPS scores were significantly reduced in group DS compared with group SF at 0 (P<0.01), 15 (P<0.05), and 30 min (P<0.05) after arrival at PACU. The incidence of EA in group SF was significantly increased compared with group DS (P<0.05). The dosage of remifentanil during the surgery and the number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) in group DS were significantly decreased compared with group SF (P<0.05). The findings of the present study suggested that DEX combined with sufentanil was able to effectively decrease the incidence of EA in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emergence agitation (EA) is a common postoperative issue in children that causes self-injury, increases stress on healthcare team members, and even leads to postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes in children. Clear answers regarding a 'gold standard' for prevention of EA are not available. Pain is regarded as an important causative factor of EA, and ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block is a safe and efficient anesthetic method that can provide satisfactory pain relief in pediatric hip surgery. The purpose of our study is to determine whether ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block can reduce the incidence of EA in children undergoing hip surgery. METHODS/DESIGN:We designed a prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded trial to determine the effect of ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block on EA. A total of 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists class I-II children (1-6?years old) scheduled for elective hip surgery will be recruited for this study. Participants will be randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive either ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block or fentanyl after the induction of general anesthesia. The primary outcome is the incidence of EA 30?min after emergence from anesthesia using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) score. The secondary outcomes are the severity and duration of EA 30?min after emergence from anesthesia using the PAED score, postoperative pain evaluated by the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale, and the incidence of postoperative adverse events. Randomization will be conducted using a computer-generated randomization schedule. Outcome assessors and data collectors will be blinded to the group allocations. Assessments will be performed before surgery, intraoperatively, and postoperatively at every time point. DISCUSSION:Our hypothesis in this trial is that ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block can decrease the incidence of EA in children undergoing elective hip surgery. This trial will provide clinical answers to verify our hypothesis. If our hypothesis is confirmed, the results could provide a safe method to prevent EA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-INR-17011525 . Registered on 30 May 2017.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emergence agitation (EA) is a common problem after sevoflurane anesthesia among children. There have been mixed results with control of EA using propofol 1 mg/kg bolus following sevoflurane anesthesia. An infusion of 3 mg/kg of propofol over 3 min following sevoflurane anesthesia has been found to be promising in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging scans. However, no studies have been conducted during surgical procedures. We aimed to examine the efficacy of transition to propofol for 3 min after cessation of sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. METHODS:In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 64 children aged 1-12 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, were randomized to receive either propofol 3 mg/kg over 3 min (propofol group) or no propofol (control group), after the cessation of sevoflurane anesthesia. EA was assessed using the Paediatric Emergence Anesthesia Delirium (PAED) scale and the Watcha scale. Emergence time and the duration of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay were also recorded. RESULTS:The incidence of ED was lower in the propofol group on both the PAED (81.3% vs. 15.6%, P < 0.001) and the Watcha (78.1% vs. 15.6%, P < 0.001) scales. The mean emergence time was 6.37 minutes longer in the propofol group with no significant difference in PACU times. CONCLUSIONS:Transition to propofol 3 mg/kg over 3 min following sevoflurane anesthesia reduces the incidence of EA and improves the quality of emergence. Although emergence times were longer, the duration of stay in the PACU was similar with propofol use.
Project description:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely applied diagnostic approach for detection of pediatric diseases. Sedatives are commonly used to acquire the accurate MRI images. Dexmedetomidine and propofol serve as sole or combined sedatives in pediatric MRI scanning. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and propofol in children ubdergoing MRI. Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched up to June, 2017. Onset of sedation time, recovery time, sedation time, MRI time, MRI quality and emergence delirium were analyzed. 6 studies with 368 subjects were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooling data showed that propofol had a shorter onset of sedation time (WMD: 6.05, 95% CI: 3.12 - 8.98, P < 0.0001) and recovery time (WMD: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.36-1.67, P < 0.001) than dexmedetomidine. But for sedation time and MRI scanning time, there were no differences between the two groups (sedation time: P = 0.29; MRI scanning time: P = 0.50). There were no significance between dexmedetomidine and propofol on MRI quality (MRI quality 1: P = 1.00; MRI quality 2: P = 0.68; MRI quality 3: P = 0.45). Two studies using Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) to assess emergence delirium 10 minutes after awakening showed that propofol had a lower PAED than dexmedetomidine (WMD: 2.57, 95% CI: 0.15-5.00, P = 0.04). Thus, propofol should be encouraged in pediatric patients undergoing MRI for its better sedative effects and a low incidence of emergence delirium.
Project description:Background:The effect of volatile anesthetics on emergence agitation in adults remains unclear. We compared the degree of emergence agitation between desflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia in adults undergoing thyroid surgery. Findings:One hundred and sixteen patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status 1 or 2 were randomized into two groups: the desflurane group (group D) and the sevoflurane group (group S). After induction of anesthesia with fentanyl (1-2 ?g/kg) and propofol (1.5-2.5 mg/kg), tracheal intubation was facilitated with suxamethonium (0.5-1.0 mg/kg). In group D, anesthesia was maintained with desflurane in 66% nitrous oxide and 33% oxygen supplemented with fentanyl when necessary; in group S, sevoflurane was used instead of desflurane. After the end of the surgery, emergence agitation was evaluated with a modified pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale (ranging from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating more severe emergence agitation) before extubation. Time to extubation from the end of the surgery, postoperative pain (evaluated by a numerical rating scale [NRS]), and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after surgery were examined. The degree of emergence agitation was more severe in group D than in group S (median [interquartile range]: 5 [4-7] vs 4 [2-6], p?=?0.008). Time to extubation, NRS scores, and PONV rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusions:Desflurane anesthesia worsened emergence agitation as compared with sevoflurane in adult patients undergoing thyroid surgery, but did not affect time to extubation, postoperative pain, or PONV. Trial registration:UMIN000014215.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Dexmedetomidine is known to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation, which is a common complication after inhalational anesthesia like sevoflurane or desflurane in children. However, the dose of dexmedetomidine used for this purpose is reported variously and the most effective dose is not known. In this study, we tried to find the most effective dose of dexmedetomidine to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing strabismus surgery without the complications like oculocardiac reflex (OCR) or postoperative vomiting. METHODS:We randomized 103 pediatric patients aged 2-6 years and undergoing elective strabismus surgery into four groups. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane. At the start of induction, dexmedetomidine, delivered at 0.25, 0.5, or 1 ?g/kg, or saline was infused intravenously in the D0.25, D0.5, D1 groups, respectively. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of emergence agitation and the secondary outcome measure was the incidence of intraoperative OCR, postoperative vomiting, and desaturation events. RESULTS:The incidence of emergence agitation was 60, 48, 44, and 21% (P = 0.005) and the incidence of intraoperative OCR was 36, 36, 36, and 37% (P = 0.988) in the control, D0.25, D0.5, and D1 groups, respectively. And, postoperative vomiting rate and desaturation events were low in the all groups. CONCLUSION:Dexmedetomidine decreased the incidence of emergence agitation without increasing intraoperative oculocardiac reflex. Dexmedetomidine delivered at 1 ?g/kg was more effective at reducing emergence agitation than lower doses in children undergoing strabismus surgery under desflurane anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000141.
Project description:Sevoflurane is commonly usedin pediatric anesthesia due to its non-irritating airway properties, and rapid induction and emergence. However, it is associated with emergence agitation (EA) in children. EA may cause injury to the child or damage to the surgical site and is a cause of stress to both caregivers and families. The efficacy of remifentanil and additional alfentanil on EA in the pediatric patients underwent ophthalmic surgery with sevofluraneanesthesiawas not well evaluated to date. This study was designed to compare the effects of remifentanil and remifentanil plus alfentanil on EA in children undergoing ophthalmic surgery with sevofluraneanesthesia.Children (aged 3-9 years) undergoing ophthalmic surgery undersevoflurane anesthesia were randomly assigned to group S (sevoflurane alone), group R (sevofluraneandremifentanil infusion, 0.1 ?g/kg/min), or group RA (sevoflurane withremifentanil infusion and intravenous injection of alfentanil 5 ?g/kg 10 min before the end of surgery). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and sevoflurane concentration were checked every 15 min after induction of anesthesia. The incidence of EA, time to extubation from discontinuation of sevoflurane inhalation, and time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit was assessed.The incidence of EA was significantly lower in groups R (32 %, 11/34; P?=?0.01) and RA (31 %, 11/35; P?=?0.008) than group S (64 %, 21/33). The time to extubation was prolonged in group RA (11.2?±?2.3 min; P?=?0.004 and P?=?0.016) compared with groups S (9.2?±?2.3 min) andR (9.5?±?2.4 min). MAP and HR were similar in all three groups, apart from a reduction in HR at 45 min in groups R and RA. However, the sevoflurane concentration was lower in groups R and RA than group S (P?<?0.001).The administration of remifentanil to children undergoing ophthalmic surgery undersevoflurane anesthesia reduced the incidence of EA without clinically significant hemodynamic changes. However, the addition of alfentanil(5 ?g/kg)10 min before the end of surgery provided no additional benefit compared withremifentanil alone.NCT02486926 , June.29.2015.