Project description:The research was to appraise the utility of the patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) as models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+HER2- and ER+HER2+) breast cancers. We compared protein expression profiles by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) in tumors that resulted in PDXs compared to those that did not. Our overall PDX intake rate for ER+ breast cancer was 9% (9/97). The intake rate for ER+HER2+ tumors (3/16, 19%) was higher than for ER+HER2- tumors (6/81, 7%). Heat map analyses of RPPA data showed that ER+HER2- tumors were divided into 2 groups by luminal A/B signature [protein expression of ER, AR, Bcl-2, Bim (BCL2L11), GATA3 and INPP4b], and this expression signature was also associated with the rate of PDX intake. Cell survival pathways such as the PI3K/AKT signaling and RAS/ERK pathways were more activated in the specimens that could be established as PDX in both classes. Expression of the ER protein itself may have a bearing on the potential success of an ER+ PDX model. In addition, HER2 and its downstream protein expressions were up-regulated in the ER+HER2+ patient tumors that were successfully established as PDX models. Moreover, the comparison of RPPA data between original and PDX tumors suggested that the selection/adaptation process required to grow the tumors in mice is unavoidable for generation of ER+ PDX models, and we identified differences between patient tumor samples and paired PDX tumors. A better understanding of the biological characteristics of ER+PDX would be the key to using PDX models in assessing treatment strategies in a preclinical setting.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We investigated B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) regulation across DNA, RNA, protein, and methylation status according to molecular subtype of breast cancer using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We analyzed clinical and biological data on 1,096 breast cancers from the TCGA database. Biological data included reverse phase protein array (RPPA), mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq), mRNA microarray, methylation, copy number alteration linear, copy number alteration nonlinear, and mutation data.<h4>Results</h4>The luminal A and luminal B subtypes showed upregulated expression of RPPA and mRNAseq and hypomethylation compared to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and triple-negative subtypes (all p < 0.001). No mutations were found in any subjects. High mRNA-seq and high RPPA were strongly associated with positive estrogen receptor, positive progesterone receptor (all p < 0.001), and negative HER2 (p < 0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). Correlation analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between protein and mRNA levels and a strong negative correlation between methylation and protein and mRNA levels (all p < 0.001). The high BCL2 group showed superior overall survival compared to the low BCL2 group (p=0.006).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The regulation of BCL2 was mainly associated with methylation across the molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and luminal A and luminal B subtypes showed upregulated expression of BCL2 protein, mRNA, and hypomethylation. Although copy number alteration may have played a minor role, mutation status was not related to BCL2 regulation. Upregulation of BCL2 was associated with superior prognosis than downregulation of BCL2.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>PR loss in ER+/HER2- breast cancer indicates worse prognosis and insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy, while the mechanisms of PR loss in ER+/HER2- breast cancer remain unrevealed.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, ER+/PR+/HER2- and ER+/PR-/HER2- breast cancer cases from TCGA were used. 1387 pathways were analyzed and used as variables for classifying the two groups with LASSO regression.<h4>Results</h4>ER+/PR+/HER2- and ER+/PR-/HER2- breast cancer groups can be classified by a combination of 13 pathways using their activity score. Among the 13 pathways, those involving growth factors and ion-channel transporters were most significant in the distinction, followed by pathways involving immune modulation and cell metabolism. Two growth factor pathways, EGF and IGF-1, were deferentially regulated in ER+/PR+/HER2- and ER+/PR-/HER2- groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In conclusion, this study indicated in ER+/HER2- breast cancers the various status of PR expression can be an indication of molecular variation, particularly for the growth factor pathway activation.
Project description:Estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors and HER2 are crucial in the assessment of breast cancer specimens due to their prognostic and predictive significance. Single hormone receptor-positive breast cancers are less common and their clinical course is less favorable than ER(+)/PgR(+) tumors. Their molecular features, especially microRNA (miRNA) profiles, have not been investigated to date. Tumor specimens from 36 chemonaive breast cancer patients with known ER and PgR status (18 ER(+)/PgR(-) and 18 ER(-)/PgR(+) cases) were enrolled to the study. The expression of 829 miRNAs was evaluated with nCounter Human v3 miRNA expression Assay (NanoString). miRNAs differentiating between ER/PgR/HER2 phenotypes were selected based on fold change (FC) calculated for the mean normalized counts of each probe in compared groups. The differences were estimated with Student's T-test or Two-Way ANOVA (considering also the HER2 status). The results were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Following quality control of raw data, fourcases were excluded due to low sample quality, leaving 14 ER(+)/PgR(-) and 18 ER(-)/PgR(+) cases. After correction for multiple comparisons, we did not find miRNA signature differentiating between ER(-)/PgR(+) and ER(+)/PgR(-) breast cancers. However, a trend for differing expression (p-value ? 0.05; FDR > 0.2; ANOVA) in eight miRNAs was observed. The ER(+)/PgR(-) group demonstrated elevated levels of four miRNAs-miR-30a-5p, miR-29c-3p, miR-141-3p and miR-423-5p-while the ER(-)/PgR(+) tumors were enriched in another four miRNAs-miR-514b-5p, miR-424-5p, miR-495-3p, and miR-92a-3p. For one of the miRNAs-miR-29c-3p-the association with the ER(+)/PgR(-) phenotype was confirmed in the TCGA cohort (p-value = 0.024; T-test). HER2 amplification/overexpression in the NanoString cohort was related to significant differences observed in 33 miRNA expression levels (FDR ? 0.2; ANOVA). The association with HER2 status was confirmed in the TCGA cohort for four miRNAs (miR-1180-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-195-5p). The main differences in miRNA expression amongst single hormone receptor-positive tumors were identified according to their HER2 status. However, ER(+)/PgR(-) cases tended to express higher levels of miRNAs associated with ER-positivity (miR-30a-5p, miR-29c-3p, miR-141-3p), whereas ER(-)/PgR(+) cancers showed elevated levels of miRNAs characteristic for double- and triple-negative tumors (miR-92a-3p, miR-424-5p). Further studies are necessary to comprehensively analyze miRNA signatures characteristic of ER(-)/PgR(+) and ER(+)/PgR(-) tumors.
Project description:Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (ER-PR-HER2-) are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. Within this subtype, invasive, stroma-rich tumours with infiltration of inflammatory cells are even more aggressive. The effect of myeloid cells on reactive stroma formation in TN breast cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that primary human monocytes have a survival advantage, proliferate in vivo and develop into immunosuppressive myeloid cells expressing the myeloid-derived suppressor cell marker S100A9 only in a TN breast cancer environment. This results in activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts and expression of CXCL16, which we show to be a monocyte chemoattractant. We propose that this migratory feedback loop amplifies the formation of a reactive stroma, contributing to the aggressive phenotype of TN breast tumours. These insights could help select more suitable therapies targeting the stromal component of these tumours, and could aid prediction of drug resistance.
Project description:Associations of reproductive history with breast cancer risk differ by oestrogen receptor (ER±) status and possibly by the joint expression of ER and the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ER±/HER2±). However, large sample sizes are needed to establish ER-specific risks by HER2± expression.We linked a cancer registry covering nearly 95% of the primary breast cancer diagnoses in Denmark with a research parity database to assess associations for parity, number of live births and age at first live birth (AFLB) with receptor-specific risk. Relative risks (RRs) for associations were estimated with Poisson regression models.With nearly 31 million women-years of follow-up, 45 786 Danish women aged 20-84 years developed invasive breast cancer during 1992-2011. ER± expression was available for the entire study period and HER2± after 2006. Of the breast cancers with known ER expression, 79% were ER+. Most breast cancers with known ER and HER2 were HER2- (90% of ER+ cancers and 65% of ER- cancers). RRs differed by ER± expression for all reproductive variables ( p -homogeneity < 0.001). Associations were stronger for ER+ than ER- cancers and for those diagnosed before age 50. Parity and early [not later] AFLB showed a protective association with ER+/HER2- and risk association with ER-/HER2- cancers.Associations of reproductive history with breast cancer risk varied among Danish women by ER± and ER±/HER2± expression and age-at-diagnosis, consistent with receptor-specific and age-related etiological heterogeneity. Further stratification by HER2 status demonstrated dual (or opposite) effects for ER+/HER2- and ER-/HER2- cancers.
Project description:The tumor microenvironment regulates tissue development and homeostasis, and its dysregulation contributes to neoplastic progression. Increased expression of type X collagen ?-1 (ColX?1) in tumor-associated stroma correlates with poor pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers. Evaluation of ColX?1 expression patterns suggests a potential connection with elastin fibers. To investigate the possible interaction between ColX?1 and elastin, we evaluated the expression of ColX?1 in relation to elastin fibers in normal breast tissue, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive breast carcinomas at cellular and subcellular levels. Our findings demonstrate that ColX?1 colocalizes with elastin in invasive breast cancer-associated stroma by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. In 212 invasive breast carcinomas, this complex was aberrantly and selectively expressed in tumor extracellular matrix in 79% of ER+/HER2-, 80% of ER+/HER2+, 76% of ER-/HER2+, and 58% of triple negative breast cancers. In contrast, ColX?1 was generally absent, while elastin was present perivascularly in normal breast tissue. ColX?1 and elastin were coexpressed in 58% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in periductal areas. In mass-forming DCIS with desmoplastic stroma, the complex was intensely expressed in periductal areas as well as within the tumor-associated stroma in all cases. Our data suggest that the breast carcinoma neoplastic process may involve aberrant expression of ColX?1 and elastin in the tumor microenvironment emerging early at the DCIS stage. Enrichment of these complexes in tumor-associated stroma may represent a stromal signature indicative of intrinsic differences between breast cancers. These findings shed light on investigation into the role of aberrant collagen complex expression in tumorigenesis and tumor progression which may be leveraged in therapeutic and theranostic applications.
Project description:Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) is not frequently used in ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer (BC) because around 10% patients achieve pathological complete response (pCR). Since NAC can result in cancer downstaging both in the breast and axilla and prevent a morbid surgery, thus a score to predict pCR in this population will be crucial to identify patients who can benefit from this approach. A total of 4038 patients from cohorts; GSE25066, GSE20194, Hess, GSE20181, TCGA-BRCA and METBRIC were analyzed. The score was generated by the 5 most highly expressed genes in the Hallmark E2F targets gene set amongst patients in the GSE25066 cohort with ER-positive/HER2-negative BC who achieved pCR. The area under the curve was significantly higher in the score than that for the E2F targets score. High score ER-positive/HER2-negative BCs were significantly associated with higher Nottingham pathological grade, AJCC cancer stage, <i>MKI67</i> expression levels, intratumor heterogeneity, homologous recombination defects, mutation burden, neoantigen load, and infiltration of anti-cancer immune cells (CD4<sup>+</sup>, T helper type1, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, M1 macrophages). They also expressed lower abundance of stromal cells including fibroblasts, lymphatic endothelial cells, pericytes and adipocytes consistently in GSE25066, TCGA and METABRIC cohorts. All cell proliferation-related gene sets, G2M checkpoint, E2F targets, MYC targets v1 and v2, Mitotic Spindle, were strongly enriched in high score BCs consistently in 3 cohorts. The gene score was significantly associated with high pCR rate consistently in the GSE25066 (38%, <i>P</i> < 0.001), GSE20194 (16%, <i>P</i> = 0.006), and Hess cohort (23%, <i>P</i> = 0.037). In conclusion, the 5-gene score reflects cancer cell proliferation and immune cell infiltration, and predicts pCR after NAC in ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common cancer form among women today. Depending on hormone receptor status, breast cancers are divided into different subtypes with vastly varying prognosis. S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein that is associated with inflammation and expressed not only in myeloid cells but also in some tumours. The role for S100A9 in the malignant cells is not well characterised; however, previous studies have shown that the protein could have important immune-modulating properties.Using a human breast cancer cohort consisting of 144 tumour samples and in vitro analysis of human breast cancer cell lines, we investigated the expression and function of S100A9 in human breast cancer.We show that S100A9 expression in breast cancer correlated with the ER(-)PgR(-) breast tumour subtype (P<0.001) and with Ki67 (P=0.024) and was expressed both in the malignant cells and in the tumour-infiltrating anti-inflammatory CD163(+) myeloid cells (P<0.001). Stromal expression of S100A9 also correlated to nodal stage, tumour size and Her2 positivity. Within the ER(-)PgR(-) subgroup, all Her2(+) and EGFR(+) tumours expressed S100A9 in the cytoplasm. Both cytoplasmic staining in the malignant cells as well as stromal S100A9 expression in myeloid cells correlated with a decreased overall survival in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, rS100A9 homodimers induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1?) in a TLR4- and EGFR-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells in vitro.We suggest that S100A9 could be viewed as a novel therapeutic target for patients with ER(-)PgR(-) breast cancers.
Project description:Protein homeostasis regulated by the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a recognized process involved in cancer progression. ER stress activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and has been implicated in a variety of cancers. Given the role of the UPR activation in carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that UPR activation could be associated with pathological progression, higher clinical stage, and worse survival in breast cancer. A total of 4,416 breast cancer patients from multiple independent cohorts were analyzed. We defined the UPR pathway score by the degree of enrichment by Gene Set Variant Analysis and median was used to divide high vs. low score groups in each cohort. High UPR breast cancer significantly enriched not only cell proliferation-related but also other pro-cancerous gene sets consistently in both METABIC and GSE96058 cohort. Majority of UPR pathway score high cells in the bulk tumor were tumor cells compared to other cells, including stromal, T-, B-, and myeloid-cells (P<0.001). UPR score was significantly associated with advanced stage, high grade, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (all P<0.001). High UPR breast cancer was associated with worse patient survival in both cohorts (all P<0.001). Among breast cancer subtype, ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer with high UPR was significantly associated with worse survival, but neither HER-positive nor TNBC. High UPR ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer was infiltrated with high level of Th1 and Th2 cells, M1 macrophage, and plasma cells. On the other hand, they were significantly infiltrated with high level of several types of stromal cells in tumor microenvironment (all P<0.001). Finally, high UPR metastatic breast cancer was also associated with worse patient survival (P=0.041). UPR signaling is associated with cancer aggressiveness, and worse survival, especially ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer subtype.