Hypothalamic AMPK-induced autophagy increases food intake by regulating NPY and POMC expression.
ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays important roles in the regulation of food intake by altering the expression of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides. However, little is known about the mechanisms of this regulation. Here, we report that hypothalamic AMPK modulates the expression of NPY (neuropeptide Y), an orexigenic neuropeptide, and POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin-α), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, by regulating autophagic activity in vitro and in vivo. In hypothalamic cell lines subjected to low glucose availability such as 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG)-induced glucoprivation or glucose deprivation, autophagy was induced via the activation of AMPK, which regulates ULK1 and MTOR complex 1 followed by increased Npy and decreased Pomc expression. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy diminished the effect of AMPK on neuropeptide expression in hypothalamic cell lines. Moreover, AMPK knockdown in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus decreased autophagic activity and changed Npy and Pomc expression, leading to a reduction in food intake and body weight. AMPK knockdown abolished the orexigenic effects of intraperitoneal 2DG injection by decreasing autophagy and changing Npy and Pomc expression in mice fed a high-fat diet. We suggest that the induction of autophagy is a possible mechanism of AMPK-mediated regulation of neuropeptide expression and control of feeding in response to low glucose availability.
Project description:Pre- and postnatal calorie restriction is associated with postnatal growth restriction, reduced circulating leptin concentrations, and perturbed energy balance. Hypothalamic regulation of energy balance demonstrates enhanced orexigenic (NPY, AgRP) and diminished anorexigenic (POMC, CART) neuropeptide expression (PN21), setting the stage for subsequent development of obesity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Leptin replenishment during the early postnatal period (PN2-PN8) led to reversal of the hypothalamic orexigenic:anorexigenic neuropeptide ratio at PN21 by reducing only the orexigenic (NPY, AgRP), without affecting the anorexigenic (POMC, CART) neuropeptide expression. This hypothalamic effect was mediated via enhanced leptin receptor (ObRb) signaling that involved increased pSTAT3/STAT3 but reduced PTP1B. This was further confirmed by an increase in body weight at PN21 in response to intracerebroventricular administration of antisense ObRb oligonucleotides (PN2-PN8). The change in the hypothalamic neuropeptide balance in response to leptin administration was associated with increased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and physical activity, which resulted in increased milk intake (PN14) with no change in body weight. This is in contrast to the reduction in milk intake with no effect on energy expenditure and physical activity observed in controls. We conclude that pre- and postnatal calorie restriction perturbs hypothalamic neuropeptide regulation of energy balance, setting the stage for hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure, hallmarks of obesity. Leptin in turn reverses this phenotype by increasing hypothalamic ObRb signaling (sensitivity) and affecting only the orexigenic arm of the neuropeptide balance.
Project description:We have shown that intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) newborn rats exhibit hyperphagia, reduced satiety, and adult obesity. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a principal metabolic regulator that specifically regulates appetite in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). In response to fasting, upregulated AMPK activity increases the expression of orexigenic (neuropeptide Y [NPY] and agouti-related protein [AgRP]) and decreases anorexigenic (proopiomelanocortin [POMC]) peptides. We hypothesized that IUGR offspring would exhibit upregulated hypothalamic AMPK, contributing to hyperphagia and obesity. We determined AMPK activity and appetite-modulating peptides (NPY and POMC) during fasting and fed conditions in the ARC of adult IUGR and control females. Pregnant rats were fed ad libitum diet (control) or were 50% food restricted from gestation day 10 to 21 to produce IUGR newborns. At 10 months of age, hypothalamic ARC was dissected from fasted (48 hours) and fed control and IUGR females. Arcuate nucleus messenger RNA ([mRNA] NPY, AgRP, and POMC) and protein expression (total and phosphorylated AMPK, Akt) was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, respectively. In the fed state, IUGR adult females demonstrated evidence of persistent appetite stimulation with significantly upregulated phospho (Thr(172))-AMPK?/AMPK (1.3-fold), NPY/AgRP (2.3/1.8-fold) and decreased pAkt/Akt (0.6-fold) and POMC (0.7-fold) as compared to fed controls. In controls though not IUGR adult females, fasting significantly increased pAMPK/AMPK, NPY, and AgRP and decreased pAkt/Akt and POMC. Despite obesity, fed IUGR adult females exhibit upregulated AMPK activity and appetite stimulatory factors, similar to that exhibited by fasting controls. These results suggest that an enhanced appetite drive in both fed and fasting states contributes to hyperphagia and obesity in IUGR offspring.
Project description:Pre- and postnatal calorie restriction is associated with postnatal growth restriction, reduced circulating leptin concentrations and perturbed energy balance. Hypothalamic regulation of energy balance demonstrates enhanced orexigenic (NPY, AgRP) and diminished anorexigenic (POMC, CART) neuropeptide expression (PN21) setting the stage for subsequent development of obesity. Leptin replenishment during the early postnatal period (PN2-PN8) led to reversing the hypothalamic orexigenic:anorexigenic neuropeptide ratio at PN21 by only reducing the orexigenic (NPY, AgRP) without affecting the anorexigenic (POMC, CART) neuropeptide expression. This hypothalamic effect was mediated via enhanced leptin receptor (ObRb) signaling that involved increased pSTAT3 but reduced PTP1B. This was further confirmed by an increase in body weight at PN21 in response to intracerebroventricular administration of antisense ObRb oligonucleotides (PN2-PN8). The change in the hypothalamic neuropeptide balance in response to leptin administration caused increased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and physical activity which resulted in increased milk intake (PN14) with no change in body weight. This is in contrast to the reduction in milk intake with no effect on energy expenditure and physical activity observed in controls. We conclude that pre- and postnatal calorie restriction perturbs hypothalamic neuropeptide regulation of energy balance setting the stage for hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure, hallmarks of obesity. Leptin in turn reverses this phenotype by increasing hypothalamic ObRb signaling (sensitivity) and affecting only the orexigenic arm of the neuropeptide balance. Overall design: Transcriptional studies have been performed using Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 arrays for the following treatment groups, with each group run in duplicate: Day 21 Control saline treatment (Con-s), Day 21 Control leptin treatment (Con-r), Day 21 calorie restriction saline treatment (CR-s), and Day 21 calorie restriction leptin treatment (CR-l).
Project description:The fatty acid synthase inhibitor, C75, acts centrally to reduce food intake and body weight in mice. Here we report the effects of C75 on the expression of key orexigenic [neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and melanin-concentrating hormone] and anorexigenic [pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART)] neuropeptide messages in the hypothalami of lean and obese (ob/ob) mice. In lean mice, C75 rapidly and almost completely blocked food intake and prevented fasting-induced up-regulation of hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNAs, as well as down-regulation of CART and POMC mRNAs. Thus, in lean mice C75 seems to interrupt the fasting-induced signals that activate expression of NPY and AgRP and suppression of POMC and CART. In obese mice, C75 rapidly suppressed food intake, reduced body weight, and normalized obesity-associated hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Like its effect in lean mice, C75 prevented the fasting-induced increase of hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNAs in obese mice, but had no effect on the expression of POMC and CART mRNAs. The suppressive effect of C75 on food intake in lean mice seems to be mediated both by NPY/AgRP and POMC/CART neurons, whereas in obese mice the effect seems to be mediated primarily by NPY/AgRP neurons. In both lean and obese mice, C75 markedly increased expression of melanin-concentrating hormone and its receptor in the hypothalamus.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a key regulator of muscle development and metabolism in chickens. Recently, we have demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of IGF-1 significantly decreased food intake in broiler chicks. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the IGF-1-induced anorexia and the anorexigenic effect of IGF-1 in different strains of commercial chicks have not been investigated. Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide), agouti-related protein (AgRP, a hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC, the precursor of hypothalamic anorexigenic neuropeptides) play important roles in the regulation of food intake in both mammals and chickens. Evidence shows that several cell signaling pathways in the hypothalamus are involved in regulating the feeding behavior of mammals. In the present study, we first investigated the effects of IGF-1 on the expression of appetite-regulating neuropeptides and phosphorylation of signaling molecules in the hypothalamus of broiler chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of IGF-1 significantly increased the mRNA levels of POMC, whereas the mRNA levels of NPY and AgRP were not significantly altered. IGF-1 also significantly induced the phosphorylation of v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) in the hypothalamus of chicks, but did not influence the phosphorylation of forkhead box O1, S6 protein, AMP-activated protein kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. We also compared the effect of IGF-1 on food intake in broiler chicks (a hyperphagic strain of chickens) and layer chicks. Results demonstrated that the threshold of IGF-1-induced anorexia in broiler chicks was higher than that in layer chicks. Our observations suggest that hypothalamic POMC and AKT may be involved in the IGF-1-induced anorexigenic pathway and that high threshold of IGF-1-induced anorexia in broiler chicks might be one of the causes of hyperphagia in broiler chicks. Overall, it appears that IGF-1 plays important roles in the central regulation of feeding behavior in chicks.
Project description:Hypothalamic tanycytes are chemosensitive glial cells that contact the cerebrospinal fluid in the third ventricle and send processes into the hypothalamic parenchyma. To test whether they can activate neurons of the arcuate nucleus, we targeted expression of a Ca2+-permeable channelrhodopsin (CatCh) specifically to tanycytes. Activation of tanycytes ex vivo depolarized orexigenic (neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein; NPY/AgRP) and anorexigenic (proopiomelanocortin; POMC) neurons via an ATP-dependent mechanism. In vivo, activation of tanycytes triggered acute hyperphagia only in the fed state during the inactive phase of the light-dark cycle.
Project description:Energy balance is regulated by anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. POMC neurons make extensive projections and are thought to release both amino acid and peptide neurotransmitters. However, whether they communicate directly with NPY/AgRP neurons is debated. Initially, using single-cell RT-PCR, we determined that mouse POMCeGFP neurons express Slc17a6 (Vglut2) and Slc18a2 (Vmat2), but not Slc31a1 (Vgat) mRNA, suggesting glutamate and non-canonical GABA release. Quantitative (q)RT-PCR of POMCeGFP cells revealed that Vglut2 and Vmat2 expression was significantly increased in E2- versus oil-treated, ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. Since 17?-estradiol (E2) is anorexigenic, we hypothesized that an underlying mechanism is enhancement of POMC signaling. Therefore, we optogenetically stimulated POMC neurons in hypothalamic slices to examine evoked release of neurotransmitters onto NPY/AgRP neurons. Using brief light pulses, we primarily observed glutamatergic currents and, based on the paired pulse ratio (PPR), determined that release probability was higher in E2- versus oil-treated, OVX female, congruent with increased Vlgut2 expression. Moreover, bath perfusion of the Gq-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (ER) agonist STX recapitulated the effects of E2 treatment. In addition, high-frequency (20 Hz) stimulation generated a slow outward current that reversed near Ek+ and was antagonized by naloxone, indicative of ?-endorphin release. Furthermore, individual NPY/AgRP neurons were found to express Oprm1, the transcript for ?-opioid receptor, and DAMGO, a selective agonist, elicited an outward current. Therefore, POMC excitability and neurotransmission are enhanced by E2, which would facilitate decreased food consumption through marked inhibition of NPY/AgRP neurons.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), historically used as a treatment for obesity, is known to cross the blood-brain-barrier, but its effects on central neural circuits controlling body weight are largely unknown. As hypothalamic melanocortin neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons represent key central regulators of food intake and energy expenditure we investigated the effects of DNP on these neurons, food intake and energy expenditure. METHOD:C57BL/6 and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) knock-out mice were administered DNP intracerebroventricularly (ICV) and the metabolic changes were characterized. The specific role of NPY and POMC neurons and the ionic mechanisms mediating the effects of uncoupling were examined with in vitro electrophysiology performed on NPY hrGFP or POMC eGFP mice. RESULTS:Here we show DNP-induced differential effects on melanocortin neurons including inhibiting orexigenic NPY and activating anorexigenic POMC neurons through independent ionic mechanisms coupled to mitochondrial function, consistent with an anorexigenic central effect. Central administration of DNP induced weight-loss, increased BAT thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue, and decreased food intake, effects that were absent in MC4R knock-out mice and blocked by the MC4R antagonist, AgRP. CONCLUSION:These data show a novel central anti-obesity mechanism of action of DNP and highlight the potential for selective melanocortin mitochondrial uncoupling to target metabolic disorders.
Project description:Leptin is believed to exert its potent appetite-suppressing effects via stimulation of hypothalamic anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-containing neurons and inhibition of orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. We show here that at 11 mM glucose leptin excites POMC cells. At 5 mM glucose, however, leptin hyperpolarizes POMC neurons and suppresses action potential firing, by producing a greater decrease in excitatory synaptic tone than inhibitory tone. These results argue that when glucose is low (5 mM or less) AgRP neurons will be more important for mediating the anorectic effects of leptin than POMC cells. However, at high glucose concentrations (11 mM), activation of POMC cells may contribute to the appetite-suppressing effects of leptin. Our data also suggest the regulation of neuropeptide efficacy as a novel function of hypothalamic glucose sensing.
Project description:We studied the long term effects of a single exposure to immobilization stress (IS) (1 h) on the expression of anorexigenic (Pro-opiomelanocortin: POMC and cocaine amphetamine related transcript: CART) and orexigenic (neuropeptide Y:NPY, Agouti related peptide: AgRP) factors in hypothalamus and dorso vagal complex (DVC). We showed, by using RT-PCR that in the hypothalamus, that the mRNAs of POMC and CART were up-regulated at the end of IS and up to 24 h. This up regulation persists until 48-72 h after IS for CART only. In the DVC, their expressions peak significantly at 24 h post stress and decline afterwards; CART mRNA is down regulated after 48 h post stress. NPY and AgRP mRNAs show a gradual increase just after the end of IS. The up regulation is significant only at 24 h after stress for AgRP but remains significantly higher for NPY compared to controls. In DVC, the mRNAs of the two factors show generally a similar post stress pattern. A significant increase jut after the end of IS of rats which persists up to 24 h after is firstly noticed. The levels tend then to reach the basal levels although, they were slightly but significantly higher up to 72 h after stress for mRNA NPY. The comparison between the expression profiles of anorexigenic and the two orexigenic peptides investigated shows the presence of a parallelism between that of POMC and AgRP and that of CART and NPY when each brain region (hypothalamus and DVC) is considered separately. It seems that any surge in the expression of each anorexigenic factor stimulates the expression of those of corresponding and appropriated orexigenic one. These last reactions from orexigenic peptides tend to attenuate the anorexigenic effects of CART and POMC and by consequent to abolish the anorexia state generated by stress.