Iron overload induced death of osteoblasts in vitro: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Iron overload is recognized as a new pathogenfor osteoporosis. Various studies demonstrated that iron overload could induce apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteoporosis in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the iron overload-mediated induction of apoptosis in osteoblasts has not been explored. PURPOSE:In this study, we attempted to determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is involved in iron-induced osteoblastic cell death and to investigate the beneficial effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in iron-induced cytotoxicity. METHODS:The MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line was treated with various concentrations of ferric ion in the absence or presence of NAC, and intracellular iron, cell viability, reactive oxygen species, functionand morphology changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial apoptosis related key indicators were detected by commercial kits. In addition, to further explain potential mechanisms underlying iron overload-related osteoporosis, we also assessed cell viability, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation potential in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells(MSCs) by commercial kits. RESULTS:Ferric ion demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts. After incubation with iron, an elevation of intracelluar labile iron levels and a concomitant over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry in osteoblasts. Nox4 (NADPH oxidase 4), an important ROS producer, was also evaluated by western blot. Apoptosis, which was evaluated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and the activation of caspase-3, was detected after exposure to iron. Iron contributed to the permeabilizatio of mitochondria, leading to the release of cytochrome C (cyto C), which, in turn, induced mitochondrial apoptosis in osteoblasts via activation of Caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC could reverse iron-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and blocked the apoptotic events through inhibit the generation of ROS. In addition, iron could significantly promote apoptosis and suppress osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in bone marrow-derived MSCs. CONCLUSIONS:These findings firstly demonstrate that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involved in iron-induced osteoblast apoptosis. NAC could relieved the oxidative stress and shielded osteoblasts from apoptosis casused by iron-overload. We also reveal that iron overload in bone marrow-derived MSCs results in increased apoptosis and the impairment of osteogenesis and mineralization.
Project description:One of the potential contributing factors for iron overload-induced osteoporosis is the iron toxicity on bone forming cells, osteoblasts. In this study, the comparative effects of Fe3+ and Fe2+ on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were studied in UMR-106 osteoblast cells by using ferric ammonium citrate and ferrous ammonium sulfate as Fe3+ and Fe2+ donors, respectively. Effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and iron chelator deferiprone on iron uptake ability of osteoblasts were examined, and the potential protective ability of 1,25(OH)2D3, deferiprone and extracellular calcium treatment in osteoblast cell survival under iron overload was also elucidated. The differential effects of Fe3+ and Fe2+ on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoblasts were also compared. Our results showed that both iron species suppressed alkaline phosphatase gene expression and mineralization with the stronger effects from Fe3+ than Fe2+. 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased the intracellular iron but minimally affected osteoblast cell survival under iron overload. Deferiprone markedly decreased intracellular iron in osteoblasts, but it could not recover iron-induced osteoblast cell death. Interestingly, extracellular calcium was able to rescue osteoblasts from iron-induced osteoblast cell death. Additionally, both iron species could induce ROS production and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in osteoblasts with the stronger effects from Fe3+. In conclusions, Fe3+ and Fe2+ differentially compromised the osteoblast functions and viability, which can be alleviated by an increase in extracellular ionized calcium, but not 1,25(OH)2D3 or iron chelator deferiprone. This study has provided the invaluable information for therapeutic design targeting specific iron specie(s) in iron overload-induced osteoporosis. Moreover, an increase in extracellular calcium could be beneficial for this group of patients.
Project description:Iron overload (IO) has been reported to contribute to mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) damage, but the precise mechanism has yet to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that IO increased cell apoptosis and lowered cell viability in MSCs, accompanied by extensive mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagy enhancement. All these effects were reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent. In MSCs with IO, the ATP concentrations were significantly reduced due to high ROS levels and low electron respiratory chain complex (ETC) II/III activity. Reduced ATP phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK kinase complexes triggered mitochondrial fission. Moreover, gene knockout of AMPK via CRISPR/Cas9 reduced cell apoptosis, enhanced cell viability and attenuated mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagy caused by IO in MSCs. Further, AMPK-induced mitochondrial fragmentation of MSCs with IO was mediated via phosphorylation of mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Gene knockdown of MFF reversed AMPK-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in MSCs with IO. In addition, MSCs from IO patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) showed increased cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, higher ROS levels, lower ATP concentrations and increased mitochondrial fragmentation compared with MSCs from non-IO patients. In addition, iron chelation or antioxidant weakened the activity of the AMPK/MFF/Drp1 pathway in MDS-MSCs with IO from several patients, accompanied by attenuation of mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagy. Taken together, the AMPK/MFF/Drp1 pathway has an important role in the damage to MDS-MSCs caused by IO.
Project description:Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) can be differentiated into osteoblasts and chondrocytes, making these cells candidates to regenerate cranio-facial injuries and lesions in long bones. A major problem with cell replacement therapy, however, is the loss of transplanted MSCs at the site of graft. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nonspecific inflammation generated at the ischemic site have been hypothesized to lead to MSCs loss; studies in vitro show MSCs dying both in the presence of ROS or cytokines like FasL. We questioned whether MSCs themselves may be the source of these death inducers, specifically whether MSCs produce ROS under cytokine challenge. On treating MSCs with FasL, we observed increased ROS production within 2 h, leading to apoptotic death after 6 h of exposure to the cytokine. N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, is able to protect MSCs from FasL-induced ROS production and subsequent ROS-dependent apoptosis, though the MSCs eventually succumb to ROS-independent death signaling. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a cell survival factor, is able to protect cells from FasL-induced ROS production initially; however, the protective effect wanes with continued FasL exposure. In parallel, FasL induces upregulation of the uncoupling protein UCP2, the main uncoupling protein in MSCs, which is not abrogated by EGF; however, the production of ROS is followed by a delayed apoptotic cell death despite moderation by UCP2. FasL-induced ROS activates the stress-induced MAPK pathways JNK and p38MAPK as well as ERK, along with the activation of Bad, a proapoptotic protein, and suppression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein; the latter two key modulators of the mitochondrial death pathway. FasL by itself also activates its canonical extrinsic death pathway noted by a time-dependent degradation of c-FLIP and activation of caspase 8. These data suggest that MSCs participate in their own demise due to nonspecific inflammation, holding implications for replacement therapies.
Project description:Excess iron has been reported to lead to osteoblastic cell damage, which is a crucial pathogenesis of iron overload-related osteoporosis. However, the cytotoxic mechanisms have not been fully documented. In the present study, we focused on whether necroptosis contributes to iron overload-induced osteoblastic cell death and related underlying mechanisms. Here, we showed that the cytotoxicity of iron overload in osteoblastic cells was mainly due to necrosis, as evidenced by the Hoechst 33258/PI staining, Annexin-V/PI staining, and transmission electronic microscopy. Furthermore, we revealed that iron overload-induced osteoblastic necrosis might be mediated via the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL necroptotic pathway. In addition, we also found that iron overload was able to trigger mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, which is a critical downstream event in the execution of necroptosis. The key finding of our experiment was that iron overload-induced necroptotic cell death might depend on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as N-acetylcysteine effectively rescued mPTP opening and necroptotic cell death. ROS induced by iron overload promote necroptosis via a positive feedback mechanism, as on the one hand N-acetylcysteine attenuates the upregulation of RIPK1 and RIPK3 and phosphorylation of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL and on the other hand Nec-1, siRIPK1, or siRIPK3 reduced ROS generation. In summary, iron overload induced necroptosis of osteoblastic cells in vitro, which is mediated, at least in part, through the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway. We also highlight the critical role of ROS in the regulation of iron overload-induced necroptosis in osteoblastic cells.
Project description:The bone marrow microenvironment plays important roles in the progression of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The higher incidence of ASXL1 and TET2 gene mutations in our iron overload (IO) MDS patients suggests that IO may be involved in the pathogenesis of MDS. The effects of IO damaging bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from higher-risk MDS patients were investigated. In our study, IO decreased the quantity and weakened the abilities of proliferation and differentiation of MSCs, and it inhibited the gene expressions of VEGFA, CXCL12, and TGF-?1 in MSCs regulating hematopoiesis. The increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MSCs caused by IO might be inducing apoptosis by activating caspase3 signals and involving in MDS progression by activating ?-catenin signals. The damages of MSCs caused by IO could be partially reversed by an antioxidant or an iron chelator. Furthermore, the MSCs in IO MDS/AML patients had increased levels of ROS and apoptosis, and the expressions of caspase3 and ?-catenin were increased even further. In conclusion, IO affects gene stability in higher-risk MDS patients and impairs MSCs by inducing ROS-related apoptosis and activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, which could be partially reversed by an antioxidant or an iron chelator.
Project description:Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with exogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or endogenous PpIX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been carried out to produce apoptotic effects on macrophages, indicating a potential treatment methodology for atherosclerosis. Our previous studies have found that mitochondria damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in the SDT-induced apoptosis. This study aimed at investigating the potential involvement of the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and ROS in the pro-apoptotic effects of SDT on THP-1 macrophages. THP-1 macrophages were divided into control and SDT groups, and went through pretreatment of the specific TSPO ligand PK11195 and ROS scavengers N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), then compared with groups without pretreatment. Application of PK11195 reduced intracellular accumulation of endogenous PpIX. PK11195 and NAC reduced the generation of intracellular ROS and oxidation of cardiolipin induced by SDT, respectively. PK11195 and NAC also reduced SDT-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) loss, the translocation of cytochrome c and cell apoptosis. PpIX accumulation, ROS generation and cell apoptosis were also attenuated by siTSPO. Our findings indicate the pivotal role of TSPO and ROS in SDT-induced cardiolipin oxidation, ??m collapse, cytochrome c translocation and apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages.
Project description:Hepatic lipotoxicity is characterized by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and excessive apoptosis, but the precise sequence of biochemical events leading to oxidative damage and cell death remains unclear. The goal of this study was to delineate the role of mitochondrial metabolism in mediating hepatocyte lipotoxicity.We treated H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells with free fatty acids in combination with antioxidants and mitochondrial inhibitors designed to block key events in the progression toward apoptosis. We then applied (13)C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) to quantify mitochondrial pathway alterations associated with these treatments.Treatment with palmitate alone led to a doubling in oxygen uptake rate and in most mitochondrial fluxes. Supplementing culture media with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) reduced ROS accumulation and caspase activation and partially restored cell viability. However, (13)C MFA revealed that treatment with NAC did not normalize palmitate-induced metabolic alterations, indicating that neither elevated ROS nor downstream apoptotic events contributed to mitochondrial activation. To directly limit mitochondrial metabolism, the complex I inhibitor phenformin was added to cells treated with palmitate. Phenformin addition eliminated abnormal ROS accumulation, prevented the appearance of apoptotic markers, and normalized mitochondrial carbon flow. Further studies revealed that glutamine provided the primary fuel for elevated mitochondrial metabolism in the presence of palmitate, rather than fatty acid beta-oxidation, and that glutamine consumption could be reduced through co-treatment with phenformin but not NAC.Our results indicate that ROS accumulation in palmitate-treated H4IIEC3 cells occurs downstream of altered mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, which is independent of beta-oxidation and precedes apoptosis initiation.
Project description:Iron overload has been reported to contribute to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) damage, but the precise mechanism still remains elusive. Icariin, a major bioactive monomer belonging to flavonoid glucosides isolated from Herba Epimedii, has been shown to protect cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether icariin protected against iron overload induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanism. In this study, we found that iron overload induced by 100 ?M ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) caused apoptosis of BMSCs, promoted cleaved caspase-3 and BAX protein expressions while inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression, which effects were significantly attenuated by icariin treatment. In addition, iron overload induced significant depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibition of mitochondrial fusion/fission, which effects were also attenuated by icariin treatment. Meanwhile, we found that iron overload induced by 100 ?M FAC significantly inhibited mitochondrial fission protein FIS1 and fusion protein MFN2 expressions, inhibited DRP1 and Cytochrome C protein translocation from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. Icariin at concentration of 1 ?M was able to promote mitochondrial fission protein FIS1 and fusion protein MFN2 expressions, and increase DRP1 and cytochrome C protein translocation from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. Further, osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of BMSCs was significantly inhibited by iron overload, but icariin treatment rescued both osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of BMSCs. Further studies showed that icariin attenuated iron overload induced inactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and activation of the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways. In summary, our study indicated that icariin was able to protect against iron overload induced dysfunction of BMSCs. These effects were potentially related to the modulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission, activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways.
Project description:Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been shown to induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, the molecular mechanism of As2O3-induced apoptosis in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the impact of As2O3 exposure on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and examined the underlying mechanism of cell death. As2O3 induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and caused a massive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was able to prevent As2O3-induced cell death, implying an involvement of ROS in the induction of As2O3-triggered apoptosis. Furthermore, As2O3 initiated apoptosis by triggering of the mitochondria apoptotic pathway as indicated by inhibited Bcl-2 expression, a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), release of cytochrome c and activation of the caspase cascade. However, these As2O3-induced events can be prevented by NAC. Taken together, these findings suggest that the As2O3 induced apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and activation of caspases.
Project description:This study evaluated the association between free fatty acid (FFA), ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetic patients and investigated the molecular mechanism. db/db and high fat (HF)-fed mice were treated by Etomoxir, an inhibitor of CPT1, MitoQ, and PFT-?, an inhibitor of P53. Bone metabolic factors were assessed and BMSCs were isolated and induced to osteogenic differentiation. FFA, lipid peroxidation and mtDNA copy number were correlated with BMD in T2DM patients. Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-? significantly inhibited the decrease of BMD and bone breaking strength in db/db and HF-fed mice and suppressed the reduction of BMSCs-differentiated osteoblasts. Etomoxir and MitoQ, but not PFT-?, inhibited the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in db/db and HF-fed mice and osteoblasts. In addition, Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-? significantly inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblasts. Moreover, mitochondrial apoptosis was activated in osteoblasts derived from db/db and HF-fed mice, which was inhibited by Etomoxir, MitoQ and PFT-?. Furthermore, mitochondrial accumulation of P53 recruited Bax and initiated molecular events of apoptotic events. These results demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation resulted in ROS generation, activating P53/Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis, leading to reduction of osteogenic differentiation and bone loss in T2DM.