Alternative Selection of β-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) Cleavage Sites in Amyloid β-Protein Precursor (APP) Harboring Protective and Pathogenic Mutations within the Aβ Sequence.
ABSTRACT: β-Site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) at the bond between Met671 and Asp672 (β-site) to generate the carboxyl-terminal fragment (CTFβ/C99). BACE1 also cleaves APP at another bond between Thr681 and Gln682 (β'-site), yielding CTFβ'/C89. Cleavage of CTFβ/C99 by γ-secretase generates Aβ(1-XX), whereas cleavage of CTFβ'/C89 generates Aβ(11-XX). Thus, β'-site cleavage by BACE1 is amyloidolytic rather than amyloidogenic. β' cleavage of mouse APP is more common than the corresponding cleavage of human APP. We found that the H684R substitution within human Aβ, which replaces the histidine in the human protein with the arginine found at the corresponding position in mouse, facilitated β' cleavage irrespective of the species origin of BACE1, thereby significantly increasing the level of Aβ(11-XX) and decreasing the level of Aβ(1-XX). Thus, amino acid substitutions within the Aβ sequence influenced the selectivity of alternative β- or β'-site cleavage of APP by BACE1. In familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), the APP gene harbors pathogenic variations such as the Swedish (K670N/M671L), Leuven (E682K), and A673V mutations, all of which decrease Aβ(11-40) generation, whereas the protective Icelandic mutation (A673T) increases generation of Aβ(11-40). Thus, A673T promotes β' cleavage of APP and protects subjects against AD. In addition, CTFβ/C99 was cleaved by excess BACE1 activity to generate CTFβ'/C89, followed by Aβ(11-40), even if APP harbored pathogenic mutations. The resultant Aβ(11-40) was more metabolically labile in vivo than Aβ(1-40). Our analysis suggests that some FAD mutations in APP are amyloidogenic and/or amyloidolytic via selection of alternative BACE1 cleavage sites.
Project description:Mutations in amyloid ? precursor protein (APP) gene alter APP processing, either causing familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) or protecting against dementia. Under normal conditions, ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves APP at minor Asp1 site to generate C99 for amyloid ? protein (A?) production, and predominantly at major Glu11 site to generate C89, resulting in truncated A? production. We discovered that A673V mutation, the only recessive AD-associated APP mutation, shifted the preferential ?-cleavage site of BACE1 in APP from the Glu11 site to the Asp1 site both in male and female transgenic mice in vivo and in cell lines and primary neuronal culture derived from timed pregnant rats in vitro, resulting in a much higher C99 level and C99/C89 ratio. All other mutations at this site, including the protective Icelandic A673T mutation, reduced C99 generation, and decreased the C99/C89 ratio. Furthermore, A673V mutation caused stronger dimerization between mutant and wild-type APP, enhanced the lysosomal degradation of the mutant APP, and inhibited ?-secretase cleavage of the mutant C99 to generate A?, leading to recessively inherited AD. The results demonstrate that APP673 regulates APP processing and the BACE1 cleavage site selection is critical for amyloidogenesis in AD pathogenesis, and implicate a pharmaceutical potential for targeting the APP673 site for AD drug development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is essential for amyloid ? protein production. We discovered that A673V mutation shifted the BACE1 cleavage site from the Glu11 to the Asp1 site, resulting in much higher C99 level and C99/C89 ratio. All other mutations at this site of amyloid ? precursor protein (APP) reduced C99 generation and decreased the C99/C89 ratio. Furthermore, A673V mutation resulted in stronger dimerization between mutant and wild-type APP, enhanced the lysosomal degradation of the mutant APP, and inhibited ?-secretase cleavage of the mutant C99 to generate amyloid ? protein, leading to recessively inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results demonstrate that APP673 regulates APP processing, and the BACE1 cleavage site selection is critical for amyloidogenesis in AD pathogenesis, and implicate a pharmaceutical potential for targeting the APP673 site for AD drug development.
Project description:β-amyloid protein (Aβ) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ is generated from sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and the γ-secretase complex. Although activation of some protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms such as PKCα and ε has been shown to regulate nonamyloidogenic pathways and Aβ degradation, it is unclear whether other PKC isoforms are involved in APP processing/AD pathogenesis. In this study, we report that increased PKCδ levels correlate with BACE1 expression in the AD brain. PKCδ knockdown reduces BACE1 expression, BACE1-mediated APP processing, and Aβ production. Conversely, overexpression of PKCδ increases BACE1 expression and Aβ generation. Importantly, inhibition of PKCδ by rottlerin markedly reduces BACE1 expression, Aβ levels, and neuritic plaque formation and rescues cognitive deficits in an APP Swedish mutations K594N/M595L/presenilin-1 with an exon 9 deletion-transgenic AD mouse model. Our study indicates that PKCδ plays an important role in aggravating AD pathogenesis, and PKCδ may be a potential target in AD therapeutics.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease is pathologically defined by accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ). Approximately 25 mutations in β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) are pathogenic and cause autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. To date, the mechanism underlying the effect of APP mutation on Aβ generation is unclear. Therefore, investigating the mechanism of APP mutation on Alzheimer's disease may help understanding of disease pathogenesis. Thus, APP mutations (A673T, A673V, E682K, E693G, and E693Q) were transiently co-transfected into human embryonic kidney cells. Western blot assay was used to detect expression levels of APP, beta-secretase 1, and presenilin 1 in cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass chromatography was used to examine VVIAT, FLF, ITL, VIV, IAT, VIT, TVI, and VVIA peptide levels. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to measure APP and early endosome antigen 1 immunoreactivity. Our results show that the protective A673T mutation decreases Aβ42/Aβ40 rate by downregulating IAT and upregulating VVIA levels. Pathogenic A673V, E682K, and E693Q mutations promote Aβ42/Aβ40 rate by increasing levels of CTF99, Aβ42, Aβ40, and IAT, and decreasing VVIA levels. Pathogenic E693G mutation shows no significant change in Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio because of inhibition of γ-secretase activity. APP mutations can change location from the cell surface to early endosomes. Our findings confirm that certain APP mutations accelerate Aβ generation by affecting the long Aβ cleavage pathway and increasing Aβ42/40 rate, thereby resulting in Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides play a key role in synaptic damage and memory deficits in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal accumulation of Aβ at nerve terminals leads to synaptic pathology and ultimately to neurodegeneration. β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the major neuronal β-secretase for Aβ generation. However, the mechanisms regulating BACE1 distribution in axons and β cleavage of APP at synapses remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal that dynein-Snapin-mediated retrograde transport regulates BACE1 trafficking in axons and APP processing at presynaptic terminals. BACE1 is predominantly accumulated within late endosomes at the synapses of AD-related mutant human APP (hAPP) transgenic (Tg) mice and patient brains. Defective retrograde transport by genetic ablation of snapin in mice recapitulates late endocytic retention of BACE1 and increased APP processing at presynaptic sites. Conversely, overexpressing Snapin facilitates BACE1 trafficking and reduces synaptic BACE1 accumulation by enhancing the removal of BACE1 from distal AD axons and presynaptic terminals. Moreover, elevated Snapin expression via stereotactic hippocampal injections of adeno-associated virus particles in mutant hAPP Tg mouse brains decreases synaptic Aβ levels and ameliorates synapse loss, thus rescuing cognitive impairments associated with hAPP mice. Altogether, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the complex regulation of BACE1 trafficking and presynaptic localization through Snapin-mediated dynein-driven retrograde axonal transport, thereby suggesting a potential approach of modulating Aβ levels and attenuating synaptic deficits in AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) trafficking and synaptic localization significantly influence its β secretase activity and amyloid-β (Aβ) production. In AD brains, BACE1 is accumulated within dystrophic neurites, which is thought to augment Aβ-induced synaptotoxicity by Aβ overproduction. However, it remains largely unknown whether axonal transport regulates synaptic APP processing. Here, we demonstrate that Snapin-mediated retrograde transport plays a critical role in removing BACE1 from presynaptic terminals toward the soma, thus reducing synaptic Aβ production. Adeno-associated virus-mediated Snapin overexpression in the hippocampus of mutant hAPP mice significantly decreases synaptic Aβ levels, attenuates synapse loss, and thus rescues cognitive deficits. Our study uncovers a new pathway that controls synaptic APP processing by enhancing axonal BACE1 trafficking, thereby advancing our fundamental knowledge critical for ameliorating Aβ-linked synaptic pathology.
Project description:Pathogenic mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene have been described as causing early onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD). We recently identified a rare APP variant encoding an alanine-to-threonine substitution at residue 673 (A673T) that confers protection against development of AD (Jonsson, T., Atwal, J. K., Steinberg, S., Snaedal, J., Jonsson, P. V., Bjornsson, S., Stefansson, H., Sulem, P., Gudbjartsson, D., Maloney, J., Hoyte, K., Gustafson, A., Liu, Y., Lu, Y., Bhangale, T., Graham, R. R., Huttenlocher, J., Bjornsdottir, G., Andreassen, O. A., Jönsson, E. G., Palotie, A., Behrens, T. W., Magnusson, O. T., Kong, A., Thorsteinsdottir, U., Watts, R. J., and Stefansson, K. (2012) Nature 488, 96-99). The Ala-673 residue lies within the ?-secretase recognition sequence and is part of the amyloid-? (A?) peptide cleavage product (position 2 of A?). We previously demonstrated that the A673T substitution makes APP a less favorable substrate for cleavage by BACE1. In follow-up studies, we confirm that A673T APP shows reduced cleavage by BACE1 in transfected mouse primary neurons and in isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. Using a biochemical approach, we show that the A673T substitution modulates the catalytic turnover rate (V(max)) of APP by the BACE1 enzyme, without affecting the affinity (K(m)) of the APP substrate for BACE1. We also show a reduced level of A?(1-42) aggregation with A2T A? peptides, an observation not conserved in A?(1-40) peptides. When combined in a ratio of 1:9 A?(1-42)/A?(1-40) to mimic physiologically relevant mixtures, A2T retains a trend toward slowed aggregation kinetics. Microglial uptake of the mutant A?(1-42) peptides correlated with their aggregation level. Cytotoxicity of the mutant A? peptides was not dramatically altered. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that A673T, a protective allele of APP, reproducibly reduces amyloidogenic processing of APP and also mildly decreases A? aggregation. These effects could together have an additive or even synergistic impact on the risk of developing AD.
Project description:The ATP binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) has been genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, the effects of expression of human ABCA2 on endogenous amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, trafficking and processing were examined in mouse N2a neuronal cells. ABCA2 expression increased the steady-state APP mRNA levels through transcription. ABCA2 also induced increased synthesis of APP holoprotein and altered APP processing and metabolite generation. ABCA2 expression promoted b-secretase (BACE1) cleavage of APP not at the common Asp1 amino acid site (?-site) of A? in APP but at the Glu11 site (?'-site) to increase C89 carboxyl-terminal fragment levels (?'-CTF/C89). The levels of N-terminally truncated A?11-40 peptides were also increased by ABCA2 expression. The delivery of newly synthesized APP to the cell surface through the secretary pathway was not perturbed by ABCA2 expression; however, ABCA2 expression increased the amount of APP in early-endosomal compartments, which also contained the highest levels of ?'-CTF/C89 and is likely the site of increased BACE1 processing of APP. This report identifies ABCA2 as a key regulator of endogenous APP expression and processing and suggests a possible biochemical mechanism linking ABCA2 expression, APP processing and Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:The beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) mediates the first cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) to yield the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), a key pathogenic agent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a proteomic approach based on in-cell chemical cross-linking and tandem affinity purification (TAP), we herein identify sorting nexin 6 (SNX6) as a BACE1-associated protein. SNX6, a PX domain protein, is a putative component of retromer, a multiprotein cargo complex that mediates the retrograde trafficking of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) and sortilin. RNA interference suppression of SNX6 increased BACE1-dependent secretion of soluble APP (sAPPbeta) and cell-associated fragments (C99), resulting in increased Abeta secretion. Furthermore, SNX6 reduction led to elevated steady-state BACE1 levels as well as increased retrograde transport of BACE1 in the endocytic pathway, suggesting that SNX6 modulates the retrograde trafficking and basal levels of BACE1, thereby regulating BACE1-mediated APP processing and Abeta biogenesis. Our study identifies a novel cellular pathway by which SNX6 negatively modulates BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP.
Project description:The β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), an essential protease for the generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, is a major drug target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a concern that inhibiting BACE1 could also affect several physiological functions. Here, we show that BACE1 is modified with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a sugar modification highly expressed in brain, and demonstrate that AD patients have higher levels of bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1. Analysis of knockout mice lacking the biosynthetic enzyme for bisecting GlcNAc, GnT-III (Mgat3), revealed that cleavage of Aβ-precursor protein (APP) by BACE1 is reduced in these mice, resulting in a decrease in Aβ plaques and improved cognitive function. The lack of this modification directs BACE1 to late endosomes/lysosomes where it is less colocalized with APP, leading to accelerated lysosomal degradation. Notably, other BACE1 substrates, CHL1 and contactin-2, are normally cleaved in GnT-III-deficient mice, suggesting that the effect of bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1 is selective to APP. Considering that GnT-III-deficient mice remain healthy, GnT-III may be a novel and promising drug target for AD therapeutics.
Project description:The beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is known primarily for its initial cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which ultimately leads to the generation of Aβ peptides. Here, we provide evidence that altered BACE1 levels and activity impact the degradation of Aβ40 and Aβ42 into a common Aβ34 intermediate. Using human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort, we show that Aβ34 is elevated in individuals with mild cognitive impairment who later progressed to dementia. Furthermore, Aβ34 levels correlate with the overall Aβ clearance rates in amyloid positive individuals. Using CSF samples from the PREVENT-AD cohort (cognitively normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease), we further demonstrate that the Aβ34/Aβ42 ratio, representing Aβ degradation and cortical deposition, associates with pre-clinical markers of neurodegeneration. We propose that Aβ34 represents a marker of amyloid clearance and may be helpful for the characterization of Aβ turnover in clinical samples.
Project description:Compound 3a, DV2-103, is a kinase inactive analogue of a potent Abl1/Src kinase inhibitor, PD173955, 2. Both compounds, 2 and 3a, are known to reduce production of beta amyloid (A?) peptide in cells and animal models. We have now prepared and evaluated a series of PD-173955 analogues, several of which reduced A? production potently. This occurs in cells expressing human full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) and not in cells expressing APP ?-C terminal fragment (APP-C99), suggesting that the kinase inactive analogues strongly affect ?-secretase (BACE1) cleavage of APP, similarly to Gleevec. A combination of the kinase inactive analogues of PD173955 with a BACE1 inhibitor (BACEi), namely, BACE IV, strongly reduced A? levels in cells, as noted previously with Gleevec and analogues. Several potent compounds also penetrated and accumulated in mouse brain in high nanomolar to low micromolar concentration.