Activation of the RLR/MAVS Signaling Pathway by the L Protein of Mopeia Virus.
ABSTRACT: The family Arenaviridae includes several important human pathogens that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever and greatly threaten public health. As a major component of the innate immune system, the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway is involved in recognizing viral components and initiating antiviral activity. It has been reported that arenavirus infection can suppress the innate immune response, and NP and Z proteins of pathogenic arenaviruses can disrupt RLR/MAVS signaling, thus inhibiting production of type I interferon (IFN-I). However, recent studies have shown elevated IFN-I levels in certain arenavirus-infected cells. The mechanism by which arenavirus infection induces IFN-I responses remains unclear. In this study, we determined that the L polymerase (Lp) of Mopeia virus (MOPV), an Old World (OW) arenavirus, can activate the RLR/MAVS pathway and thus induce the production of IFN-I. This activation is associated with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of Lp. This study provides a foundation for further studies of interactions between arenaviruses and the innate immune system and for the elucidation of arenavirus pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE:Distinct innate immune responses are observed when hosts are infected with different arenaviruses. It has been widely accepted that NP and certain Z proteins of arenaviruses inhibit the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway. The viral components responsible for the activation of the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway remain to be determined. In the current study, we demonstrate for the first time that the Lp of MOPV, an OW arenavirus, can activate the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway and thus induce the production of IFN-I. Based on our results, we proposed that dynamic interactions exist among Lp-produced RNA, NP, and the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway, and the outcome of these interactions may determine the final IFN-I response pattern: elevated or reduced. Our study provides a possible explanation for how IFN-I can become activated during arenavirus infection and may help us gain insights into the interactions that form between different arenavirus components and the innate immune system.
Project description:Arenavirus pathogens cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans ranging from central nervous system disease to lethal hemorrhagic fevers with few treatment options. The reason why some arenaviruses can cause severe human diseases while others cannot is unknown. We find that the Z proteins of all known pathogenic arenaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, Guanarito, Chapare, Dandenong, and Lujo viruses, can inhibit retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-i) and Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5), in sharp contrast to those of 14 other nonpathogenic arenaviruses. Inhibition of the RIG-i-like receptors (RLRs) by pathogenic Z proteins is mediated by the protein-protein interactions of Z and RLRs, which lead to the disruption of the interactions between RLRs and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). The Z-RLR interactive interfaces are located within the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the Z protein and the N-terminal CARD domains of RLRs. Swapping of the LCMV Z NTD into the nonpathogenic Pichinde virus (PICV) genome does not affect virus growth in Vero cells but significantly inhibits the type I interferon (IFN) responses and increases viral replication in human primary macrophages. In summary, our results show for the first time an innate immune-system-suppressive mechanism shared by the diverse pathogenic arenaviruses and thus shed important light on the pathogenic mechanism of human arenavirus pathogens.We show that all known human-pathogenic arenaviruses share an innate immune suppression mechanism that is based on viral Z protein-mediated RLR inhibition. Our report offers important insights into the potential mechanism of arenavirus pathogenesis, provides a convenient way to evaluate the pathogenic potential of known and/or emerging arenaviruses, and reveals a novel target for the development of broad-spectrum therapies to treat this group of diverse pathogens. More broadly, our report provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of viral immune suppression and host-pathogen interactions.
Project description:Peroxisomes are recognized as significant platforms for the activation of antiviral innate immunity where stimulation of the key adapter molecule mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) within the RIG-I like receptor (RLR) pathway culminates in the up-regulation of hundreds of ISGs, some of which drive augmentation of multiple innate sensing pathways. However, whether ISGs can augment peroxisome-driven RLR signaling is currently unknown. Using a proteomics-based screening approach, we identified Pex19 as a binding partner of the ISG viperin. Viperin colocalized with numerous peroxisomal proteins and its interaction with Pex19 was in close association with lipid droplets, another emerging innate signaling platform. Augmentation of the RLR pathway by viperin was lost when Pex19 expression was reduced. Expression of organelle-specific MAVS demonstrated that viperin requires both mitochondria and peroxisome MAVS for optimal induction of IFN-β. These results suggest that viperin is required to enhance the antiviral cellular response with a possible role to position the peroxisome at the mitochondrial/MAM MAVS signaling synapse, furthering our understanding of the importance of multiple organelles driving the innate immune response against viral infection.
Project description:Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein, is activated by RIG-I, which is critical for an effective innate immune response to infection by various RNA viruses. Viral infection causes the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) to recognize pathogen-derived dsRNA and then becomes activated to promote prion-like aggregation and activation of MAVS. Subsequently, through the recruitment of TRAF proteins, MAVS activates two signaling pathways mediated by TBK1-IRF3 and IKK- NF-κb, respectively, and turns on type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines. This study discovered that NEDD4 binding protein 3 (N4BP3) is a positive regulator of the RLR signaling pathway by targeting MAVS. Overexpression of N4BP3 promoted virus-induced activation of the interferon-β (IFN-β) promoter and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). Further experiments showed that knockdown or knockout N4BP3 impaired RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated innate immune response, induction of downstream antiviral genes, and cellular antiviral responses. We also detected that N4BP3 could accelerate the interaction between MAVS and TRAF2. Related experiments revealed that N4BP3 could facilitate the ubiquitination modification of MAVS. These findings suggest that N4BP3 is a critical component of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated innate immune response by targeting MAVS, which also provided insight into the mechanisms of innate antiviral responses.
Project description:The actions of the RIG-I like receptor (RLR) and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways are essential for a protective innate immune response against the emerging flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV). In mice lacking RLR or IFN signaling pathways, WNV exhibits enhanced tissue tropism, indicating that specific host factors of innate immune defense restrict WNV infection and dissemination in peripheral tissues. However, the immune mechanisms by which the RLR and IFN pathways coordinate and function to impart restriction of WNV infection are not well defined. Using a systems biology approach, we defined the host innate immune response signature and actions that restrict WNV tissue tropism. Transcriptional profiling and pathway modeling to compare WNV-infected permissive (spleen) and nonpermissive (liver) tissues showed high enrichment for inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors and IFN signaling pathways, that define restriction of WNV replication in the liver. Assessment of infected livers from Mavs(-/-) × Ifnar(-/-) mice revealed the loss of expression of several key components within the natural killer (NK) cell signaling pathway, including genes associated with NK cell activation, inflammatory cytokine production, and NK cell receptor signaling. In vivo analysis of hepatic immune cell infiltrates from WT mice demonstrated that WNV infection leads to an increase in NK cell numbers with enhanced proliferation, maturation, and effector action. In contrast, livers from Mavs(-/-) × Ifnar(-/-) infected mice displayed reduced immune cell infiltration, including a significant reduction in NK cell numbers. Analysis of cocultures of dendritic and NK cells revealed both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles for the RLR and IFN signaling pathways to regulate NK cell effector activity. Taken together, these observations reveal a complex innate immune signaling network, regulated by the RLR and IFN signaling pathways, that drives tissue-specific antiviral effector gene expression and innate immune cellular processes that control tissue tropism to WNV infection.
Project description:RLR-mediated type I IFN production plays a pivotal role in elevating host immunity for viral clearance and cancer immune surveillance. Here, we report that glycolysis, which is inactivated during RLR activation, serves as a barrier to impede type I IFN production upon RLR activation. RLR-triggered MAVS-RIG-I recognition hijacks hexokinase binding to MAVS, leading to the impairment of hexokinase mitochondria localization and activation. Lactate serves as a key metabolite responsible for glycolysis-mediated RLR signaling inhibition by directly binding to MAVS transmembrane (TM) domain and preventing MAVS aggregation. Notably, lactate restoration reverses increased IFN production caused by lactate deficiency. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that lactate reduction by lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) inactivation heightens type I IFN production to protect mice from viral infection. Our study establishes a critical role of glycolysis-derived lactate in limiting RLR signaling and identifies MAVS as a direct sensor of lactate, which functions to connect energy metabolism and innate immunity.
Project description:RLR-mediated type I IFN production plays a pivotal role in innate antiviral immune responses, where the signaling adaptor MAVS is a critical determinant. Here, we show that MAVS is a physiological substrate of SIRT5. Moreover, MAVS is succinylated upon viral challenge, and SIRT5 catalyzes desuccinylation of MAVS. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that Lysine 7 of MAVS is succinylated. SIRT5-catalyzed desuccinylation of MAVS at Lysine 7 diminishes the formation of MAVS aggregation after viral infection, resulting in the inhibition of MAVS activation and leading to the impairment of type I IFN production and antiviral gene expression. However, the enzyme-deficient mutant of SIRT5 (SIRT5-H158Y) loses its suppressive role on MAVS activation. Furthermore, we show that Sirt5-deficient mice are resistant to viral infection. Our study reveals the critical role of SIRT5 in limiting RLR signaling through desuccinylating MAVS.
Project description:RLR-mediated type I IFN production plays a pivotal role in innate antiviral immune responses, where the signaling adaptor MAVS is a critical determinant. Here, we show that MAVS is a physiological substrate of SIRT5. Moreover, MAVS is succinylated upon viral challenge, and SIRT5 catalyzes desuccinylation of MAVS. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that Lysine 7 of MAVS is succinylated. SIRT5-catylazed desuccinylation of MAVS at Lysine 7 diminishes the formation of MAVS aggregation after viral infection, resulting in the inhibition of MAVS activation and leading to the impairment of type I IFN production and antiviral gene expression. However, the enzyme-deficient mutant of SIRT5 (SIRT5-H158Y) loses its suppressive role on MAVS activation. Furthermore, we show that Sirt5-deficient mice are resistant to viral infection. Our study reveals the critical role of SIRT5 in limiting RLR signaling through desuccinylating MAVS.
Project description:RNA virus invasion induces a cytosolic RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway by promoting assembly of the Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) signalosome and triggers the rapid production of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. During this process, the pivotal kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is recruited to the MAVS signalosome to transduce a robust innate antiviral immune response by phosphorylating transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B and promoting their nuclear translocation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative regulation of TBK1 are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that THO complex subunit 7 homolog (THOC7) negatively regulated the cellular antiviral response by promoting the proteasomal degradation of TBK1. THOC7 overexpression potently inhibited Sendai virus- or polyI:C-induced IRF3 dimerization and phosphorylation and IFN-? production. In contrast, THOC7 knockdown had the opposite effects. Moreover, we simulated a node-activated pathway to show that THOC7 regulated the RIG-I-like receptors (RLR)-/MAVS-dependent signaling cascade at the TBK1 level. Furthermore, THOC7 was involved in the MAVS signalosome and promoted TBK1 degradation by increasing its K48 ubiquitin-associated polyubiquitination. Together, these findings suggest that THOC7 negatively regulates type I IFN production by promoting TBK1 proteasomal degradation, thus improving our understanding of innate antiviral immune responses.
Project description:Activation of innate immunity is essential for host cells to restrict the spread of invading viruses and other pathogens. However, attenuation or termination of signaling is also necessary for preventing immune-mediated tissue damage and spontaneous autoimmunity. Here, we identify nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor X1 (NLRX1) as a negative regulator of the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated signaling pathway during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The depletion of NLRX1 enhances the HCV-triggered activation of interferon (IFN) signaling and causes the suppression of HCV propagation in hepatocytes. NLRX1, a HCV-inducible protein, interacts with MAVS and mediates the K48-linked polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation of MAVS via the proteasomal pathway. Moreover, poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) interacts with NLRX1 to participate in the NLRX1-induced degradation of MAVS and the inhibition of antiviral responses during HCV infection. Mutagenic analyses further revealed that the NOD of NLRX1 is essential for NLRX1 to interact with PCBP2 and subsequently induce MAVS degradation. Our study unlocks a key mechanism of the fine-tuning of innate immunity by which NLRX1 restrains the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor (RLR)-MAVS signaling cascade by recruiting PCBP2 to MAVS for inducing MAVS degradation through the proteasomal pathway. NLRX1, a negative regulator of innate immunity, is a pivotal host factor for HCV to establish persistent infection.IMPORTANCE Innate immunity needs to be tightly regulated to maximize the antiviral response and minimize immune-mediated pathology, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we report that NLRX1 is a proviral host factor for HCV infection and functions as a negative regulator of the HCV-triggered innate immune response. NLRX1 recruits PCBP2 to MAVS and induces the K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation of MAVS, leading to the negative regulation of the IFN signaling pathway and promoting HCV infection. Overall, this study provides intriguing insights into how innate immunity is regulated during viral infection.
Project description:Type I Interferon-mediated innate immunity against Flaviviridae, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Dengue virus (DENV), involves TLR3, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and JAK-STAT signal pathways. Asunaprevir is a newly developed HCV protease inhibitor for HCV treatment. Whether, asunaprevir activates innate immunity to restrict viral infection is unclear. Thus, this study investigates the effect of asunaprevir on innate immunity and its influence on HCV and DENV infection. Huh 7.5.1, Hep-G2 cells, JFH-1 infection model, and DENV-2 infection were used for the analysis. The activity of asunaprevir-regulated innate immunity signal pathway was assessed with IFN-? promoter or IFN-stimulated responsive element (ISRE) reporter assays and immunoblotting of key signal proteins. siRNA-mediated MAVS and TRIF knockdown of cells was performed to assess the effect of asunaprevir-regulated innate immunity against HCV and DENV. Asunaprevir treatment activated ISRE and IFN-? promoter-luciferase activities and signaling proteins in the JAK-STAT, MAVS, and TRIF pathways in Huh 7.5.1 cells. Asunaprevir-mediated signaling activation was decreased in MAVS-knockdown cells. Importantly, both RNA and protein levels of DENV-2 NS3 were decreased in asunaprevir-treated Huh 7.5.1 and HepG2 cells. In MAVS-knockdown cells, the restrictive effect of asunaprevir on HCV and DENV was attenuated. Our findings reveal an unexpected activity of asunaprevir, the activation of MAVS dependent innate immunity to restrict HCV and DENV infection.