The complete mitochondrial genome of the acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium ShG4C.
ABSTRACT: Complete mitochondrial genome of the acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium ShG4C, isolated from oxidized sediments of an abandoned polymetallic mine site, has been sequenced using high-throughput sequencing approach. The mitochondrial genome represents a circular DNA molecule with size of 26,725 bp. It encodes a usual set of mitochondrial genes, including 15 protein coding genes, large and small ribosomal RNAs and 27 tRNA genes. All genes are located on H-strand DNA and transcribed in one direction. Taxonomic analysis based on concatenated sequences of mitochondrial proteins confirmed taxonomic position of this fungus within the genus Penicillium. The sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome of Penicillium ShG4C was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KX931017.
Project description:Huperzine A-producing fungus <i>Penicillium polonicum</i> Hy4 (CCTCC No.M2010086) was isolated from <i>Huperzia serrata</i> (Thunb) Trev. The complete mitochondrial genome of <i>P. polonicum</i> is 28?192?bp in length, containing 15 protein-encoding genes, 27 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The whole mitogenome is high in AT content (74.40%) and low in GC content (25.60%). The mitochondrial gene order and arrangement of <i>P. polonicum</i> are identical to those of other <i>Penicillium</i>. Phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated protein-encoding genes showed that <i>P. polonicum</i> was close to <i>P. solitum</i>. This study reports the complete mitogenome of <i>P. polonicum</i> for the first time and provides valuable information for further exploration of mitochondrial evolution.
Project description:Berkeley Pit Lake is a 1500 ft deep abandoned open-pit copper mine filled with over 1140 billion liters of acidic, metal-sulfate-contaminated water. This harsh environment is proving to be a source of unusual microorganisms that produce novel bioactive compounds. We recently reported the structures of berkeleydione (1) and berkeleytrione (2), two novel hybrid polyketide-terpenoid metabolites isolated from a deep water Penicillium sp. growing in Berkeley Pit Lake. In this paper we report the structures of three new compounds, berkeleyacetals A-C ( 3-5) isolated from extracts of this fungus. The structures of these compounds were deduced by comparison of mass spectral and NMR data to that of berkeleydione (1).
Project description:Ergot alkaloids are specialized fungal metabolites with potent biological activities. They are encoded by well-characterized gene clusters in the genomes of producing fungi. Penicillium camemberti plays a major role in the ripening of Brie and Camembert cheeses. The P. camemberti genome contains a cluster of five genes shown in other fungi to be required for synthesis of the important ergot alkaloid intermediate chanoclavine-I aldehyde and two additional genes (easH and easQ) that may control modification of chanoclavine-I aldehyde into other ergot alkaloids. We analyzed samples of Brie and Camembert cheeses, as well as cultures of P. camemberti, and did not detect chanoclavine-I aldehyde or its derivatives. To create a functioning facsimile of the P. camembertieas cluster, we expressed P. camemberti easH and easQ in a chanoclavine-I aldehyde-accumulating easA knockout mutant of Neosartorya fumigata The easH-easQ-engineered N. fumigata strain accumulated a pair of compounds of m/z 269.1288 in positive-mode liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The analytes fragmented in a manner typical of the stereoisomeric ergot alkaloids rugulovasine A and B, and the related rugulovasine producer Penicillium biforme accumulated the same isomeric pair of analytes. The P. camemberti eas genes were transcribed in culture, but comparison of the P. camemberti eas cluster with the functional cluster from P. biforme indicated 11 polymorphisms. Whereas other P. camembertieas genes functioned when expressed in N. fumigata, P. camembertieasC did not restore ergot alkaloids when expressed in an easC mutant. The data indicate that P. camemberti formerly had the capacity to produce the ergot alkaloids rugulovasine A and B.IMPORTANCE The presence of ergot alkaloid synthesis genes in the genome of Penicillium camemberti is significant, because the fungus is widely consumed in Brie and Camembert cheeses. Our results show that, although the fungus has several functional genes from the ergot alkaloid pathway, it produces only an early pathway intermediate in culture and does not produce ergot alkaloids in cheese. Penicillium biforme, a close relative of P. camemberti, contains a similar but fully functional set of ergot alkaloid synthesis genes and produces ergot alkaloids chanoclavine-I, chanoclavine-I aldehyde, and rugulovasine A and B. Our reconstruction of the P. camemberti pathway in the model fungus Neosartorya fumigata indicated that P. camemberti formerly had the capacity to produce these same ergot alkaloids. Neither P. camemberti nor P. biforme produced ergot alkaloids in cheese, indicating that nutritionally driven gene regulation prevents these fungi from producing ergot alkaloids in a dairy environment.
Project description:Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.
Project description:Penicillium is an ascomycetous genus widely distributed in the natural environment and is one of the dominant fungi involved in the decomposition of mangroves, which can produce a variety of antitumor compounds and bioactive substances. However, in mangrove ecosystems there is no complete genome in this genus. In this study, we isolated a fungus strain named Penicillium variabile HXQ-H-1 from coast mangrove (Fujian Province, China). We generated a chromosome-level genome with total size of 33.32 Mb, scaffold N50 of 5.23 Mb and contig N50 of 96.74 kb. Additionally, we anchored about 95.91% assembly sequences into the longest seven scaffolds, and predicted 10,622 protein-coding genes, in which 99.66% could be annotated by eight protein databases. The secondary metabolites analysis reveals the strain has various gene clusters involving polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and terpene synthase that may have a largely capacity of biotechnological potential. Comparison genome analysis between Penicillium variabile and Talaromyces islandicus reveals a small difference in the total number of genes, whereas HXQ-H-1 has a higher gene number with COG functional annotation. Evolutionary relationship of Penicillum based on genome-wide data was carried out for the first time, showing the strain HXQ-H-1 is closely related to Talaromyces islandicus. This genomic resource may provide a new resource for development of novel bioactive antibiotics, drug candidates and precursors in Penicillium variabile.
Project description:The phylogenetic position of the human pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei was assessed from the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA regions. Phylogenetic analysis determined that P. marneffei is closely related to species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and sexual Talaromyces species with asexual biverticillate Penicillium states. Knowledge of the phylogenetic position of P. marneffei facilitated the design of unique oligonucleotide primers, from the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, for the specific amplification of P. marneffei DNA. These primers were successful at selectively amplifying DNA from six isolates of P. marneffei and excluding the other species tested, which included Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces species and several well-known fungal pathogens, namely, Aspergillus fumigatus, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Pneumocystis carinii. The primers that we have developed for the specific amplification of P. marneffei have the potential to be incorporated in a PCR identification system which could be used for the identification of this pathogenic agent from clinical material.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. RESULTS: The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi.
Project description:The high lignocellulolytic activity displayed by the soft-rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum has made it a target for the study of novel lignocellulolytic enzymes. We have obtained a reference genome of 36.2 Mb of non-redundant sequence (11,057 protein-coding genes). The 49 largest scaffolds cover 90% of the assembly, and Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach (CEGMA) analysis reveals that our assembly captures almost all protein-coding genes. RNA-seq was performed and 93.1% of the reads aligned to the assembled genome. These data, plus the independent sequencing of a set of genes of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, validate the quality of the genome sequence. P. purpurogenum shows a higher number of proteins with CAZy motifs, transcription factors and transporters as compared to other sequenced Penicillia. These results demonstrate the great potential for lignocellulolytic activity of this fungus and the possible use of its enzymes in related industrial applications.
Project description:The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated.Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus), A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum). The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25-36 Kb) among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin) and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum) do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus), contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics.The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent annotations for future genetic, evolutionary and population studies. Despite the conservation of the core genes, the mitochondrial genomes of Aspergillus and Penicillium species examined here exhibit significant amount of interspecies variation. Most of this variation can be attributed to accessory genes and mobile introns, presumably acquired by horizontal gene transfer of mitochondrial plasmids and intron homing.
Project description:Transcriptomic analysis of fungus Penicillium decumbens and brlA deletion strains in liquid medium and solid medium respectivelly Examination of differential gene expressions by Penicillium decumbens strains 114-2 and brlA deletion stains in liquid medium and solid medium