Maternal-Fetal Medicine physicians' practice patterns for 22-week delivery management.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To describe Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) physicians' practice patterns for 22-week delivery management. MEHODS:Surveyed 750 randomly-sampled members of the Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, querying MFMs' practices and policies guiding 22-week delivery management. RESULTS:Three hundred and twenty-five (43%) MFMs responded. Nearly all (87%) would offer induction. Twenty-eight percent would order steroids, and 12% would perform cesarean for a patient desiring resuscitation. Offering induction differed significantly based on the provider's practice setting, region, religious service attendance and political affiliation. In multivariable analyses, political affiliation remained a significant predictor of offering induction (p?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Most MFMs offer induction for PPROM at 22 weeks. A noteworthy proportion is willing to order steroids and perform cesarean. Personal beliefs and practice characteristics may contribute to these decisions. While little is known about the efficacy of these interventions at 22 weeks, some MFMs will offer obstetrical intervention if resuscitation is intended.
Project description:When an incurable fetal condition is detected, some women (or couples) would rather choose to continue with the pregnancy than opt for termination of pregnancy for medical reasons, which, in France, can be performed until full term. Such situations are frequently occurring and sometimes leading to the implementation of neonatal palliative care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the practices of perinatal care french professionals in this context; to identify the potential obstacles that might interfere with the provision of an appropriate neonatal palliative care; and, from an opposite perspective, to determine the criteria that led, in some cases, to offer this type of care for prenatally diagnosed lethal abnormality.We used an email survey sent to 434 maternal-fetal medicine specialists (MFMs) and fetal care pediatric specialists (FCPs) at 48 multidisciplinary centers for prenatal diagnosis (MCPD).Forty-two multidisciplinary centers for prenatal diagnosis (87.5%) took part. In total, 102 MFMs and 112 FCPs completed the survey, yielding response rate of 49.3%. One quarter of professionals (26.2%) estimated that over 20% of fetal pathologies presenting in MCPD could correspond to a diagnosis categorized as lethal (FCPs versus MFMs: 24% vs 17.2%, p = 0.04). The mean proportion of fetal abnormalities eligible for palliative care at birth was estimated at 19.30% (± 2.4) (FCPs versus MFMs: 23.4% vs 15.2%, p = 0.029). The degree of diagnostic certainty appears to be the most influencing factor (98.1%, n = 207) in the information provided to the pregnant woman with regard to potential neonatal palliative care. The vast majority of professionals, 92.5%, supported considering the practice of palliative care as a regular option to propose antenatally.Our study reveals the clear need for training perinatal professionals in perinatal palliative care and for the standardization of practices in this field.
Project description:Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses.Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death.In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals.Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The safety of methods of labor induction in women with previous cesarean deliveries is still debated. We investigated perinatal outcomes associated with labor induction among women with a trial of labor after one cesarean delivery. METHODS:This retrospective study included 339 women with a trial of labor after one prior cesarean and a singleton term fetus in cephalic presentation in 2013-2016 in a French maternity unit. Labor induction was performed with oxytocin, artificial rupture of membranes and/or prostaglandin E2, according to the Bishop score. The primary outcome was a composite of uterine rupture, low Apgar score, neonatal resuscitation or admission to a neonatal unit. The secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery after onset of labor, postpartum hemorrhage and maternal hospital stay after delivery. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusted (aOR) for potential confounders. RESULTS:In our sample, 67.3% of women had spontaneous labor and 32.7% were induced. More than half of the women received oxytocin during labor regardless of the mode of labor. The proportions of the composite outcome and of cesarean after onset of labor were higher in the induced group compared to the spontaneous group (26.1% vs 15.8%, p = 0.02 and 45.0% vs 27.6%, p<0.01, respectively). There were 9 uterine ruptures (2.6%) and this proportion was higher in the induced group compared to the spontaneous group, although this difference was not statistically significant (3.6% vs 2.2%, p = 0.48). After adjustment, labor induction was associated with higher risks of the composite outcome (aOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.29-4.65), cesarean after onset of labor (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.15-3.68) and maternal hospital stay after delivery ?6 days (aOR = 6.20, 95% CI: 3.25-11.81). No association was found with postpartum hemorrhage. CONCLUSION:Labor induction after one prior cesarean was associated with a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Nevertheless, the higher proportion of uterine rupture did not differ significantly from that in the spontaneous labor group.
Project description:Popular press articles have asserted that those with certain political orientations are less likely to wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. We propose that this relation is due to differential information shared by political parties rather than values associated with face mask wearing. We further propose that, when assessed together, political party affiliation (e.g., Republican, Democrat) but not political ideology (e.g., conservative, liberal) predicts face mask wearing, and this effect is mediated by perceptions of efficacy doubts but not perceptions that face masks infringe upon the wearer's independence. We performed a three-wave, time-separated survey study with 226 participants. Each proposal was supported. When assessed together, political party affiliation but not political ideology significantly predicted face mask wearing, and a significant indirect effect was observed via perceptions of efficacy doubts but not independence. Our results support that face mask wearing is a unique preventative action, which should be understood using political theory.
Project description:Key Points <h4>Question</h4> To what degree do physicians vary in their willingness to assist patients seeking exemptions from Medicaid work requirements? <h4>Findings</h4> In this mailed survey experiment with 715 responses, we found that 25% of physicians would assist a patient not qualifying under the state’s criteria for exemptions from Medicaid work requirements, and 54% would not, even when a patient qualifies. We found state, administrative effort, political affiliation, and perceived appropriateness to be significantly associated with willingness to assist. <h4>Meaning</h4> It is medically, ethically, and legally imperative that measures aimed at protecting vulnerable patients are not undermined by the burdensomeness of exemption procedures, or by physicians’ political or personal views. This experimental survey study examines variation in physician willingness to assist patients seeking exemptions from Medicaid work requirements. <h4>Importance</h4> Medicaid work requirements seek to promote health and personal responsibility but can also jeopardize health care access. Physicians have a central function in assisting patients with exemption requests, but it is unclear how their role affects patient welfare, professionalism, and the ethical and legal justification of programs. <h4>Objective</h4> To understand the degree of variability in physician response to assist patients with depression in receiving a Medicaid work requirement exemption. <h4>Design, Setting, and Participants</h4> We conducted a mailed survey experiment among practicing primary care physicians in the first 4 approved states (Arkansas, Kentucky, Indiana, New Hampshire) in July and October of 2019. We report response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates in line with American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) standards. <h4>Exposures</h4> In each state, we used an experimental factorial design to randomize recipients to 1 of 4 patient clinical scenarios. <h4>Main Outcomes and Measures</h4> The primary outcome was the indicator of willingness to assist a patient reporting depression with an exemption. <h4>Results</h4> We received 715 responses (overall AAPOR response rate: 21%; cooperation rate: 84%; refusal rate: 4%; contact rate: 25%). Respondents’ mean (SD) age was 54 (12) years; mean (SD) time since graduation, 26 (12) years; 435 (61%) identified as male; 177 as Democrat (25%); 156 as Republican (22%); 197 as Independent/other (28%); and 185 as declined/unknown (26%); the mean (SD) share of Medicaid patients was 29% (21%). We found that 97 of 387 physicians (25%) would offer assistance even when state policy would not support an exemption, and 170 of 315 (54%) would not offer assistance when regulations would require this. Moreover, 49 of 245 respondents (20%) who deemed an exemption appropriate indicated that they would not assist. State, administrative effort, political affiliation, and perceived appropriateness were statistically associated with the odds of assisting with an exemption. <h4>Conclusions and Relevance</h4> In this survey study of primary care physicians, we found substantial variation regarding willingness to assist patients qualifying for a work requirement exemption where none should exist. Insofar as work requirements are implemented again, it is critical to proactively identify measures to ensure that patients qualifying for exemptions are not put at risk due to either the burdensomeness of exemption procedures, or physicians’ political or personal views.
Project description:Background Anger and extreme stress can trigger potentially fatal cardiovascular events in susceptible people. Political elections, such as the 2016 US presidential election, are significant stressors. Whether they can trigger cardiac arrhythmias is unknown. Methods and Results In this retrospective case-crossover study, we linked cardiac device data, electronic health records, and historic voter registration records from 2436 patients with implanted cardiac devices. The incidence of arrhythmias during the election was compared with a control period with Poisson regression. We also tested for effect modification by demographics, comorbidities, political affiliation, and whether an individual's political affiliation was concordant with county-level election results. Overall, 2592 arrhythmic events occurred in 655 patients during the hazard period compared with 1533 events in 472 patients during the control period. There was a significant increase in the incidence of composite outcomes for any arrhythmia (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.77 [95% CI, 1.42-2.21]), supraventricular arrhythmia (IRR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.36-2.43]), and ventricular arrhythmia (IRR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.22-2.10]) during the election relative to the control period. There was also an increase in specific types of arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation (IRR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.06-2.11]), supraventricular tachycardia (IRR, 3.7 [95% CI, 2.2-6.2]), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (IRR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.3-2.2]), and daily atrial fibrillation burden (<i>P</i><0.001). No significant interaction was found for sex, race/ethnicity, device type, age ≥65 years, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, political affiliation, or concordance between individual political affiliation and county-level election results. Conclusions There was a significant increase in cardiac arrhythmias during the 2016 US presidential election. These findings suggest that exposure to stressful sociopolitical events may trigger arrhythmogenesis in susceptible people.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pediatricians and family physicians are responsible for providing newborn resuscitation, yet Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for training in this area during residency differ markedly for the two specialties. Our objectives were to determine (1) the extent to which neonatal resuscitation training differs for pediatric and family medicine residents; (2) the extent to which general pediatricians and family physicians engage in newborn resuscitation in their practice; and (3) whether use of resuscitation skills differs between urban/suburban and rural providers. METHODS: We surveyed a national cohort of pediatricians and family physicians who obtained board certification between 2001 and 2005. Data were analyzed based on type of physician and setting of current practice. RESULTS: Survey response rate was 22% (382 of 1736). Compared with family medicine physicians, pediatricians received more neonatal resuscitation training during residency. Most members of both groups had attended no deliveries in the year prior to the survey (75% [111 of 148] versus 74% [114 of 154]). In their current practice, the groups were equally likely to have provided a newborn bag and mask ventilation, chest compressions, and resuscitation medications. Pediatricians were more likely than family physicians to have attempted to either intubate a newborn (20% [28 of 148] versus 10% [16 of 153]; P = .0495) or insert umbilical catheters (15% [22 of 148] versus 5% [8 of 153]; P = .005). Regardless of specialty, rural physicians were much more likely to report that they attended deliveries (61% [41 of 67] versus 15% [36 of 234]; P < .001). Among rural pediatricians attending deliveries, 44% (7 of 16) reported feeling inadequately prepared for at least one delivery in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Few primary care pediatricians and family physicians provide newborn resuscitation after residency. For those who do attend deliveries, current training 5 provide insufficient preparation. Flexible, individualized residency curricula could target intensive resuscitation training to individuals who plan to practice in rural areas and/or attend deliveries after graduation.
Project description:Cognitive flexibility is operationalized in the neuropsychological literature as the ability to shift between modes of thinking and adapt to novel or changing environments. Religious belief systems consist of strict rules and rituals that offer adherents certainty, consistency, and stability. Consequently, we hypothesized that religious adherence and practice of repetitive religious rituals may be related to the persistence versus flexibility of one's cognition. The present study investigated the extent to which tendencies towards cognitive flexibility versus persistence are related to three facets of religious life: religious affiliation, religious practice, and religious upbringing. In a large sample (N?=?744), we found that religious disbelief was related to cognitive flexibility across three independent behavioural measures: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Remote Associates Test, and Alternative Uses Test. Furthermore, lower frequency of religious service attendance was related to cognitive flexibility. When analysing participants' religious upbringing in relation to their current religious affiliation, it was manifest that current affiliation was more influential than religious upbringing in all the measured facets of cognitive flexibility. The findings indicate that religious affiliation and engagement may shape and be shaped by cognitive control styles towards flexibility versus persistence, highlighting the tight links between flexibility of thought and religious ideologies.
Project description:The United States is in an unprecedented era of health care reform that is pushing medical professionals and medical educators to evaluate the future of their patients, careers, and the field of medicine. Our objectives were to describe physician familiarity and knowledge with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and to determine if knowledge is associated with support and endorsement of the ACA.We used a cross-sectional Internet-based survey of 559 physicians practicing in California. Primary outcomes were physician support and endorsement of ACA: (1) overall impact on the country (one item) and (2) perceived impact on physician's medical practice (one item). The primary predictor was knowledge of the ACA as measured with 10 questions. Other measures included age, gender, race-ethnicity, specialty, political views, provision of direct care, satisfaction with the practice of medicine, and compensation type. Descriptive statistics and multiple variable regression models were calculated.Respondents were 65% females, and the mean age was 54 years (+/- 9.7). Seventy-seven percent of physicians understood the ACA somewhat well/very well, and 59% endorsed the ACA, but 36% of physicians believed that health care reform will most likely hurt their practice. Primary care physicians were more likely to perceive that the new law will help their practice, compared to procedural specialties. Satisfaction with the practice of medicine, political affiliation, compensation type, and more knowledge of the health care law were independently associated with endorsement of the ACA.Endorsement of the ACA varied by specialty, knowledge, and satisfaction with the practice of medicine.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>One approach to decreasing the cesarean birth rate in the United States is to increase the availability of birth attendants, including certified nurse-midwives (CNMs), who offer trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC). We examined associations between provider type and mode of birth for women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC).<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a retrospective cohort study at a United States academic medical center using prospectively-collected data (2005-2012). We included healthy women with term singleton vertex pregnancies after one or two prior cesareans who were managed by obstetricians or CNMs. We assessed unplanned cesarean birth by provider type using univariate and logistic regression and examined labor interventions and predicted VBAC success.<h4>Results</h4>Overall VBAC success was 88% for 502 included patients. Unplanned cesarean rates were similar by provider type. Black race, no prior VBAC, recurring clinical indication for cesarean, labor augmentation/induction, and any Pitocin use were associated with increased unplanned cesarean. Higher parity and early-term gestational age at delivery were associated with decreased unplanned cesarean. Postpartum hemorrhage and composite maternal morbidity were increased with unplanned cesarean, but there was no difference in neonatal outcome by mode of delivery or provider type. Obstetricians had slightly higher composite adverse maternal outcomes. Nomogram-predicted VBAC success but not provider type was associated with unplanned cesarean.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Unplanned cesarean was similar for patients attempting labor after cesarean managed by midwives or obstetricians. Increasing the number of CNMs who manage TOLAC may help decrease the high rate of cesareans.