MAIT cells promote inflammatory monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells during pulmonary intracellular infection.
ABSTRACT: Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique innate T cell subset that is necessary for rapid recruitment of activated CD4+ T cells to the lungs after pulmonary F. tularensis LVS infection. Here, we investigated the mechanisms behind this effect. We provide evidence to show that MAIT cells promote early differentiation of CCR2-dependent monocytes into monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) in the lungs after F. tularensis LVS pulmonary infection. Adoptive transfer of Mo-DCs to MAIT cell-deficient mice (MR1-/- mice) rescued their defect in the recruitment of activated CD4+ T cells to the lungs. We further demonstrate that MAIT cell-dependent GM-CSF production stimulated monocyte differentiation in vitro, and that in vivo production of GM-CSF was delayed in the lungs of MR1-/- mice. Finally, GM-CSF-deficient mice exhibited a defect in monocyte differentiation into Mo-DCs that was phenotypically similar to MR1-/- mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that MAIT cells promote early pulmonary GM-CSF production, which drives the differentiation of inflammatory monocytes into Mo-DCs. Further, this delayed differentiation of Mo-DCs in MR1-/- mice was responsible for the delayed recruitment of activated CD4+ T cells to the lungs. These findings establish a novel mechanism by which MAIT cells function to promote both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Project description:Both classical DCs (cDCs) and monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) are capable of cross-priming CD8(+) T cells in response to cell-associated antigens. We found that Ly-6C(hi)TREML4(-) monocytes can differentiate into Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) but that Ly-6C(hi)TREML4(+) monocytes were committed to differentiate into Ly-6C(lo)TREML4(+) monocytes. Differentiation of Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs capable of efficient cross-priming required both GM-CSF and IL-4 and was accompanied by the induction of Batf3 and Irf4. However, monocytes require IRF4, but not BATF3, to differentiate into Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs capable of cross-priming CD8(+) T cells. Instead, Irf4(-/-) monocytes differentiate into macrophages in response to GM-CSF and IL-4. Thus, cDCs and Mo-DCs require distinct transcriptional programs of differentiation in acquiring the capacity to prime CD8(+) T cells. These differences may be of consideration in the use of therapeutic DC vaccines based on Mo-DCs.
Project description:Background:End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, including infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells recognize vitamin B metabolites produced by many bacterial species, including Mtb, and may play an important role in providing protective immunity against tuberculosis infection in the lung. To date, little is known about MAIT cell frequency, phenotype, or function in ESRD patients. Methods:MAIT cells, identified by surface marker expression or MR1 tetramer binding, were characterized in 20 ESRD and 20 healthy control participants by multicolor flow cytometry. Ex vivo MAIT cell phenotype and cytokine production following PMA/ionomycin, IL-12/IL-18, or Escherichia coli stimulation were determined. Monocyte phenotype and plasma C-reactive protein/inflammatory cytokine levels were quantified by flow cytometry, ELISA, and multiplex bead array. Results:Peripheral blood MAIT cells were significantly depleted among ESRD patients compared to controls by both phenotypic and tetramer analysis and exhibited a loss of CXCR3 expression coupled to increased expression of CCR6 and CXCR6. ESRD was also associated with a shift in MAIT PMA-induced cytokine production away from IFN? production and toward granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion, and a loss of E. coli-stimulated tumor necrosis factor ? expression. Loss of IFN? expression was associated with a combination of age, alterations in Tbet and Eomes expression, and inflammatory plasma cytokine levels. Conclusion:The loss of peripheral blood MAIT cells and associated shifts in tissue homing receptor expression and GM-CSF production may contribute to an immune environment that is permissive to bacterial replication, particularly in the lungs.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate T cells that recognize intermediates of the vitamin B2 biosynthetic pathway presented by the monomorphic MR1 molecule. It remains unclear whether, in addition to their cytolytic activity that is important in antimicrobial defense, MAIT cells have immune-modulatory functions that could enhance dendritic cell (DC) maturation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms dictating the interactions between human MAIT cells and DCs and demonstrate that human MAIT cells mature monocyte-derived and primary DCs in an MR1- and CD40L-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that MAIT cell-derived signals synergize with microbial stimuli to induce secretion of bioactive IL-12 by DCs. Activation of human MAIT cells in whole blood leads to MR1- and cytokine-dependent NK cell transactivation. Our results underscore an important property of MAIT cells, which can be of translational relevance to rapidly orchestrate adaptive immunity through DC maturation.
Project description:Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells recognise conserved microbial metabolites from riboflavin synthesis. Striking evolutionary conservation and pulmonary abundance implicate them in antibacterial host defence, yet their functions in protection against clinically important pathogens are unknown. Here we show that mouse Legionella longbeachae infection induces MR1-dependent MAIT cell activation and rapid pulmonary accumulation of MAIT cells associated with immune protection detectable in immunocompetent host animals. MAIT cell protection is more evident in mice lacking CD4+ cells, and adoptive transfer of MAIT cells rescues immunodeficient Rag2-/-?C-/- mice from lethal Legionella infection. Protection is dependent on MR1, IFN-? and GM-CSF, but not IL-17A, TNF or perforin, and enhanced protection is detected earlier after infection of mice antigen-primed to boost MAIT cell numbers before infection. Our findings define a function for MAIT cells in protection against a major human pathogen and indicate a potential role for vaccination to enhance MAIT cell immunity.
Project description:Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is required to induce T cell immunity, whereas immature DCs can induce immune tolerance. Although the transcription factor STAT5 is suggested to participate in DC maturation, its role in this process remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of STAT5 inhibition on LPS-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs). We inhibited STAT5 by treating Mo-DCs with JQ1, a selective inhibitor of BET epigenetic readers, which can suppress STAT5 function. We found that JQ1 inhibits LPS-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation, thereby attenuating its transcriptional activity in Mo-DCs. The diminished STAT5 activity results in impaired maturation of Mo-DCs, as indicated by defective upregulation of costimulatory molecules and CD83, as well as reduced secretion of IL-12p70. Expression of constitutively activated STAT5 in JQ1-treated Mo-DCs overcomes the effects of JQ1 and enhances the expression of CD86, CD83, and IL-12. The activation of STAT5 in Mo-DCs is mediated by GM-CSF produced following LPS stimulation. Activated STAT5 then leads to increased expression of both GM-CSF and GM-CSFR, triggering an autocrine loop that further enhances STAT5 signaling and enabling Mo-DCs to acquire a more mature phenotype. JQ1 decreases the ability of Mo-DCs to induce allogeneic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, JQ1 leads to a reduced generation of inflammatory CD8(+) T cells and decreased Th1 differentiation. Thus, JQ1 impairs LPS-induced Mo-DC maturation by inhibiting STAT5 activity, thereby generating cells that can only weakly stimulate an adaptive-immune response. Therefore, JQ1 could have beneficial effects in treating T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Studies on the biology of mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) in mice have been hampered by a lack of specific reagents. Using MR1-antigen (Ag) tetramers that specifically bind to the MR1-restricted MAIT T cell receptors (TCRs), we demonstrate that MAIT cells are detectable in a broad range of tissues in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. These cells include CD4(-)CD8(-), CD4(-)CD8(+), and CD4(+)CD8(-) subsets, and their frequency varies in a tissue- and strain-specific manner. Mouse MAIT cells have a CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) memory phenotype and produce high levels of IL-17A, whereas other cytokines, including IFN-?, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF, are produced at low to moderate levels. Consistent with high IL-17A production, most MAIT cells express high levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ?t (ROR?t), whereas ROR?t(lo) MAIT cells predominantly express T-bet and produce IFN-?. Most MAIT cells express the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor, and their development is largely PLZF dependent. These observations contrast with previous reports that MAIT cells from V?19 TCR transgenic mice are PLZF(-) and express a naive CD44(lo) phenotype. Accordingly, MAIT cells from normal mice more closely resemble human MAIT cells than previously appreciated, and this provides the foundation for further investigations of these cells in health and disease.
Project description:The molecular requirements that guide the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A3 guides monocyte fate and is essential for Mo-DC differentiation. Nr4a3-/- mice are impaired in the in vivo generation of DC-SIGN+ Mo-DCs following LPS stimulation and, as such, are defective at priming a CD8+ T cell response to gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrate that NR4A3 is an essential downstream effector of IRF4 during in vitro differentiation of Mo-DCs with GM-CSF and IL-4 and that, in absence of NR4A3, monocytes are diverted to macrophages. Our transcriptomic analysis of the genes regulated by NR4A3 reveals that the acquisition of the Mo-DC differentiation program is intertwined with the acquisition of a migratory signature. Furthermore, NR4A3 is critical for steady-state migration of non-lymphoid tissue conventional DCs to lymph nodes. Altogether, our results highlight a unique role for NR4A3 in Mo-DC differentiation and in the acquisition of migratory properties. Overall design: Total RNA from sorted murine monocytes (see above) and from murine monocytes cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 1 and 2 days (2 samples per group from 2 independent experiments) was isolated and sequenced with Illumina HiSeq2000.
Project description:Cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens is carried out by classical DCs (cDCs) and monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), but whether a similar or distinct program exists for this process is unknown. In examining this issue, we discovered that only Ly-6ChiTremL4– monocytes, but not Ly-6ChiTremL4+ monocytes, can differentiate into Zbtb46+ Mo-DCs in response to GM-CSF and IL-4. However, Ly-6ChiTremL4+ monocytes were committed to Nur77-dependent development of Ly-6CloTremL4+ monocytes. Further, differentiation of monocytes with GM-CSF required addition of IL-4 to generate Zbtb46+ Mo-DCs that cross-presented as efficiently as CD24+ cDCs, which was accompanied by increased Batf3 and Irf4 expression. Unlike cDCs, Mo-DCs required only IRF4, and not Batf3, for cross-presentation. Further, Irf4–/– monocytes failed to develop into Zbtb46+ Mo-DCs, and instead developed into macrophages. Thus, cDCs and Mo-DCs use distinct transcriptional programs for cross-presentation that may drive different antigen-processing pathways. These differences may influence development of therapeutic DC vaccines based on Mo-DCs. Overall design: Mo-DCs from WT and IRF4KO mice, BM Ly-6ChiTremL4– and Ly-6CloTremL4+ monocytes, and WT CD24+ DCs were sorted to >95% purity on FACSAria Fusion
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have a semi-invariant TCR V?-chain, and their optimal development is dependent upon commensal flora and expression of the nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecule MR1. MAIT cells are activated in an MR1-restricted manner by diverse strains of bacteria and yeast, suggesting a widely shared Ag. Recently, human and mouse MR1 were found to bind bacterial riboflavin metabolites (ribityllumazine [RL] Ags) capable of activating MAIT cells. In this study, we used MR1/RL tetramers to study MR1 dependency, subset heterogeneity, and protective effector functions important for tuberculosis immunity. Although tetramer(+) cells were detected in both MR1(+/+) and MR1(-/-) TCR V?19i-transgenic (Tg) mice, MR1 expression resulted in significantly increased tetramer(+) cells coexpressing TCR V?6/8, NK1.1, CD44, and CD69 that displayed more robust in vitro responses to IL-12 plus IL-18 and RL Ag, indicating that MR1 is necessary for the optimal development of the classic murine MAIT cell memory/effector subset. In addition, tetramer(+) MAIT cells expressing CD4, CD8, or neither developing in MR1(+/+) V?19i-Tg mice had disparate cytokine profiles in response to RL Ag. Therefore, murine MAIT cells are considerably more heterogeneous than previously thought. Most notably, after mycobacterial pulmonary infection, heterogeneous subsets of tetramer(+) V?19i-Tg MAIT cells expressing CXCR3 and ?4?1 were recruited into the lungs and afforded early protection. In addition, V?19iC?(-/-)MR(+/+) mice were significantly better protected than were V?19iC?(-/-)MR1(-/-), wild-type, and MR1(-/-) non-Tg mice. Overall, we demonstrate considerable functional diversity of MAIT cell responses, as well as that MR1-restricted MAIT cells are important for tuberculosis protective immunity.
Project description:Cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens is carried out by classical DCs (cDCs) and monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), but whether a similar or distinct program exists for this process is unknown. In examining this issue, we discovered that only Ly-6ChiTremL4– monocytes, but not Ly-6ChiTremL4+ monocytes, can differentiate into Zbtb46+ Mo-DCs in response to GM-CSF and IL-4. However, Ly-6ChiTremL4+ monocytes were committed to Nur77-dependent development of Ly-6CloTremL4+ monocytes. Further, differentiation of monocytes with GM-CSF required addition of IL-4 to generate Zbtb46+ Mo-DCs that cross-presented as efficiently as CD24+ cDCs, which was accompanied by increased Batf3 and Irf4 expression. Unlike cDCs, Mo-DCs required only IRF4, and not Batf3, for cross-presentation. Further, Irf4–/– monocytes failed to develop into Zbtb46+ Mo-DCs, and instead developed into macrophages. Thus, cDCs and Mo-DCs use distinct transcriptional programs for cross-presentation that may drive different antigen-processing pathways. These differences may influence development of therapeutic DC vaccines based on Mo-DCs. Overall design: Analysis of Sirp-a+ DCs from WT and IRF4KO DCs Splenocytes were harvested from WT and IRF4-/- C57Bl/6 mice and Sirp-a+ DCs were sorted to >95% purity on a FacsAria Fusion