Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Activation within the Cardiac Myocyte Limits Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rodents.
ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that cross talk exists between cellular pathways important for pain signaling and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, the authors address whether the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, important in pain signaling, is present in cardiac myocytes and regulates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.For biochemical analysis of TRPA1, techniques including quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used. To determine how TRPA1 mediates cellular injury, the authors used an in vivo model of rat cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and adult rat-isolated cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation.The authors' biochemical analysis indicates that TRPA1 is within the cardiac myocytes. Further, using a rat in vivo model of cardiac injury, the TRPA1 activators ASP 7663 and optovin reduce myocardial injury (45?±?5%* and 44?±?8%,* respectively, vs. control, 66?±?6% infarct size/area at risk; n = 6 per group; mean ± SD; *P < 0.001). TRPA1 inhibition also blocked the infarct size-sparing effects of morphine. In isolated cardiac myocytes, the TRPA1 activators ASP 7663 and optovin reduce cardiac myocyte cell death when given during reoxygenation (20?±?3%* and 22?±?4%* vs. 36?±?3%; percentage of dead cells per field, n = 6 per group; mean ± SD; *P < 0.05). For a rat in vivo model of cardiac injury, the infarct size-sparing effect of TRPA1 activators also occurs during reperfusion.The authors' data suggest that TRPA1 is present within the cardiac myocytes and is important in regulating myocardial reperfusion injury. The presence of TRPA1 within the cardiac myocytes may potentially explain why certain pain relievers that can block TRPA1 activation, such as cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors or some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, could be associated with cardiovascular risk.
Project description:The authors hypothesized that despite similar cardiovascular event rates, the improved cardiovascular survival from sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition, seen clinically, could be via a direct cytoprotective effect, including protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Langendorff-perfused hearts, from diabetic and nondiabetic rats, fed long-term for 4 weeks with canagliflozin, had lower infarct sizes; this being the first demonstration of canagliflozin's cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in both diabetic and nondiabetic animals. By contrast, direct treatment of isolated nondiabetic rat hearts with canagliflozin, solubilized in the isolated Langendorff perfusion buffer, had no impact on infarct size. This latter study demonstrates that the infarct-sparing effect of long-term treatment with canagliflozin results from either a glucose-independent effect or up-regulation of cardiac prosurvival pathways. These results further suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors could be repurposed as novel cardioprotective interventions in high-risk cardiovascular patients irrespective of diabetic status.
Project description:Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in the generation of free radicals, accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes, variable angina (pain), and infarction. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) mediates pain signaling and is activated by unsaturated aldehydes, including acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal. The contribution of TRPA1 (a Ca2+-permeable channel) to I/R-induced myocardial injury is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that cardiac TRPA1 confers myocyte sensitivity to aldehyde accumulation and promotes I/R injury. Although basal cardiovascular function in TRPA1-null mice was similar to that in wild-type (WT) mice, infarct size was significantly smaller in TRPA1-null mice than in WT mice (34.1?±?9.3 vs. 14.3?±?9.9% of the risk region, n = 8 and 7, respectively, P < 0.05), despite a similar I/R-induced area at risk (40.3?±8.4% and 42.2?±?11.3% for WT and TRPA1-null mice, respectively) after myocardial I/R (30 min of ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion) in situ. Positive TRPA1 immunofluorescence was present in murine and human hearts and was colocalized with connexin43 at intercalated disks in isolated murine cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocyte TRPA1 was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, Western blot analysis, and electrophysiology. A role of TRPA1 in cardiomyocyte toxicity was demonstrated in isolated cardiomyocytes exposed to acrolein, an I/R-associated toxin that induces Ca2+ accumulation and hypercontraction, effects significantly blunted by HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist. Protection induced by HC-030031 was quantitatively equivalent to that induced by SN-6, a Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor, further supporting a role of Ca2+ overload in acrolein-induced cardiomyocyte toxicity. These data indicate that cardiac TRPA1 activation likely contributes to I/R injury and, thus, that TRPA1 may be a novel therapeutic target for decreasing myocardial I/R injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) activation mediates increased blood flow, edema, and pain reception, yet its role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. Genetic ablation of TRPA1 significantly decreased myocardial infarction after I/R in mice. Functional TRPA1 in cardiomyocytes was enriched in intercalated disks and contributed to acrolein-induced Ca2+ overload and hypercontraction. These data indicate that I/R activation of TRPA1 worsens myocardial infarction; TRPA1 may be a potential target to mitigate I/R injury.
Project description:Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) can regenerate various tissues. We investigated the impact of SHED-conditioned medium (SHED-CM) on myocardial injury in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. SHED-CM was intravenously injected at 5 min after reperfusion. Administration of SHED-CM reduced myocardial infarct size as well as decreased apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine levels, such as TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-?, in the myocardium following I/R. In cultured cardiac myocytes, SHED-CM significantly suppressed apoptosis under hypoxia/serum-deprivation and reduced LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Furthermore, anti-apoptotic action of SHED-CM was stronger than bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC)-CM or adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-CM in cardiac myocytes. SHED-CM contains a higher concentration of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than BMSC-CM and ADSC-CM, and neutralization of HGF attenuated the inhibitory actions of SHED-CM on apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. Finally, WT mice were intravenously treated with an HGF-depleted SHED-CM, followed by myocardial I/R. HGF depletion significantly attenuated the inhibitory actions of SHED-CM on myocardial infarct size and apoptosis after I/R. SHED-CM protects the heart from acute ischemic injury because it suppresses inflammation and apoptosis. SHED-CM could be a useful treatment option for acute myocardial infarction.
Project description:The Akt protein kinase is an important mediator of cardiac myocyte growth and survival. To identify factors with novel therapeutic applications in cardiac diseases, we focused on the identification of factors secreted from Akt1-activated cells that have cardioprotective effects through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.Using an inducible Akt1 transgenic mouse model, we have found that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) protein and transcript expression are increased 4.0- and 2.0-fold, respectively, by Akt activation in the heart (P<0.05). Fstl1 transcript was also upregulated in response to myocardial stresses including transverse aortic constriction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and myocardial infarction. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Fstl1 protected cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis (P<0.01), and this protective effect was dependent on the upregulation of both Akt and ERK activities. Conversely, knockdown of Fstl1 in cardiac myocytes decreased basal Akt signaling and increased the frequency of apoptotic death in vitro (P<0.01). The intravenous administration of an adenoviral encoding Fstl1 to mice resulted in a 66.0% reduction in myocardial infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion injury that was accompanied by a 70.9% reduction in apoptosis in the heart (P<0.01).These results indicate that Fstl1 is a cardiac-secreted factor that functions as an antiapoptotic protein. Fstl1 could play a role in myocardial maintenance and repair in response to harmful stimuli.
Project description:We propose that the fetal heart is highly resilient to hypoxic stress. Our objective was to elucidate the human fetal gene expression profile in response to simulated ischemia and reperfusion to identify molecular targets that account for the innate cardioprotection exhibited by the fetal phenotype.Primary cultures of human fetal cardiac myocytes (gestational age, 15-20 weeks) were exposed to simulated ischemia and reperfusion in vitro by using a simulated ischemic buffer under anoxic conditions. Total RNA from treated and baseline cells were isolated, reverse transcribed, and labeled with Cy3 or Cy5 and hybridized to a human cDNA microarray for expression analysis. This analysis revealed a highly significant (false discovery rate, <3%) suppression of interleukin 6 transcript levels during the reperfusion phase confirmed by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (0.25 +/- 0.11-fold). Interleukin 6 signaling during ischemia and reperfusion was assessed at the protein expression level by means of Western measurements of interleukin 6 receptor, the signaling subunit of the interleukin 6 receptor complex (gp130), and signal transducer of activated transcription 3. Posttranslational changes in the protein kinase B signaling pathway were determined on the basis of the phosphorylation status of protein kinase B, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. The effect of suppression of a prohypertrophic kinase, integrin-linked kinase, with short-interfering RNA was determined in an ischemia and reperfusion-stressed neonatal rat cardiac myocyte model. Endogenous secretion of interleukin 6 protein in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Human fetal cardiac myocytes exhibited a significantly lower rate of apoptosis induction during ischemia and reperfusion and after exposure to staurosporine and recombinant interleukin 6 compared with that observed in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes ( P < .05 for all comparisons, analysis of variance). Exposure to exogenously added recombinant interleukin 6 increased the apoptotic rate in both rat and human fetal cardiac myocytes ( P < .05). Short-interfering RNA-mediated suppression of integrin-linked kinase, a prohypertrophy upstream kinase regulating protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation, was cytoprotective against ischemia and reperfusion-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes ( P < .05).Human fetal cardiac myocytes exhibit a uniquely adaptive transcriptional response to ischemia and reperfusion that is associated with an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The stress-inducible fetal cardiac myocyte gene repertoire is a useful platform for identification of targets relevant to the mitigation of cardiac ischemic injury and highlights a novel avenue involving interleukin 6 modulation for preventing the cardiac myocyte injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We recently developed novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitor small molecules for cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and validated their efficacy in ischemia/reperfusion injury in cardiac myocytes. The aim of the present study was to test our lead compounds for cardioprotection in vivo in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the presence or absence of hypercholesterolemia, one of the major comorbidities affecting cardioprotection. METHODS:Normocholesterolemic adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of coronary occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion to induce AMI. MMP inhibitors (MMPI)-1154 and -1260 at 0.3, 1, and 3 µmol/kg, MMPI-1248 at 1, 3, and 10 µmol/kg were administered at the 25th min of ischemia intravenously. In separate groups, hypercholesterolemia was induced by a 12-week diet (2% cholesterol, 0.25% cholic acid), then the rats were subjected to the same AMI protocol and single doses of the MMPIs that showed the most efficacy in normocholesterolemic animals were tested in the hypercholesterolemic animals. Infarct size/area at risk was assessed at the end of reperfusion in all groups by standard Evans blue and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and myocardial microvascular obstruction (MVO) was determined by thioflavine-S staining. RESULTS:MMPI-1154 at 1 µmol/kg, MMPI-1260 at 3 µmol/kg and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) as the positive control reduced infarct size significantly; however, this effect was not seen in hypercholesterolemic animals. MVO in hypercholesterolemic animals decreased by IPC only. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first demonstration that MMPI-1154 and MMPI-1260 showed a dose-dependent infarct size reduction in an in vivo rat AMI model; however, single doses that showed the most efficacy in normocholesterolemic animals were abolished by hypercholesterolemia. The further development of these promising cardioprotective MMPIs should be continued with different dose ranges in the study of hypercholesterolemia and other comorbidities.
Project description:Reperfusion as a therapeutic intervention for acute myocardial infarction-induced cardiac injury itself induces further cardiomyocyte death. ?-arrestin (?arr)-biased ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) activation promotes survival signaling responses in vitro; thus, we hypothesize that this pathway can mitigate cardiomyocyte death at the time of reperfusion to better preserve function. However, a lack of efficacious ?arr-biased orthosteric small molecules has prevented investigation into whether this pathway relays protection against ischemic injury in vivo. We recently demonstrated that the pepducin ICL1-9, a small lipidated peptide fragment designed from the first intracellular loop of ?2AR, allosterically engaged pro-survival signaling cascades in a ?arr-dependent manner in vitro. Thus, in this study we tested whether ICL1-9 relays cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury in vivo. <b>Methods:</b> Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6, ?2AR knockout (KO), ?arr1KO and ?arr2KO mice received intracardiac injections of either ICL1-9 or a scrambled control pepducin (Scr) at the time of ischemia (30 min) followed by reperfusion for either 24 h, to assess infarct size and cardiomyocyte death, or 4 weeks, to monitor the impact of ICL1-9 on long-term cardiac structure and function. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) were used to assess the impact of ICL1-9 versus Scr pepducin on cardiomyocyte survival and mitochondrial superoxide formation in response to either serum deprivation or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro and to investigate the associated mechanism(s). <b>Results:</b> Intramyocardial injection of ICL1-9 at the time of I/R reduced infarct size, cardiomyocyte death and improved cardiac function in a ?2AR- and ?arr-dependent manner, which led to improved contractile function early and less fibrotic remodeling over time. Mechanistically, ICL1-9 attenuated mitochondrial superoxide production and promoted cardiomyocyte survival in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. RhoA activation could be detected in cardiomyocytes and whole heart up to 24 h post-treatment, demonstrating the stability of ICL1-9 effects on ?arr-dependent ?2AR signaling. <b>Conclusion:</b> Pepducin-based allosteric modulation of ?arr-dependent ?2AR signaling represents a novel therapeutic approach to reduce reperfusion-induced cardiac injury and relay long-term cardiac remodeling benefits.
Project description:Increased levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) induced by preconditioning or gene therapy protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this action, we studied the effects of increased superoxide scavenging on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in a cardiac myocyte-specific ecSOD transgenic (Tg) mouse. Results indicated that ecSOD overexpression increased cardiac myocyte-specific ecSOD activity 27.5-fold. Transgenic ecSOD was localized to the sarcolemma and, notably, the cytoplasm of cardiac myocytes. Ischemia/reperfusion injury was attenuated in ecSOD Tg hearts, in which infarct size was decreased and LV functional recovery was improved. Using the ROS spin trap, DMPO, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy demonstrated a significant decrease in ROS in Tg hearts during the first 20 min of reperfusion. This decrease in ROS was accompanied by an increase in NO production determined by EPR using the NO spin trap, Fe-MGD. Attenuated ROS in ecSOD Tg myocytes was also supported by decreased production of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Increased NO bioavailability was confirmed by attenuated guanylate cyclase-dependent (p-VASP) signaling. In conclusion, attenuation of ROS levels by cardiac-specific ecSOD overexpression increases NO bioavailability in response to ischemia/reperfusion and protects against reperfusion injury. These findings are the first to demonstrate increased NO bioavailability with attenuation of ROS by direct measurement of these reactive species (EPR, reactive fluorescent dyes) with cardiac-specific ecSOD expression. This is also the first indication that the predominantly extracellular SOD isoform is capable of cytosolic localization that affects myocardial intracellular signal transduction and function.
Project description:Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) binding to its cognate receptor, CXCR4, regulates a variety of cellular functions such as stem cell homing, trafficking, and differentiation. However, the role of the SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 axis in modulating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is unknown.In mice subjected to ischemic preconditioning, myocardial SDF-1alpha mRNA was found to be increased 3 hours later (P<0.05). Myocardial SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 mRNA and protein were found to be expressed in both cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. SDF-1alpha production increased significantly after 1 or 4 hours of hypoxia and 18 hours of reoxygenation in cultured myocytes (P<0.05) but did not change in fibroblast cultures. In isolated myocytes, CXCR4 activation by SDF-1alpha resulted in increased phosphorylation of both ERK 1/2 and AKT and decreased phosphorylation of JNK and p38. Cultured myocytes pretreated with SDF-1alpha were resistant to hypoxia/reoxygenation damage, exhibiting less lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue uptake, and apoptotic cell death (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay) (P<0.05). This protective effect was blocked by the CXCR4 selective antagonist AMD3100. In vivo, administration of SDF-1alpha before 30 minutes of coronary occlusion followed by 4 hours of reperfusion decreased infarct size (P<0.05). The decrease in infarct size with SDF-1alpha administration also was blocked by AMD3100.We conclude that SDF-1alpha and its receptor, CXCR4, constitute a paracrine or autocrine axis in cardiac myocytes that is activated in response to preconditioning and hypoxic stimuli, recruiting the antiapoptotic kinases ERK and AKT and promoting an antiapoptotic program that confers protection against ischemia/reperfusion damage.
Project description:Introduction:The use of comorbidity models is crucial in cardioprotective drug development. Hypercholesterolemia causes endothelial and myocardial dysfunction, as well as aggravates ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. Endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms against I/R are impaired in hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic in vivo animal models. Therefore, our aim was to develop a medium throughput comorbidity cell-based test system of myocardial I/R injury, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia that mimics comorbidity conditions. Methods:Cardiac myocytes isolated from neonatal or adult rat hearts were cultured in control or in three different hypercholesterolemic media with increasing cholesterol content (hiChol) or hiChol + hyperglycemic medium, respectively. Each group was then subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) or corresponding normoxic condition, respectively. Cholesterol uptake was tested by Filipin staining in neonatal cardiac myocytes. Cell viability, total cell count and oxidative stress, i.e., total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide level were measured by fluorescent assays. Results:Neonatal cardiac myocytes took up cholesterol from the different hiChol media at a concentration-dependent manner. In normoxia, viability of hiChol neonatal cardiac myocytes was not significantly changed, however, superoxide levels were increased as compared to vehicle. After SI/R, the viability of hiChol neonatal cardiac myocytes was decreased and total ROS level was increased as compared to vehicle. HiChol combined with hyperglycemia further aggravated cell death and oxidative stress in normoxic as well as in SI/R conditions. Viability of hiChol adult cardiac myocytes was significantly decreased and superoxide level was increased in normoxia and these changes were further aggravated by SI/R. HiChol combined with hyperglycemia further aggravated cell death, however level of oxidative stress increased only in normoxic condition. Conclusion:HiChol rat cardiac myocytes showed reduction of cell viability and increased oxidative stress, which were further aggravated by SI/R and with additional hyperglycemia. This is the first demonstration that the combination of the current hypercholesterolemic medium and SI/R in cardiac myocytes mimics the cardiac pathology of the comorbid heart with I/R and hypercholesterolemia.