The Effect of Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) on Dental Development: Can We Use the Teeth as an Early Diagnostic Tool?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to reduced catalytic activity of the different sulfatase. Affected individuals show neurologic deterioration with mental retardation, skeletal anomalies, organomegaly, and skin changes as in X-linked ichthyosis. The only organ that was not examined in MSD patients is the dentition. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of the metabolic error on dental development in a patient with the intermediate severe late-infantile form of MSD (S155P). METHODS:Histological and chemical study were performed on three deciduous and five permanent teeth from MSD patient and pair-matched normal patients. RESULTS:Tooth germ size and enamel thickness were reduced in both deciduous and permanent MSD teeth, and the scalloping feature of the DEJ was missing in MSD teeth causing enamel to break off from the dentin. The mineral components in the enamel and dentin were different. CONCLUSIONS:The metabolic error insults the teeth in the stage of organogenesis in both the deciduous and permanent dentition. The end result is teeth with very sharp cusp tips, thin hypomineralized enamel, and exposed dentin due to the break off of enamel. These findings are different from all other types of MPS syndromes.Clinically the phenotype of intermediate severe late-infantile form of MSD appeared during the third year of life. In children of parents that are carriers, we can diagnose the disease as early as birth using X-ray radiograph of the anterior upper region or as early as 6-8 months when the first deciduous tooth erupt and consider very early treatment to ameliorate the symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Using salivary microbiota as an accurate proxy for monitoring supragingival microbiota remains controversial because their relationship remains unclear. The eruption of permanent teeth and the exfoliation of primary teeth in mixed dentition greatly alter microbial habitats, which may cause compositional shifts of oral microbiota from childhood to adults. OBJECTIVE:This study's purpose was to assess whether saliva represents a suitable sample for monitoring supragingival microbiota in healthy people, and to explore how the replacement process of deciduous teeth with permanent teeth in mixed dentition influences microbiota within the oral cavity. DESIGN:Samples of saliva and of supragingival plaque from permanent and deciduous teeth were collected separately from 20 healthy children with mixed dentition. To characterize their microbial communities, we used the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence. RESULTS:Saliva harbored a less even and less diverse community than did the plaque. Discriminating genera, namely Rothia and Streptococcus, contributed to the saliva and plaque differentiation. About half of predicted KEGG pathways varied between the plaque and saliva communities. Oral bacteria showed significantly associations between their supragingival and salivary states. We identified 20 supragingival plaque-related genera in saliva, such as Corynebacterium, Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, and Neisseria. Additionally, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria peaked in the permanent teeth plaque but subsided in deciduous teeth plaque and saliva. The exfoliation of deciduous teeth and eruption of permanent teeth might be related to the reported fluctuation in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria from primary dentition to permanent dentition within the oral cavity. The variation between PT and DT was due mainly to permanent teeth being enriched in Actinomyces and deciduous teeth in Treponema. CONCLUSION:These results suggested that the supragingival plaque-related bacteria could be suitable candidates when sampling saliva for monitoring supragingival microbiota. The replacement process of deciduous teeth with permanent teeth in mixed dentition might be related to the reported age-maturation of phylum Actinobacteria in the oral cavity.
Project description:The present study was designed to investigate the microbial profiles of teeth in different locations in mixed-dentition-stage children, and to compare the microbiomes of permanent and deciduous teeth in the same healthy oral cavity.Supragingival plaque samples of teeth in various locations-the first permanent molars, deciduous molars, deciduous canines and incisors and permanent incisors-were collected from 20 healthy mixed-dentition-stage children with 10-12 permanent teeth erupted. Plaque DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to sequencing.On average, 18,051 high-quality sequences per sample were generated. Permanent tooth sites tended to host more diverse bacterial communities than those of deciduous tooth sites. A total of 12 phyla, 21 classes, 38 orders, 66 families, 74 genera were detected ultimately. Five predominant phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria) were highly variable among sites. Of 26 genera with a mean relative abundance of >0.1%, 16 showed significant differences in relative abundance among the groups. More than 20% of the total operational taxonomical units were detected only in permanent or deciduous teeth. The variation in the microbial community composition was due mainly to permanent teeth being enriched in Actinomyces and deciduous teeth in Treponema. The core microbiome of supragingival plaque in mixed dentition comprised 19 genera with complex correlationships.Our results suggest differences in microbial diversity and composition between permanent and deciduous teeth sites in mixed dentition. Moreover, the core microbiome of these sites was determined. These findings enhance our understanding of the development of the native oral microbiota with age.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with significant changes in dental structures. In children, it can induce enamel and dentin defects, which have been identified as risk factors for caries. This study aimed to assess the association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels (<30 ng/mL) and the prevalence of caries in the permanent teeth and mixed dentition of 7-year-old children. A sample of 335 children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal) was included. Data on children's demographic and social conditions, health status, dental health behaviours, dental examination including erupted permanent first molars, and blood samples available for vitamin D analysis were collected. Dental outcomes included the presence of caries, including non-cavitated lesions (d<sub>1-6</sub>mft/D<sub>1-6</sub>MFT > 0), and advanced caries (d<sub>3-6</sub>mft/D<sub>3-6</sub>MF > 0). Serum 25(OH) D was measured using a competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay protein-binding assay. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used. Advanced caries in permanent teeth was significantly associated with children's vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL, gastrointestinal disorders, higher daily intake of cariogenic food, and having had a dental appointment at ?7 years old. Optimal childhood levels of vitamin D may be considered an additional preventive measure for dental caries in the permanent dentition.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the caries status and risk factors in the schoolchildren of Spain's Valencia region in 2018 and to compare them to the 20-year evolution of caries indicators in the region. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1722 children and adolescents aged between 6 and 15 using cluster sampling. Caries status, using International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) criteria, and sociodemographic variables were recorded. To ensure the comparison with previous studies using WHO caries criteria, the cut-off point was established at ICDAS II code 4. Caries prevalence was found to be 37.4% and the decayed and filled teeth index (dft) was 1.23 at 6 years for deciduous dentition (DD). In permanent dentition (PD) at 12 years, caries prevalence was 30.1% with a 0.66 decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT), and at 15 years, prevalence was 44.6% and DMFT was 1.21. Socioeconomic status poses a major risk factor for caries prevalence in deciduous dentition; it is 1.8 times higher in the lowest socioeconomic group. Deciduous dentition status has worsened in the most recent eight-year period, whereas in permanent dentition the 12- and 15-year values are similar to those of the 2010 survey. Evolution analysis suggests that community dental care programs be enhanced, involving preventive activities staring at the first year and targeting disadvantaged groups.
Project description:Data concerning the prevalence of developmental enamel defects and their association with dental caries in individuals with intellectual disability are scarce. This paper aims to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of developmental enamel defects and dental caries in the permanent dentition of special-care school children from Poznan (Poland). Out of 1091 students attending all special-care schools in the city, the study covered 268 subjects with intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) with permanent dentition, aged 10-20. One calibrated dentist performed dental examinations. The Statistica Software v10 was used for statistical analysis, assuming the level of statistical significance p ? 0.05. Among the subjects of the study, 19.40% presented developmental enamel defects. The number of teeth with changes ranged from 1 to 28, with maxillary incisors most frequently affected. Students without developmental enamel defects had more teeth observed with active caries compared to those with such changes (10.92% vs. 7.82%, p < 0.01). The highest number of students with developmental defects of enamel was observed in the group of individuals with mild intellectual disabilities. The present study revealed that in special-care students from Poznan, enamel defects and dental caries were frequently observed. However, individuals with developmental enamel defects did not show higher dental caries indices.
Project description:Tooth enamel microstructure is a reliable and widely used indicator of dietary interpretations and data for phylogenetic reconstruction, if all levels of variability are investigated. It is usually difficult to have a thorough examination at all levels of enamel structures for any mammals, especially for the early mammals, which are commonly represented by sparse specimens. Because of the random preservation of specimens, enamel microstructures from different teeth in various species are often compared. There are few examples that convincingly show intraspecific variation of tooth enamel microstructure in full dentition of a species, including multituberculates. Here we present a systematic survey of tooth enamel microstructures of Lambdopsalis bulla, a taeniolabidoid multituberculate from the Late Paleocene Nomogen Formation, Inner Mongolia. We examined enamel structures at all hierarchical levels. The samples are treated differently in section orientations and acid preparation and examined using different imaging methods. The results show that, except for preparation artifacts, the crystallites, enamel types, Schmelzmuster and dentition types of Lambdopsalis are relatively consistent in all permanent teeth, but the prism type, including the prism shape, size and density, may vary in different portions of a single tooth or among different teeth of an individual animal. The most common Schmelzmuster of the permanent teeth in Lambdopsalis is a combination of radial enamel in the inner and middle layers, aprismatic enamel in the outer layer, and irregular decussations in tooth crown area with great curvature. The prism seam is another comparably stable characteristic that may be a useful feature for multituberculate taxonomy. The systematic documentation of enamel structures in Lambdopsalis may be generalized for the enamel microstructure study, and thus for taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction, of multituberculates and even informative for the enamel study of other early mammals.
Project description:Nonsense mutations in FAM83H are a recently described underlying cause of autosomal dominant (AD) hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta (AI).This study aims to report a novel c.1374C>A p.Y458X nonsense mutation and describe the associated ultrastructural phenotype of deciduous teeth.A family of European origin from the Iberian Peninsula with AD-inherited AI was ascertained. Family members were assessed through clinical examination and supporting investigations. Naturally exfoliated deciduous teeth from 2 siblings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and transverse microradiography (TMR).On clinical and radiographic investigation the appearances of the affected deciduous and permanent teeth were consistent with hypocalcified AI with small focal areas of more normal looking enamel. DNA sequencing identified a novel c.1374C>A p.Y458X FAM83H nonsense mutation in affected, but not in either unaffected family members or unrelated controls. Exfoliated teeth were characterised by substantial post-eruptive enamel loss on gross examination. Irregular, poor quality enamel prisms were observed on SEM. These were coated in amorphous material. TMR and EDX confirmed reduced mineral and increased organic content in enamel, respectively.FAM83H nonsense mutations have recently been recognised as a cause of AD hypocalcified AI. We report a novel nonsense FAM83H mutation and describe the associated preliminary ultrastructural phenotype in deciduous teeth. This is characterised by poorly formed enamel rods with inappropriate retention of amorphous material, which is likely to represent retained organic matrix that contributes to the overall hypomineralised phenotype.
Project description:Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1), leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1) were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.
Project description:Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These differences are attributable to their genetic backgrounds. Therefore the purpose of this study is to compare the differences of dental pulp in deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp samples were obtained from permanent premolars (n=6, aged 11-14 years) and deciduous teeth (n=6, aged 11-14 years). Comparative cDNA microarrary analysis revealed several differences in gene expression between the deciduous and permanent pulp tissues. Each GSM record represents a pulp sample pooled from two teeth samples.
Project description:Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting posttranslational activation of sulfatases by the formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE). Due to mutations in the encoding SUMF1 gene, FGE's catalytic capacity is impaired resulting in reduced cellular sulfatase activities. Both, FGE protein stability and residual activity determine disease severity and have previously been correlated with the clinical MSD phenotype. Here, we report a patient with a late infantile severe course of disease. The patient is compound heterozygous for two so far undescribed SUMF1 mutations, c.156delC (p.C52fsX57) and c.390A>T (p.E130D). In patient fibroblasts, mRNA of the frameshift allele is undetectable. In contrast, the allele encoding FGE-E130D is expressed. FGE-E130D correctly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and has a very high residual molecular activity in vitro (55% of wildtype FGE); however, it is rapidly degraded. Thus, despite substantial residual enzyme activity, protein instability determines disease severity, which highlights that potential MSD treatment approaches should target protein folding and stabilization mechanisms.