Medication adherence in patients with myotonic dystrophy and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.
ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy (DM) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) are the two most common adult muscular dystrophies and have progressive and often disabling manifestations. Higher levels of medication adherence lead to better health outcomes, especially important to patients with DM and FSHD because of their multisystem manifestations and complexity of care. However, medication adherence has not previously been studied in a large cohort of DM type 1 (DM1), DM type 2 (DM2), and FSHD patients. The purpose of our study was to survey medication adherence and disease manifestations in patients enrolled in the NIH-supported National DM and FSHD Registry. The study was completed by 110 DM1, 49 DM2, and 193 FSHD patients. Notable comorbidities were hypertension in FSHD (44 %) and DM2 (37 %), gastroesophageal reflux disease in DM1 (24 %) and DM2 (31 %) and arrhythmias (29 %) and thyroid disease (20 %) in DM1. Each group reported high levels of adherence based on regimen complexity, medication costs, health literacy, side effect profile, and their beliefs about treatment. Only dysphagia in DM1 was reported to significantly impact medication adherence. Approximately 35 % of study patients reported polypharmacy (taking 6 or more medications). Of the patients with polypharmacy, the DM1 cohort was significantly younger (mean 55.0 years) compared to DM2 (59.0 years) and FSHD (63.2 years), and had shorter disease duration (mean 26 years) compared to FSHD (26.8 years) and DM2 (34.8 years). Future research is needed to assess techniques to ease pill swallowing in DM1 and to monitor polypharmacy and potential drug interactions in DM and FSHD.
Project description:Cardiac involvement is one of the most important manifestations of the multisystemic phenotype of patients affected by myotonic dystrophy (DM) and represents the second cause of premature death. Molecular mechanisms responsible for DM cardiac defects are still unclear; however, missplicing of the cardiac isoform of troponin T (TNNT2) and of the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) genes might contribute to the reduced myocardial function and conduction abnormalities seen in DM patients. Since, in DM skeletal muscle, the TNNT2 gene shows the same aberrant splicing pattern observed in cardiac muscle, the principal aim of this work was to verify if the TNNT2 aberrant fetal isoform expression could be secondary to myopathic changes or could reflect the DM cardiac phenotype. Analysis of alternative splicing of TNNT2 and of several genes involved in DM pathology has been performed on muscle biopsies from patients affected by DM type 1 (DM1) or type 2 (DM2) with or without cardiac involvement. Our analysis shows that missplicing of muscle-specific genes is higher in DM1 and DM2 than in regenerating control muscles, indicating that these missplicing could be effectively important in DM skeletal muscle pathology. When considering the TNNT2 gene, missplicing appears to be more evident in DM1 than in DM2 muscles since, in DM2, the TNNT2 fetal isoform appears to be less expressed than the adult isoform. This evidence does not seem to be related to less severe muscle histopathological alterations that appear to be similar in DM1 and DM2 muscles. These results seem to indicate that the more severe TNNT2 missplicing observed in DM1 could not be related only to myopathic changes but could reflect the more severe general phenotype compared to DM2, including cardiac problems that appear to be more severe and frequent in DM1 than in DM2 patients. Moreover, TNNT2 missplicing significantly correlates with the QRS cardiac parameter in DM1 but not in DM2 patients, indicating that this splicing event has good potential to function as a biomarker of DM1 severity and it should be considered in pharmacological clinical trials to monitor the possible effects of different therapeutic approaches on skeletal muscle tissues.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are progressive multisystemic disorders caused by similar mutations at two different genetic loci. The common key feature of DM pathogenesis is nuclear accumulation of mutant RNA which causes aberrant alternative splicing of specific pre-mRNAs by altering the functions of two RNA binding proteins, MBNL1 and CUGBP1. However, DM1 and DM2 show disease-specific features that make them clearly separate diseases suggesting that other cellular and molecular pathways may be involved. In this study we have analysed the histopathological, and biomolecular features of skeletal muscle biopsies from DM1 and DM2 patients in relation to presenting phenotypes to better define the molecular pathogenesis. Particularly, the expression of CUGBP1 protein has been examined to clarify if this factor may act as modifier of disease-specific manifestations in DM. The results indicate that the splicing and muscle pathological alterations observed are related to the clinical phenotype both in DM1 and in DM2 and that CUGBP1 seems to play a role in classic DM1 but not in DM2. In conclusion, our results indicate that multisystemic disease spectrum of DM pathologies may not be explained only by spliceopathy thus confirming that the molecular pathomechanism of DM is more complex than that actually suggested.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To analyze gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations, their progression over time, and medications being used to treat GI symptoms in a large cohort of patients with myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2). METHODS:We analyzed patient-reported data and medical records in a national registry cohort at baseline and 5 years. RESULTS:At baseline, the majority of patients reported trouble swallowing in DM1 (55%; n = 499 of 913) and constipation in DM2 (53%; n = 96 of 180). Cholecystectomy occurred in 16.5% of patients with DM1 and 12.8% of patients with DM2, on average before 45 years of age. The use of medications indicated for gastroesophageal reflux disease was reported by 22.5% of DM1 and 18.9% of patients with DM2. Greater risk of a GI manifestation was associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration in DM1 and female sex in DM2. At the 5-year follow-up, the most common new manifestations were trouble swallowing in patients with DM1 and constipation in patients with DM2. CONCLUSIONS:GI manifestations were common in both DM1 and DM2, with a relatively high frequency of gallbladder removal in DM1 and DM2 occurring at a younger age compared to normative data in the literature. Studies are needed to determine the pathomechanism of how sex, weight gain, and duration of disease contribute to GI manifestations and how these manifestations affect quality of life and clinical care for patients with DM1 and DM2.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common adult muscular dystrophy, characterized by autosomal dominant progressive myopathy, myotonia and multiorgan involvement. To date two distinct forms caused by similar mutations have been identified. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, Steinert's disease) was described more than 100 years ago and is caused by a (CTG)n expansion in DMPK, while myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) was identified only 18 years ago and is caused by a (CCTG)n expansion in ZNF9/CNBP. When transcribed into CUG/CCUG-containing RNA, mutant transcripts aggregate as nuclear foci that sequester RNA-binding proteins, resulting in spliceopathy of downstream effector genes. Despite clinical and genetic similarities, DM1 and DM2 are distinct disorders requiring different diagnostic and management strategies. DM1 may present in four different forms: congenital, early childhood, adult onset and late-onset oligosymptomatic DM1. Congenital DM1 is the most severe form of DM characterized by extreme muscle weakness and mental retardation. In DM2 the clinical phenotype is extremely variable and there are no distinct clinical subgroups. Congenital and childhood-onset forms are not present in DM2 and, in contrast to DM1, myotonia may be absent even on EMG. Due to the lack of awareness of the disease among clinicians, DM2 remains largely underdiagnosed. The delay in receiving the correct diagnosis after onset of first symptoms is very long in DM: on average more than 5 years for DM1 and more than 14 years for DM2 patients. The long delay in the diagnosis of DM causes unnecessary problems for the patients to manage their lives and anguish with uncertainty of prognosis and treatment.
Project description:Patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) have recently been reported to be at increased risk of tumor development, but clinical associations related to this observation are unknown. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of self-reported tumor development by patients' demographic and clinical characteristics to evaluate factors associated with tumor development in DM patients, using data from the National Registry of Myotonic Dystrophy and Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy Patients and Family Members. Of the 911 participants, 47.5 % were male and 85.7 % had DM type 1 (DM1). Compared to DM1, patients with DM type 2 (DM2) were older at registry enrollment (median age 55 vs. 44 years, p < 0.0001) and at DM diagnosis (median age 48 vs. 30 years, p < 0.0001); and more likely to be females (p = 0.001). At enrollment, 95 (10.4 %) DM patients reported a history of benign or malignant tumor. Tumors were associated with female gender (OR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.2-3.1, p = 0.007) and DM1 (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.1-4.1, p = 0.03). In a subgroup analysis of patients with blood-based DNA testing results (397 DM1, 54 DM2), repeat expansion size was not associated with tumor risk in DM1 (p = 0.26) or DM2 (p = 0.34). In conclusion, female gender and DM1 subtype, but not DNA repeat expansion size, were associated with increased risk of tumors in DM. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine if oncogenes associated with dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase are altered in DM, and to determine if repeat expansion size, as in our study, is not associated with tumor development.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are dominantly inherited muscle disorders characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting. The reasons for sarcopenia in DMs are uncleared and multiple factors are involved. Irisin, a positive hormone regulator of muscle growth and bone, may play a role.To investigate (1) circulating irisin in a series of DM1 and DM2 male patients compared with healthy controls and (2) the relationships between irisin and anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters.This is a cross-sectional study. Fasting blood samples for glucometabolic, gonadic, bone markers, and irisin were collected from 28 ambulatory DM1, 10 DM2, and 23 age-matched healthy male subjects. Body composition and bone mineralization [bone mineral density (BMD)] were measured by DEXA. Echocardiographic assessment and visceral adiposity, namely, liver and epicardial fat, were investigated by ultrasound. Irisin released from cultured myotubes derived from 3 DM1, 3 DM2, and 3 healthy donors was assayed.Plasma irisin levels were definitely lower in both DM1 and DM2 patients than in controls with no difference between DM1 and DM2. Irisin released from DM1 and DM2 myotubes was similar to that released from myotubes of the non-DM donors, though diabetic DM2 myotubes released more irisin than DM1 myotubes. There was no correlation between irisin and muscle strength or lean mass in both DM1 and DM2 patients. In DM1 patients, plasma irisin levels correlated negatively with oxygen consumption and positively with insulin resistance, while in DM2 patients plasma irisin levels positively correlated with fat mass at arms and legs levels. No correlation with visceral fat, left ventricular mass, and gonadal hormones could be detected. In both DM1 and DM2 patients, legs BMD parameters positively correlated with plasma irisin levels.Plasma irisin is reduced in both DM1 and DM2 male patients likely reflecting muscle mass reduction. Moreover, insulin resistance may contribute to modulation of plasma irisin in DM1 patients. The irisin-mediated cross talk muscle-adipose tissue-bone may be active also in the male myotonic dystrophies' model.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy and encompasses both skeletal muscle and cardiac complications. DM is nucleotide repeat expansion disorder in which type 1 (DM1) is due to a trinucleotide repeat expansion on chromosome 19 and type 2 (DM2) arises from a tetranucleotide repeat expansion on chromosome 3. Developing representative models of DM in animals has been challenging due to instability of nucleotide repeat expansions, especially for DM2, which is characterized by nucleotide repeat expansions often greater than 5,000 copies. To investigate mechanisms of human DM, we generated cellular models of DM1 and DM2. We used regulated MyoD expression to reprogram urine-derived cells into myotubes. In this myogenic cell model, we found impaired dystrophin expression, in the presence of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) foci, and aberrant splicing in DM1 but not in DM2 cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from healthy controls and DM1 and DM2 subjects, and we differentiated these into cardiomyocytes. DM1 and DM2 cells displayed an increase in RNA foci concomitant with cellular differentiation. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from DM1 but not DM2 had aberrant splicing of known target genes and MBNL sequestration. High-resolution imaging revealed tight association between MBNL clusters and RNA foci in DM1. Ca2+ transients differed between DM1- and DM2 iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, and each differed from healthy control cells. RNA-sequencing from DM1- and DM2 iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes revealed distinct misregulation of gene expression, as well as differential aberrant splicing patterns. Together, these data support that DM1 and DM2, despite some shared clinical and molecular features, have distinct pathological signatures.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To study scapular winging or other forms of scapular dyskinesis (condition of alteration of the normal position and motion of the scapula) in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), which is generally considered to be a distal myopathy, we performed an observational cohort study. METHODS:We performed a prospective cohort study on the clinical features and progression over time of 33 patients with DM1 and pronounced, mostly asymmetric scapular winging or other forms of scapular dyskinesis. We also explored if scapular dyskinesis in DM1 has the same genetic background as in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1). RESULTS:The cohort included patients with congenital (n?=?3), infantile (n?=?6) and adult-onset DM1 (n?=?24). Scapular girdle examination showed moderate shoulder girdle weakness (mean MRC 3) and atrophy of trapezius, infraspinatus, and rhomboid major, seemingly similar as in FSHD1. Shoulder abduction and forward flexion were limited (50-70°). In five patients, scapular dyskinesis was the initial disease symptom; in the others it appeared 1-24 years after disease onset. Follow-up data were available in 29 patients (mean 8 years) and showed mild to severe increase of scapular dyskinesis over time. In only three patients, DM1 coexisted with a FSHD mutation. In all other patients, FSHD was genetically excluded. DM2 was genetically excluded in nine patients. The clinical features of the patients with both DM1 and FSHD1 mutations were similar to those with DM1 only. CONCLUSION:Scapular dyskinesis can be considered to be part of DM1 in a small proportion of patients. In spite of the clinical overlap, FSHD can explain scapular dyskinesis only in a small minority. This study is expected to improve the recognition of shoulder girdle involvement in DM1, which will contribute to the management of these patients.
Project description:The prevailing pathomechanistic paradigm for myotonic dystrophy (DM) is that aberrant expression of embryonic/fetal mRNA/protein isoforms accounts for most aspects of the pleiotropic phenotype. To identify aberrant isoforms in skeletal muscle of DM1 and DM2 patients, we performed exon-array profiling and RT-PCR validation on the largest DM sample set to date, including Duchenne, Becker and tibial muscular dystrophy (NMD) patients as disease controls, and non-disease controls. Strikingly, most expression and splicing changes in DM patients were shared with NMD controls. Comparison between DM and NMD identified almost no significant differences. We conclude that DM1 and DM2 are essentially identical for dysregulation of gene expression, and DM expression changes represent a subset of broader spectrum dystrophic changes. We found no evidence for qualitative splicing differences between DM1 and DM2. While some DM-specific splicing differences exist, most of the DM splicing differences were also seen in NMD controls. SSBP3 exon 6 missplicing was observed in all diseased muscle and led to reduced protein. We conclude there is no widespread DM-specific spliceopathy in skeletal muscle and suggest that missplicing in DM (and NMD) may not be the driving mechanism for the muscle pathology, since the same pathways show expression changes unrelated to splicing.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common adult muscular dystrophy, characterized by autosomal dominant progressive myopathy, myotonia and multiorgan involvement. To date two distinct forms caused by similar mutations have been identified. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, Steinert's disease) is caused by a (CTG)n expansion in DMPK, while myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is caused by a (CCTG)n expansion in CNBP. Despite clinical and genetic similarities, DM1 and DM2 are distinct disorders. The pathogenesis of DM is explained by a common RNA gain-of-function mechanism in which the CUG and CCUG repeats alter cellular function, including alternative splicing of various genes. However additional pathogenic mechanism like changes in gene expression, modifier genes, protein translation and micro-RNA metabolism may also contribute to disease pathology and to clarify the phenotypic differences between these two types of myotonic dystrophies.This review is an update on the latest findings specific to DM2, including explanations for the differences in clinical manifestations and pathophysiology between the two forms of myotonic dystrophies.