Double gene siRNA knockdown of mutant p53 and TNF induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is the major downregulated pathway in cancer. Simultaneous inhibition using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) of two key player genes, p53 and TNF, is an interesting and feasible strategy when it comes to investigating various molecular pathways and biological processes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is one of the most aggressive and therapeutically unresponsive forms of breast cancers. Our present research focuses on evaluating the impact of double p53-siRNA and TNF-siRNA knockdown at a cellular level, and also evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, induction of autophagy, and gene expression by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction array approaches. Simultaneous inhibition of p53 and TNF in Hs578T TNBC human cell line revealed a panel of up- and downregulated genes involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, the effects of double gene knockdown were validated in a second TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231, by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay. All our findings help in understanding the functional mechanisms of extrinsic apoptosis, cell signaling pathways, and the mechanisms involved in tumor cell survival, growth, and death in TNBC.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive phenotype that is resistant to standard therapy. Thus, the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for TNBC is essential. The purpose of our in vitro study was to evaluate the impact of p53 gene silencing in conjunction with the administration of a natural compound, epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). RT2Profiler PCR Array technology was used to evaluate the impact of dual treatment on the main genes involved in apoptosis in the Hs578T cell culture model of TNBC. Gene expression analysis revealed 28 genes were significantly altered (16 upregulated and 12 downregulated) in response to combined p53 siRNA and EGCG treatment. Further analysis revealed that p53 siRNA and EGCG dual therapy leads to the activation of pro-apoptotic genes and the inhibition of pro-survival genes, autophagy, and cell network formation. These results indicate that this dual therapy targets both the apoptotic and angiogenic pathways, which may improve treatment effectiveness for tumors resistant to conventional treatment.
Project description:Chemotherapy drugs that induce apoptosis by causing DNA double-strand breaks, upregulate the tumor suppressor p53. This study investigated the regulation of the growth-regulatory protein insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a p53 target, by DNA-damaging agents in breast cancer cells. IGFBP-3 was upregulated 1.4- to 13-fold in response to doxorubicin and etoposide in MCF-10A, Hs578T, MCF-7 and T47D cells, which express low to moderate basal levels of IGFBP-3. In contrast, IGFBP-3 was strongly downregulated by these agents in cells with high basal levels of IGFBP-3 (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-468). In MDA-MB-468 cells containing the R273H p53 mutation, reported to display gain-of-function properties, chemotherapy-induced suppression of IGFBP-3 was not reversed by the p53 reactivating drug, PRIMA-1, or by p53 silencing, suggesting that the decrease in IGFBP-3 following DNA damage is not a mutant p53 gain-of-function response. SiRNA-mediated downregulation of endogenous IGFBP-3 modestly attenuated doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 and Hs578T cells. IGFBP-3 downregulation in some breast cancer cell lines in response to DNA-damaging chemotherapy may have clinical implications because suppression of IGFBP-3 may modulate the apoptotic response. These observations provide further evidence that endogenous IGFBP-3 plays a role in breast cancer cell responsiveness to DNA damaging therapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are resistant to TNF?-induced apoptosis and blockade of TNF?-induced NF-?B activation sensitizes glioma cells to apoptosis. As Casein kinase-2 (CK2) induces aberrant NF-?B activation and as we observed elevated CK2 levels in GBM tumors, we investigated the potential of CK2 inhibitors (CK2-Is) - DRB and Apigenin in sensitizing glioma cells to TNF?-induced apoptosis. CK2-Is and CK2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced glioma cell viability, inhibited TNF?-mediated NF-?B activation, and sensitized cell to TNF?-induced apoptosis. Importantly, CK2-Is activated p53 function in wild-type but not in p53 mutant cells. Activation of p53 function involved its increased transcriptional activation, DNA-binding ability, increased expression of p53 target genes associated with cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Moreover, CK2-Is decreased telomerase activity and increased senescence in a p53-dependent manner. Apoptotic gene profiling indicated that CK2-Is differentially affect p53 and TNF? targets in p53 wild-type and mutant glioma cells. CK2-I decreased MDM2-p53 association and p53 ubiquitination to enhance p53 levels. Interestingly, CK2-Is downregulated SIRT1 activity and over-expression of SIRT1 decreased p53 transcriptional activity and rescued cells from CK2-I-induced apoptosis. This ability of CK2-Is to sensitize glioma to TNF?-induced death via multiple mechanisms involving abrogation of NF-?B activation, reactivation of wild-type p53 function and SIRT1 inhibition warrants investigation.
Project description:Breast cancer is one of the most serious cancers worldwide, and chemotherapy resistance frequently drives cancer progression. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis given its resistance to chemotherapy. In our previous study, we found a remarkable abnormal methylation modification of the PCDHGB7 gene in breast cancer. However, the roles of PCDHGB7 in the progression and treatment of breast cancer are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of PCDHGB7 on the sensitivity of TNBC cells to carboplatin and investigated the underlying mechanism. By knocking down and overexpressing PCDHGB7 in HS578T and BT549 cells, we confirmed that PCDHGB7 increases TNBC cell chemosensitivity to carboplatin. Mechanistically, we found that PCDHGB7 negatively regulates the expression of HSPA9, uplifting its inhibition on P53 translocation and caspase-3 activation. Thus, we demonstrated that PCDHGB7 increases chemosensitivity of TNBC cells to carboplatin by inhibiting HSPA9 via inducing apoptosis. PCDHGB7 and HSPA9 represent potential therapeutic targets for chemosensitivity in breast cancer.
Project description:PURPOSE:Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumors. The lack of targeted therapies combined with the inherently aggressive nature of TNBCs results in a higher relapse rate and poorer overall survival. We evaluated the heterogeneity of TNBC cell lines for TRPC channel expression and sensitivity to cation-disrupting drugs. METHODS:The TRPC1/4/5 agonist englerin A was used to identify a group of TNBC cell lines sensitive to TRPC1/4/5 activation and intracellular cation disruption. Quantitative RT-PCR, the sulforhodamine B assay, pharmacological inhibition, and siRNA-mediated knockdown approaches were employed. Epifluorescence imaging was performed to measure intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ levels. Mitochondrial membrane potential changes were monitored by confocal imaging. RESULTS:BT-549 and Hs578T cells express high levels of TRPC4 and TRPC1/4, respectively, and are exquisitely, 2000- and 430-fold, more sensitive to englerin A than other TNBC cell lines. While englerin A caused a slow Na+ and nominal Ca2+ accumulation in Hs578T cells, it elicited rapid increases in cytosolic Ca2+ levels that triggered mitochondrial depolarization in BT-549 cells. Interestingly, BT-549 and Hs578T cells were also more sensitive to digoxin as compared to other TNBC cell lines. Collectively, these data reveal TRPC1/4 channels as potential biomarkers of TNBC cell lines with dysfunctional mechanisms of cation homeostasis and therefore sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. CONCLUSIONS:The sensitivity of BT-549 and Hs578T cells to englerin A and digoxin suggests a subset of TNBCs are highly susceptible to cation disruption and encourages investigation of TRPC1 and TRPC4 as potential new biomarkers of sensitivity to cardiac glycosides.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the promotion and progression of cancer, including triple negative breast cancer cells. Thus, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular signaling pathways that connect TNF-? with the survival of tumor cells. In our experiments, we used as an in vitro model for triple negative breast cancer the cell line Hs578T. The purpose of this study is to determine the gene expression profiling of apoptotic signaling networks after blocking TNF-? formation by using specially designed siRNA molecules to target TNF-? messenger RNA. Knockdown of TNF-? gene was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, as observed by monitoring the cell index using the xCELLigence RTCA System and flow cytometry. PCR array technology was used to examine the transcript levels of 84 genes involved in apoptosis. 15 genes were found to be relevant after comparing the treated group with the untreated one of which 3 were down-regulated and 12 up-regulated. The down-regulated genes are all involved in cell survival, whereas the up-regulated ones are involved in and interact with pro-apoptotic pathways. The results described here indicate that the direct target of TNF-? in the Hs578T breast cancer cell line increases the level of certain pro-apoptotic factors that modulate different cellular networks that direct the cells towards death.
Project description:HuR is an mRNA-binding protein whose overexpression in cancer cells has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. While reports on HuR overexpression contributing to chemoresistance exist, limited information is available on HuR and radioresistance especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).In this study we investigated the role of HuR in radiation resistance in three TNBC (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t) cell lines. Endogenous HuR expression was higher in TNBC cells compared to normal cells. siRNA mediated knockdown of HuR (siHuR) markedly reduced HuR mRNA and protein levels compared to scrambled siRNA (siScr) treatment. Further, siHuR treatment sensitized TNBC cells to ionizing radiation at 2 Gy compared to siScr treatment as evidenced by the significant reduction in clonogenic cell survival from 59%, 49%, and 65% in siScr-treated cells to 40%, 33%, and 46% in siHuR-treated MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t cells, respectively. Molecular studies showed increased ROS production and inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in HuR knockdown cells contributed to radiosensitization. Associated with increased ROS production was evidence of increased DNA damage, demonstrated by a significant increase (p < 0.05) in ?-H2AX foci that persisted for up to 24 h in siHuR plus radiation treated cells compared to control cells. Further, comet assay revealed that HuR-silenced cells had larger and longer-lasting tails than control cells, indicating higher levels of DNA damage. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that HuR knockdown in TNBC cells elicits oxidative stress and DNA damage resulting in radiosensitization.
Project description:Improved prognosis for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has currently plateaued and the development of novel therapeutic strategies is required. Therefore, we aimed to explore the anti-tumor effect of eribulin and paclitaxel combination therapy for TNBC. The effect of eribulin and paclitaxel in combination was tested, with both concurrent and sequential administration, using four TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, MDA-MB-157, and Mx-1) in vitro and in an MDA-MB-231 BALB/c-nu/nu mouse xenograft model. The expression of epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypic markers was analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. Simultaneous administration of eribulin and paclitaxel resulted in a synergistic anti-tumor effect with MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells, but not MDA-MB-157 and Mx-1 cells, in vitro. Moreover, pre-treatment with one drug significantly enhanced sensitivity to the subsequently administrated second drug in MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells. Eribulin increased E-cadherin expression and decreased the expression of mesenchymal markers in MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells. In contrast, paclitaxel increased the expression of mesenchymal markers. When epithelial-mesenchymal transition was induced by TGF-?1, eribulin sensitivity was enhanced. In contrast, a TGF-? receptor kinase inhibitor decreased eribulin sensitivity. In MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice, concurrent administration of low doses of eribulin and paclitaxel significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to that with either monotherapy. Moreover, single administration of eribulin before the initiation of paclitaxel treatment decreased vimentin expression and reduced the average tumor volume in a mouse xenograft model. Eribulin and paclitaxel show synergistic anti-tumor effect by altering the epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype. This combination therapy could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for TNBC.
Project description:We have identified a novel pro-apoptotic p53 target gene named CDIP (Cell Death Involved p53-target). Inhibition of CDIP abrogates p53-mediated apoptotic responses, demonstrating that CDIP is an important p53 apoptotic effector. CDIP itself potently induces apoptosis that is associated with caspase-8 cleavage, implicating the extrinsic cell death pathway in apoptosis mediated by CDIP. siRNA-directed knockdown of caspase-8 results in a severe impairment of CDIP-dependent cell death. In investigating the potential involvement of extrinsic cell death pathway in CDIP-mediated apoptosis, we found that TNF-alpha expression tightly correlates with CDIP expression, and that inhibition of TNF-alpha signaling attenuates CDIP-dependent apoptosis. We also demonstrate that TNF-alpha is upregulated in response to p53 and p53 inducing genotoxic stress, in a CDIP-dependent manner. Consistently, knockdown of TNF-alpha impairs p53-mediated stress-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings support a novel p53 --> CDIP --> TNF-alpha apoptotic pathway that directs apoptosis after exposure of cells to genotoxic stress. Thus, CDIP provides a new link between p53-mediated intrinsic and death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptotic signaling, providing a novel target for cancer therapeutics aimed at maximizing the p53 apoptotic response of cancer cells to drug therapy.
Project description:Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays important roles in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. However, the expression and biological role of miR-301b in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains unclear. Here we aimed to evaluate the roles and mechanisms of miR-301b in TNBC cells. miR-301b expression was assessed in TNBC specimens and cell lines by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). TNBC cells were transfected with miR-301b mimics, inhibitors or Cylindromatosis (CYLD) small interfering RNA (siRNA) using Lipofectamine 2000. The functional roles of miR-301b were determined by cell proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis assays. Western blots and qRT-PCR were used to measure the expression of mRNAs and proteins in the cells. We found that miR-301b was upregulated in TNBC specimens and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-301b promoted cell proliferation in TNBC cells, while inhibited the apoptosis induced by 5-FU. CYLD was downregulated by miR-301b at both mRNA and protein levels in TNBC cells. Dual-luciferase report assay confirmed that miR-301b downregulated CYLD by direct interaction with the 3'-untranslated region(3'-UTR) of CYLD mRNA. NF-?B activation was mechanistically associated with miR-301b-mediated downregulation of CYLD. However, inhibition of miR-301b reversed all the effects of miR-301b. In conclusion, miR-301b plays an oncogenic role in TNBC possibly by downregulating CYLD and subsequently activating NF-?B p65, and this may provide a novel therapeutic approach for TNBC. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(11): 602-607].