ABSTRACT: Future development in spintronic devices will require an advanced control of spin currents, for example by an electric field. Here we demonstrate an approach that differs from previous proposals such as the Datta and Das modulator, and that is based on a van de Waals heterostructure of atomically thin graphene and semiconducting MoS2. Our device combines the superior spin transport properties of graphene with the strong spin-orbit coupling of MoS2 and allows switching of the spin current in the graphene channel between ON and OFF states by tuning the spin absorption into the MoS2 with a gate electrode. Our proposal holds potential for technologically relevant applications such as search engines or pattern recognition circuits, and opens possibilities towards electrical injection of spins into transition metal dichalcogenides and alike materials.
Project description:We study spin transport in a fully hBN encapsulated monolayer-graphene van der Waals heterostructure at room temperature. A top-layer of bilayer-hBN is used as a tunnel barrier for spin-injection and detection in graphene with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes. We report surprisingly large and bias-induced (differential) spin-injection (detection) polarizations up to 50% (135%) at a positive voltage bias of +?0.6?V, as well as sign inverted polarizations up to -70% (-60%) at a reverse bias of -0.4?V. This demonstrates the potential of bilayer-hBN tunnel barriers for practical graphene spintronics applications. With such enhanced spin-injection and detection polarizations, we report a record two-terminal (inverted) spin-valve signals up to 800?? with a magnetoresistance ratio of 2.7%, and achieve spin accumulations up to 4.1?meV. We propose how these numbers can be increased further, for future technologically relevant graphene based spintronic devices.In 2D spin-valve devices, effective spin injection and detection can be potentially realised combining graphene with an ideal hBN tunnel barrier. Here, the authors report that a bilayer hBN tunnel barrier allows up to 100% spin-injection and detection in a fully hBN-encapsulated graphene heterostructure.
Project description:Van der Waals heterostructures have become a paradigm for designing new materials and devices in which specific functionalities can be tailored by combining the properties of the individual 2D layers. A single layer of transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) is an excellent complement to graphene (Gr) because the high quality of charge and spin transport in Gr is enriched with the large spin-orbit coupling of the TMD via the proximity effect. The controllable spin-valley coupling makes these heterostructures particularly attractive for spintronic and opto-valleytronic applications. In this work, we study spin precession in a monolayer MoSe2/Gr heterostructure and observe an unconventional, dramatic modulation of the spin signal, showing 1 order of magnitude longer lifetime of out-of-plane spins compared to that of in-plane spins (?? ? 40 ps and ?? ? 3.5 ps). This demonstration of a large spin lifetime anisotropy in TMD/Gr heterostructures, is a direct evidence of induced spin-valley coupling in Gr and provides an accessible route for manipulation of spin dynamics in Gr, interfaced with TMDs.
Project description:Molybdenum disulfide has recently emerged as a promising two-dimensional semiconducting material for nano-electronic, opto-electronic and spintronic applications. However, the demonstration of an electron spin transport through a semiconducting MoS2 channel remains challenging. Here we show the evidence of the electrical spin injection and detection in the conduction band of a multilayer MoS2 semiconducting channel using a two-terminal spin-valve configuration geometry. A magnetoresistance around 1% has been observed through a 450?nm long, 6 monolayer thick MoS2 channel with a Co/MgO tunnelling spin injector and detector. It is found that keeping a good balance between the interface resistance and channel resistance is mandatory for the observation of the two-terminal magnetoresistance. Moreover, the electron spin-relaxation is found to be greatly suppressed in the multilayer MoS2 channel with an in-plane spin polarization. The long spin diffusion length (approximately ?235?nm) could open a new avenue for spintronic applications using multilayer transition metal dichalcogenides.
Project description:Controlling the dynamics of spins on surfaces is pivotal to the design of spintronic and quantum computing devices. Proposed schemes involve the interaction of spins with graphene to enable surface-state spintronics and electrical spin manipulation. However, the influence of the graphene environment on the spin systems has yet to be unravelled. Here we explore the spin-graphene interaction by studying the classical and quantum dynamics of molecular magnets on graphene. Whereas the static spin response remains unaltered, the quantum spin dynamics and associated selection rules are profoundly modulated. The couplings to graphene phonons, to other spins, and to Dirac fermions are quantified using a newly developed model. Coupling to Dirac electrons introduces a dominant quantum relaxation channel that, by driving the spins over Villain's threshold, gives rise to fully coherent, resonant spin tunnelling. Our findings provide fundamental insight into the interaction between spins and graphene, establishing the basis for electrical spin manipulation in graphene nanodevices.
Project description:Coupling spins of molecular magnets to two-dimensional (2D) materials provides a framework to manipulate the magneto-conductance of 2D materials. However, with most molecules, the spin coupling is usually weak and devices fabricated from these require operation at low temperatures, which prevents practical applications. Here, we demonstrate field-effect transistors based on the coupling of a magnetic molecule quinoidal dithienyl perylenequinodimethane (QDTP) to 2D materials. Uniquely, QDTP switches from a spin-singlet state at low temperature to a spin-triplet state above 370?K, and the spin transition can be electrically transduced by both graphene and molybdenum disulphide. Graphene-QDTP shows hole-doping and a large positive magnetoresistance (?~?50%), while molybdenum disulphide-QDTP demonstrates electron-doping and a switch to large negative magnetoresistance (?~?100%) above the magnetic transition. Our work shows the promise of spin detection at high temperature by coupling 2D materials and molecular magnets.Engineering a coupling between magnetic molecules and conducting materials at room temperature could help the development of spintronic devices. Loh et al. show that the spin state of QDTP molecules deposited on graphene and MoS2 couples to their electronic structure, affecting magnetotransport.
Project description:Two-dimensional materials equipped with strong spin-orbit coupling can display novel electronic, spintronic, and topological properties originating from the breaking of time or inversion symmetry. A lot of interest has focused on the valley degrees of freedom that can be used to encode binary information. By performing ab initio time-dependent density functional simulation on MoS2, here we show that the spin is not only locked to the valley momenta but strongly coupled to the optical E? phonon that lifts the lattice mirror symmetry. Once the phonon is pumped so as to break time-reversal symmetry, the resulting Floquet spectra of the phonon-dressed spins carry a net out-of-plane magnetization (?0.024?B for single-phonon quantum) even though the original system is non-magnetic. This dichroic magnetic response of the valley states is general for all 2H semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides and can be probed and controlled by infrared coherent laser excitation.
Project description:Two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional materials are important nanostructures because of their exciting electronic, optical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties. However, a single-layer nanomaterial may not possess a particular property adequately, or multiple desired properties simultaneously. Recently a new trend has emerged to develop nano-heterostructures by assembling multiple monolayers of different nanostructures to achieve various tunable desired properties simultaneously. For example, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 show promising electronic and piezoelectric properties, but their low mechanical strength is a constraint for practical applications. This barrier can be mitigated by considering graphene-MoS2 heterostructure, as graphene possesses strong mechanical properties. We have developed efficient closed-form expressions for the equivalent elastic properties of such multi-layer hexagonal nano-hetrostructures. Based on these physics-based analytical formulae, mechanical properties are investigated for different heterostructures such as graphene-MoS2, graphene-hBN, graphene-stanene and stanene-MoS2. The proposed formulae will enable efficient characterization of mechanical properties in developing a wide range of application-specific nano-heterostructures.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer a unique platform due to their remarkable and contrasting spintronic properties, such as weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in graphene and strong SOC in molybdenum disulfide (MoS<sub>2</sub>). Here we combine graphene and MoS<sub>2</sub> in a van der Waals heterostructure (vdWh) to demonstrate the electric gate control of the spin current and spin lifetime at room temperature. By performing non-local spin valve and Hanle measurements, we unambiguously prove the gate tunability of the spin current and spin lifetime in graphene/MoS<sub>2</sub> vdWhs at 300?K. This unprecedented control over the spin parameters by orders of magnitude stems from the gate tuning of the Schottky barrier at the MoS<sub>2</sub>/graphene interface and MoS<sub>2</sub> channel conductivity leading to spin dephasing in high-SOC material. Our findings demonstrate an all-electrical spintronic device at room temperature with the creation, transport and control of the spin in 2D materials heterostructures, which can be key building blocks in future device architectures.
Project description:Graphene has gigantic potential in the development of advanced spintronic devices. The interfacial interactions of graphene with semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides improve the electronic properties drastically, making it an intriguing candidate for spintronic applications. Here, we fabricated bilayer graphene encapsulated by WS2 layers to exploit the interface-induced spin-orbit interaction (SOI). We designed a dual gated device, where the SOI is tuned by gate voltages. The strength of induced SOI in the bilayer graphene is dramatically elevated, which leads to a strong weak antilocalization (WAL) effect at low temperature. The quantitative analysis of WAL demonstrates that the spin relaxation time is 10 times smaller than in bilayer graphene on conventional substrates. To support these results, we also examined Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations, which give unambiguous evidence of the zero-field spin-splitting in our bilayer graphene. The spin-orbit coupling constants estimated by two different measurements (i.e., the WAL effect and SdH oscillations) show close values as a function of gate voltage, supporting the self-consistency of this study's experimental results. The gate modulation of the SOI in bilayer graphene encapsulated by WS2 films establishes a novel way to explore the manipulation of spin-dependent transport through an electric field.
Project description:Electronic devices lose efficacy due to quantum effect when the line-width of gate decreases to sub-10 nm. Spintronics overcome this bottleneck and logic gates are building blocks of integrated circuits. Thus, it is essential to control electronic transport of opposite spins for designing a spintronic logic gate, and spin-selective semiconductors are natural candidates such as zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR) whose edges are ferromagnetically ordered and antiferromagnetically coupled with each other. Moreover, it is necessary to sandwich ZGNR between two ferromagnetic electrodes for making a spintronic logic gate and also necessary to apply magnetic field to change the spin orientation for modulating the spin transport. By first principle calculations, we propose a method to manipulate the spin transport in graphene nanoribbons with electric field only, instead of magnetic field. We find that metal gates with specific bias nearby edges of ZGNR build up an in-plane inhomogeneous electric field which modulates the spin transport by localizing the spin density in device. The specific manipulation of spin transport we have proposed doesn't need spin-charge conversion for output and suggests a possible base for designing spintronic integrated circuit in atomic scale.