Appropriateness of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Neonatal Group B Streptococcus Disease.
ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to describe the adherence to CDC guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) and to identify possible factors influencing noncompliance with guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study in Italy. Our cohort included women in whom antenatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening was not performed, was performed, but results were not available at the time of labor or delivery and women who were positive for GBS colonization. The indications for complete execution of IAP according to revised CDC guidelines was evaluated. It was considered adequate when performed with a recommended antibiotic at least four hours prior to delivery. The cohort included 902 women. Among those who had performed rectal and vaginal swabs (or recto-vaginal swabs), results were available in 86.9% of vaginal swabs and in 87.1% of rectal swabs and GBS was detected in 59.8% of vaginal swabs and in 71% of rectal swabs. 49.2% women had indication for GBS prophylaxis. Among these, 91.1% received an antibiotic during labor. Totally appropriate IAP was performed in 36.3% deliveries, an inappropriate antibiotic was administered in 10.4% women, the remaining 45.3% women received partially appropriate IAP; of these, 15.5% had received antibiotics through an inappropriate route of administration, 18.2% an inappropriate dosage regimen. Overall, 27.5% women received intrapartum ampicillin with inappropriate timing. Multivariate analysis showed that totally appropriate prophylaxis was significantly more likely in women who had no previous live birth, who had vaginal delivery, and a positive result at antenatal GBS screening. Despite satisfactory GBS screening implementation, there is still a substantial gap between optimal and actual IAP. We hypothesize that the complexity of the CDC guidelines may partially explain this shortcoming. Future efforts will include initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to evidence-based prevention practices.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in recent years has occurred in newborns of prenatally GBS-negative mothers who missed intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). We aimed to assess the accuracy of prenatal culture in predicting GBS carriage during labor, the IAP use, and occurrence of early-onset GBS disease. METHODS:We obtained vaginal-rectal swabs at labor for GBS culture from 5497 women of ? 32 weeks' gestation and surface cultures at birth from newborns between February 5, 2008 and February 4, 2009 at 3 hospitals in Houston, TX and Oakland, CA. Prenatal cultures were performed by a healthcare provider during routine care, and culture results were obtained from medical records. The accuracy of prenatal culture in predicting intrapartum GBS carriage was assessed by positive and negative predictive values. Mother-to-newborn transmission of GBS was assessed. Newborns were monitored for early-onset GBS disease. RESULTS:GBS carriage was 24.5% by prenatal and 18.8% by labor cultures. Comparing prenatal with labor GBS cultures of 4696 women, the positive predictive value was 50.5% and negative predictive value was 91.7%. IAP, administered to 93.3% of prenatally GBS-positive women, was 83.7% effective in preventing newborn's GBS colonization. Mother-to-newborn transmission of GBS occurred in 2.6% of elective cesarean deliveries. Two newborns developed early-onset GBS disease (0.36/1000 births); the prenatal GBS culture of one was negative, the other's was unknown. CONCLUSIONS:IAP was effective in interrupting mother-to-newborn transmission of GBS. However, approximately 10% of prenatally GBS-negative women were positive during labor and missed IAP, whereas approximately 50% of prenatally GBS-positive women were negative during labor and received IAP. These findings emphasize the need for rapid diagnostics during labor.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. METHODS: A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA), group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA) (Granada Medium) and chromID Strepto B agar (CA), with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. RESULTS: The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100%) was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%), but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%). Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95%) detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%). One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, rectovaginal sampling increased the number GBS positive women detected, compared to vaginal and/or rectal sampling. Direct plating on CA and/or GBSDA provided rapid detection of GBS that was at least as sensitive and specific as the CDC recommended method of Lim broth subcultured onto non chromogenic agar.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of invasive neonatal infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the analytical validation of qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a means to detect GBS. METHODS:Genomic DNA (gDNA) was purified from 12 ATCC bacterial strains, two belonging to GBS and the remainder acting as negative controls. Additionally, gDNA was isolated from 21 strains of GBS from various serotypes (Ia, Ib and II-VIII). All gDNA was used to evaluate the analytical validation of the qPCR method employing a specific Taqman probe. Inclusivity, exclusivity, anticipated reportable range, the limit of detection and robustness were evaluated. The methods used are described in international guidelines and other existing reports. The performance of this qPCR method for detecting GBS was compared to other microbiological methods used with vaginal-rectal samples from pregnant women. RESULTS:Our qPCR method for detecting GBS was analytically validated. It has a limit of detection of 0.7 GE/?L and 100% analytical specificity. It detects all strains of GBS with the same level of performance as microbiological methods. CONCLUSION:Data suggest that this qPCR method performs adequately as a means to detect GBS in vaginal-rectal swabs from pregnant women.
Project description:Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of infections in newborns worldwilde. Prenatal GBS screening of pregnant women for vaginal-rectal colonization is recommended in many countries to manage appropriate intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for those identified as carriers. In this study, a novel melting-curve based multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of GBS and macrolide and lincosamide resistance markers was developed. The usefulness of the assay was evaluated for rapid and accurate prenatal GBS screening.One hundred two pregnant women who were at 35-37 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. The analytical performance of the multiplex real-time PCR was first tested using a panel of reference and clinical bacterial and fungal strains. To test the clinical performance, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from pregnant women who were seen at the teaching hospital for regular prenatal care. The results of real-time were compared with those obtained from microbiological analyses.The real-time PCR assay showed 100% specificity and a limit of detection of 104 colony forming units equivalent per reaction. The prevalence of GBS colonization among the population studied was 15.7% (16/102) based on a positive culture and the real-time PCR results. Agreement between the two assays was found for 11 (68.75%) GBS colonized women. Using the culture-based results as a reference, the multiplex real-time PCR had a sensitivity of 91.7% (11/12, CI 59.7-99.6%), a specificity of 95.5% (86/90, CI 89.8-98.7%), a positive predictive value of 73.3% (11/15, CI 44.8-91.1%) and a negative predictive value of 98.9% (86/87, CI 92.9-99.9%).The multiplex real-time PCR is a rapid, affordable and sensitive assay for direct detection of GBS in vaginal-rectal swabs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ? 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. METHODS:Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing using the PGM Ion Torrent to determine the effects of penicillin use during hospitalization and GBS status on its composition. RESULTS:Penicillin administration was associated with an altered vaginal microbial community composition characterized by increased microbial diversity. Lactobacillus sp. contributed only 13.1% of the total community in the women that received penicillin compared to 88.1% in the controls. Streptococcus sp. were present in higher abundance in GBS positive woman compared to controls, with 60% of the total vaginal microbiota in severe cases identified as Streptococcus sp. CONCLUSIONS:Vaginal communities of healthy pregnant women were dominated by Lactobacillus sp. and contained low diversity, while Group B Streptococcus positive women receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis had a modified vaginal microbiota composition with low abundance of Lactobacillus but higher microbial diversity.
Project description:Maternal recto-vaginal colonization with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and consequent vertical transmission to the newborn predisposes neonates to early-onset invasive GBS disease. This study aimed to determine the acquisition and loss of serotype-specific recto-vaginal GBS colonization from 20-37+ weeks of gestational age.Vaginal and rectal swabs were collected from HIV-uninfected women at 20-25 weeks of gestation age and at 5-6 weekly intervals thereafter. Swabs were cultured for GBS and isolates were serotyped by latex agglutination. Serologically non-typable isolates and pilus islands were characterized by PCR.The prevalence of recto-vaginal GBS colonization was 33.0%, 32.7%, 28.7% and 28.4% at 20-25 weeks, 26-30 weeks, 31-35 weeks and 37+ weeks of gestational age, respectively. The most common identified serotypes were Ia (39.2%), III (32.8%) and V (12.4%). Of 507 participants who completed all four study visits, the cumulative overall recto-vaginal acquisition rate of new serotypes during the study was 27.9%, including 11.2%, 8.2% and 4.3% for serotypes Ia, III and V, respectively. Comparing the common colonizing serotypes, serotype III was more likely to be associated with persistent colonization throughout the study (29%) than Ia (18%; p?=?0.045) or V (6%; p?=?0.002). The median duration of recto-vaginal GBS colonization for serotype III was 6.35 weeks, which was longer than other serotypes. Pilus island proteins were detected in all GBS isolates and their subtype distribution was associated with specific serotypes.South African pregnant women have a high prevalence of GBS recto-vaginal colonization from 20 weeks of gestational age onwards, including high GBS acquisition rates in the last pregnancy-trimesters. There are differences in specific-serotype colonization patterns during pregnancy.
Project description:Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage by pregnant women is the primary risk factor for early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) can prevent this transmission route, and two main approaches are recommended to base the selection of pregnant women to be submitted to IAP: the risk-based and the culture-based strategies. In Brazil, compliance to such recommendations is poor, and not much is known about GBS carriage. In the present study, 3,647 pregnant women living in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were screened for GBS anogenital colonization, over a period of 8 years (2008-2015). GBS was detected in 956 (26.2%) of them, and presence of vaginal discharge was the only trait associated with a higher risk for GBS colonization. Serotypes Ia (257; 37.3%) and II (137; 19.9%) were the most frequent among 689 (72.1% of the total) GBS isolates evaluated, followed by NT isolates (84; 12.1%), serotype Ib (77; 11.1%), V (63; 9.1%), III (47; 6.8%) and IV (24; 3.5%). Estimated coverage of major serotype-based GBS vaccines currently under clinical trials would vary from 65.2% to 84.3%. All 689 isolates tested were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Resistance to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, and tetracycline was observed in 5% (35), 2% (14), 14% (97), 5% (35) and 86% (592) of the isolates, respectively. No significant fluctuations in colonization rates, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were observed throughout the period of time investigated. The culture-based approach for IAP recommendation showed to be the best choice for the population investigated when compared to the risk-based, since the first did not increase the number of pregnant women submitted to antibiotic therapy and covered a larger number of women who were actually colonized by GBS. The fact the not all isolates were available for additional characterization, and serotype IX antiserum was not available for testing represent limitations of this study. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, this is the largest investigation on GBS carriage among pregnant women in Brazil up to date, and results are useful for improving GBS prevention and treatment strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Group B Streptococcus (GBS) frequently colonizes pregnant women and can cause sepsis and meningitis in young infants. If colonization was prevented through maternal immunization, a reduction in perinatal GBS disease might be possible. A GBS type III capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-tetanus toxoid conjugate (III-TT) vaccine was evaluated for safety and efficacy in preventing acquisition of GBS colonization. METHODS:Healthy, nonpregnant women aged 18-40 years and screened to be GBS III vaginal and rectal culture negative were randomized to receive III-TT conjugate or tetanus diphtheria toxoid vaccine in a multicenter, observer-blinded trial. GBS vaginal and rectal cultures and blood were obtained bimonthly over 18 months. Serum concentrations of GBS III CPS-specific antibodies were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:Among 1525 women screened, 650 were eligible for the intent-to-treat analysis. For time to first acquisition of vaginal GBS III, vaccine efficacy was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-58%; P = .044), and for first rectal acquisition efficacy was 43% (95% CI, 11% to 63%; P = .014). Two months post-immunization, geometric mean concentrations of serum GBS type III CPS-specific immunoglobulin G were 12.6 µg/mL (95% CI, 9.95 to 15.81) in GBS III-TT recipients, representing a 4-fold increase from baseline in 95% of women, which persisted. Both vaccines were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS:GBS CPS III-TT conjugate vaccine significantly delayed acquisition of vaginal and rectal GBS III colonization. In addition to its use for maternal immunization to passively protect infants with maternally derived antibodies, a multivalent vaccine might also serve to reduce fetal and neonatal exposure to GBS. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:NCT00128219.
Project description:?-Lactam antibiotics are first-line agents for the treatment and prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections. We previously reported clinical GBS isolates with reduced ?-lactam susceptibility (GBS-RBS) and characterized them as harbouring amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). However, to our knowledge, GBS-RBS clinical isolates have never previously been isolated from pregnant women worldwide. We obtained 477 clinical GBS isolates from vaginal/rectal swabs of 4530 pregnant women in Japan. We determined the MICs of seven ?-lactams for all 477 clinical isolates. Five clinical isolates showed reduced ceftibuten susceptibility. For these isolates, we performed sequencing analysis of pbp genes. None of the 477 isolates were non-susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, and meropenem. For five isolates, the MICs of ceftibuten were relatively high (64-128??g/ml). Each of these isolates possessed a single amino acid substitution in PBP2X, and some of the substitutions had been previously found in GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility. This is the first report of the isolation of clinical GBS-RBS isolates harbouring amino acid substitutions in PBP2X that confer reduced ceftibuten susceptibility from pregnant women.
Project description:Macrolide resistance has been demonstrated in group B streptococcus (GBS), but there is limited information regarding mechanisms of resistance and their prevalence. We determined these in GBS obtained from neonatal blood cultures and vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Of 178 isolates from cases of neonatal GBS sepsis collected from 1995 to 1998, 8 and 4.5% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively, and one isolate showed intermediate penicillin resistance (MIC, 0.25 microg/ml). Of 101 consecutive vaginal or rectal/vaginal isolates collected in 1999, 18 and 8% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Tetracycline resistance was high (>80%) among both groups of isolates. Of 32 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 28 possessed the erm methylase gene (7 ermB and 21 ermTR/ermA) and 4 harbored the mefA gene; one isolate harbored both genes. One isolate which was susceptible to erythromycin but resistant to clindamycin (MIC, 4 microg/ml) was found to have the linB gene, previously identified only in Enterococcus faecium. The mreA gene was found in all the erythromycin-resistant strains as well as in 10 erythromycin-susceptible strains. The rate of erythromycin resistance increased from 5% in 1995-96 to 13% in 1998-99, which coincided with an increase in macrolide usage during that time.