Phylosymbiosis: Relationships and Functional Effects of Microbial Communities across Host Evolutionary History.
ABSTRACT: Phylosymbiosis was recently proposed to describe the eco-evolutionary pattern, whereby the ecological relatedness of host-associated microbial communities parallels the phylogeny of related host species. Here, we test the prevalence of phylosymbiosis and its functional significance under highly controlled conditions by characterizing the microbiota of 24 animal species from four different groups (Peromyscus deer mice, Drosophila flies, mosquitoes, and Nasonia wasps), and we reevaluate the phylosymbiotic relationships of seven species of wild hominids. We demonstrate three key findings. First, intraspecific microbiota variation is consistently less than interspecific microbiota variation, and microbiota-based models predict host species origin with high accuracy across the dataset. Interestingly, the age of host clade divergence positively associates with the degree of microbial community distinguishability between species within the host clades, spanning recent host speciation events (~1 million y ago) to more distantly related host genera (~108 million y ago). Second, topological congruence analyses of each group's complete phylogeny and microbiota dendrogram reveal significant degrees of phylosymbiosis, irrespective of host clade age or taxonomy. Third, consistent with selection on host-microbiota interactions driving phylosymbiosis, there are survival and performance reductions when interspecific microbiota transplants are conducted between closely related and divergent host species pairs. Overall, these findings indicate that the composition and functional effects of an animal's microbial community can be closely allied with host evolution, even across wide-ranging timescales and diverse animal systems reared under controlled conditions.
Project description:Phylosymbiosis was recently formulated to support a hypothesis-driven framework for the characterization of a new, cross-system trend in host-associated microbiomes. Defining phylosymbiosis as 'microbial community relationships that recapitulate the phylogeny of their host', we review the relevant literature and data in the last decade, emphasizing frequently used methods and regular patterns observed in analyses. Quantitative support for phylosymbiosis is provided by statistical methods evaluating higher microbiome variation between host species than within host species, topological similarities between the host phylogeny and microbiome dendrogram, and a positive association between host genetic relationships and microbiome beta diversity. Significant degrees of phylosymbiosis are prevalent, but not universal, in microbiomes of plants and animals from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Consistent with natural selection shaping phylosymbiosis, microbiome transplant experiments demonstrate reduced host performance and/or fitness upon host-microbiome mismatches. Hybridization can also disrupt phylosymbiotic microbiomes and cause hybrid pathologies. The pervasiveness of phylosymbiosis carries several important implications for advancing knowledge of eco-evolutionary processes that impact host-microbiome interactions and future applications of precision microbiology. Important future steps will be to examine phylosymbiosis beyond bacterial communities, apply evolutionary modelling for an increasingly sophisticated understanding of phylosymbiosis, and unravel the host and microbial mechanisms that contribute to the pattern. This review serves as a gateway to experimental, conceptual and quantitative themes of phylosymbiosis and outlines opportunities ripe for investigation from a diversity of disciplines.
Project description:Host-associated microbial communities consist of stable and transient members that can assemble through purely stochastic processes associated with the environment or by interactions with the host. Phylosymbiosis predicts that if host-microbiota interactions impact assembly patterns, then one conceivable outcome is concordance between host evolutionary histories (phylogeny) and the ecological similarities in microbial community structures (microbiota dendrogram). This assembly pattern has been demonstrated in several clades of animal hosts in laboratory and natural populations, but in vertebrates, it has only been investigated using samples from faeces or the distal colon. Here, we collected the contents of five gut regions from seven rodent species and inventoried the bacterial communities by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. We investigated how community structures varied across gut regions and whether the pattern of phylosymbiosis was present along the length of the gut. Gut communities varied by host species and gut region, with Oscillospira and Ruminococcus being more abundant in the stomach and hindgut regions. Gut microbial communities were highly distinguishable by host species across all gut regions, with the strength of the discrimination increasing along the length of the gut. Last, the pattern of phylosymbiosis was found in all five gut regions, as well as faeces. Aspects of the gut environment, such as oxygen levels, production of antimicrobials or other factors, may shift microbial communities across gut regions. However, regardless of these differences, host species maintain distinguishable, phylosymbiotic assemblages of microbes that may have functional impacts for the host.
Project description:The gut microbiome is shaped by both host diet and host phylogeny. However, separating the relative influence of these two factors over long periods of evolutionary time is often difficult. We conducted a 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based survey of the gut microbiome from 237 individuals and 19 species of omnivorous cockroaches from the order Blattodea. The order Blattodea represents an ancient lineage of insects that emerged over 300 million years ago, have a diverse gut microbiota, and have a typically gregarious lifestyle. All cockroaches shared a broadly similar gut microbiota, with 66 microbial families present across all species and 13 present in every individual examined. Although our network analysis of the cockroach gut microbiome showed a large amount of connectivity, we demonstrated that gut microbiota cluster strongly by host species. We conducted follow-up tests to determine if cockroaches exhibit phylosymbiosis, or the tendency of host-associated microbial communities to parallel the phylogeny of related host species. Across the full data set, gut microbial community similarity was not found to correlate with host phylogenetic distance. However, a weak but significant phylosymbiotic signature was observed using the matching cluster metric, which allows for localized changes within a phylogenetic tree that are more likely to occur over long evolutionary distances. This finding suggests that host phylogeny plays a large role in structuring the cockroach gut microbiome over shorter evolutionary distances and a weak but significant role in shaping the gut microbiome over extended periods of evolutionary time.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiome plays a key role in host health. Therefore, it is important to understand the evolution of the gut microbiota and how it impacts, and is impacted by, host evolution. In this study, we explore the relationship between host phylogeny and gut microbiome composition in omnivorous, gregarious cockroaches within the Blattodea order, an ancient lineage that spans 300 million years of evolutionary divergence. We demonstrate a strong relationship between host species identity and gut microbiome composition and found a weaker but significant role for host phylogeny in determining microbiome similarity over extended periods of evolutionary time. This study advances our understanding of the role of host phylogeny in shaping the gut microbiome over different evolutionary distances.
Project description:Planorbidae snails are the intermediate host for the trematode parasite of the Schistosoma genus, which is responsible for schistosomiasis, a disease that affects both humans and cattle. The microbiota for Schistosoma has already been described as having an effect on host/parasite interactions, specifically through immunological interactions. Here, we sought to characterize the microbiota composition of seven Planorbidae species and strains. Individual snail microbiota was determined using 16S ribosomal DNA amplicon sequencing. The bacterial composition was highly specific to the host strain with limited interindividual variation. In addition, it displayed complete congruence with host phylogeny, revealing a phylosymbiosis pattern. These results were confirmed in a common garden, suggesting that the host highly constrains microbial composition. This study presents the first comparison of bacterial communities between several intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma parasites, paving the way for further studies on the understanding of this tripartite interaction.
Project description:Phylosymbiosis was recently proposed to describe the eco-evolutionary pattern whereby the ecological relatedness (e.g., beta diversity relationships) of host-associated microbial communities parallels the phylogeny of the host species. Representing the most abundant biological entities on the planet and common members of the animal-associated microbiome, viruses can be influential members of host-associated microbial communities that may recapitulate, reinforce, or ablate phylosymbiosis. Here we sequence the metagenomes of purified viral communities from three different parasitic wasp Nasonia species, one cytonuclear introgression line of Nasonia, and the flour moth outgroup Ephestia kuehniella. Results demonstrate complete phylosymbiosis between the viral metagenome and insect phylogeny. Across all Nasonia contigs, 69% of the genes in the viral metagenomes are either new to the databases or uncharacterized, yet over 99% of the contigs have at least one gene with similarity to a known sequence. The core Nasonia virome spans 21% of the total contigs, and the majority of that core is likely derived from induced prophages residing in the genomes of common Nasonia-associated bacterial genera: Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella. We also assemble the first complete viral particle genomes from Nasonia-associated gut bacteria. Taken together, results reveal the first complete evidence for phylosymbiosis in viral metagenomes, new genome sequences of viral particles from Nasonia-associated gut bacteria, and a large set of novel or uncharacterized genes in the Nasonia virome. This work suggests that phylosymbiosis at the host-microbiome level will likely extend to the host-virome level in other systems as well. IMPORTANCE Viruses are the most abundant biological entity on the planet and interact with microbial communities with which they associate. The virome of animals is often dominated by bacterial viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can (re)structure bacterial communities potentially vital to the animal host. Beta diversity relationships of animal-associated bacterial communities in laboratory and wild populations frequently parallel animal phylogenetic relationships, a pattern termed phylosymbiosis. However, little is known about whether viral communities also exhibit this eco-evolutionary pattern. Metagenomics of purified viruses from recently diverged species of Nasonia parasitoid wasps reared in the lab indicates for the first time that the community relationships of the virome can also exhibit complete phylosymbiosis. Therefore, viruses, particularly bacteriophages here, may also be influenced by animal evolutionary changes either directly or indirectly through the tripartite interactions among hosts, bacteria, and phage communities. Moreover, we report several new bacteriophage genomes from the common gut bacteria in Nasonia.
Project description:Scleractinian corals' microbial symbionts influence host health, yet how coral microbiomes assembled over evolution is not well understood. We survey bacterial and archaeal communities in phylogenetically diverse Australian corals representing more than 425 million years of diversification. We show that coral microbiomes are anatomically compartmentalized in both modern microbial ecology and evolutionary assembly. Coral mucus, tissue, and skeleton microbiomes differ in microbial community composition, richness, and response to host vs. environmental drivers. We also find evidence of coral-microbe phylosymbiosis, in which coral microbiome composition and richness reflect coral phylogeny. Surprisingly, the coral skeleton represents the most biodiverse coral microbiome, and also shows the strongest evidence of phylosymbiosis. Interactions between bacterial and coral phylogeny significantly influence the abundance of four groups of bacteria-including Endozoicomonas-like bacteria, which divide into host-generalist and host-specific subclades. Together these results trace microbial symbiosis across anatomy during the evolution of a basal animal lineage.
Project description:Waterbirds are ubiquitous and globally distributed. Yet, studies on wild waterbirds' gut microbiota are still rare. Our aim was to explore and compare the gut microbial community composition of wild waterbird species. Four wild waterbird species that are either wintering or all-year residents in Israel were studied: great cormorants, little egrets, black-crowned night herons and black-headed gulls. For each bird, three intestinal sections were sampled; anterior, middle and posterior. No significant differences were found among the microbiota compositions in the three intestine sections of each individual bird. Each waterbird species had a unique microbial composition. The gut microbiota of the black-headed gulls' fundamentally deviated from that of the other bird species, probably due to a very high abundance (58.8%) of the genus Catellicoccus (Firmicutes). Our results suggest a correlation between the waterbird species' phylogeny and their intestine microbial community hierarchical tree, which evinced phylosymbiosis. This recent coinage stands for eco-evolutionary patterns between the host phylogeny and its microbiota composition. We conclude that eco-evolutionary processes termed phylosymbiosis may occur between wild waterbird species and their gut microbial community composition.
Project description:Gastrointestinal microbiota may shape the adaptation of their hosts to different habitats and lifestyles, thereby driving their evolutionary diversification. It remains unknown if gastrointestinal microbiota diverge in congruence with the phylogenetic relationships of their hosts. To evaluate the phylosymbiotic relationships, here we analyzed the compositions of fecal microbiota of seven Cervinae species raised in the Chengdu Zoo. All sampled animals were kept in the same environmental condition and fed identical fodder for years. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were dominant in their fecal microbiota. Even though some bacteria (e.g., Ruminococcaceae) were found to be common in the feces of all investigated species, some genera (e.g., Sharpea and Succinivibrio) were only observed in animals with particular digestive systems. As for the intraspecies variations of microbial communities, only a few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared among replicates of the same host species although they accounted for most of the total abundance. Correlation was observed between the fecal microbiota divergence and host phylogeny, but they were not congruent completely. This may shed new light on the coevolution of host species and their microbiota.
Project description:Host-associated microbiotas of vertebrates are diverse and complex communities that contribute to host health. In particular, for amphibians, cutaneous microbial communities likely play a significant role in pathogen defense; however, our ecological understanding of these communities is still in its infancy. Here, we take advantage of the fully endemic and locally species-rich amphibian fauna of Madagascar to investigate the factors structuring amphibian skin microbiota on a large scale. Using amplicon-based sequencing, we evaluate how multiple host species traits and site factors affect host bacterial diversity and community structure. Madagascar is home to over 400 native frog species, all of which are endemic to the island; more than 100 different species are known to occur in sympatry within multiple rainforest sites. We intensively sampled frog skin bacterial communities, from over 800 amphibians from 89 species across 30 sites in Madagascar during three field visits, and found that skin bacterial communities differed strongly from those of the surrounding environment. Richness of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and phylogenetic diversity differed among host ecomorphs, with arboreal frogs exhibiting lower richness and diversity than terrestrial and aquatic frogs. Host ecomorphology was the strongest factor influencing microbial community structure, with host phylogeny and site parameters (latitude and elevation) explaining less but significant portions of the observed variation. Correlation analysis and topological congruency analyses revealed little to no phylosymbiosis for amphibian skin microbiota. Despite the observed geographic variation and low phylosymbiosis, we found particular OTUs that were differentially abundant between particular ecomorphs. For example, the genus Pigmentiphaga (Alcaligenaceae) was significantly enriched on arboreal frogs, Methylotenera (Methylophilaceae) was enriched on aquatic frogs, and Agrobacterium (Rhizobiaceae) was enriched on terrestrial frogs. The presence of shared bacterial OTUs across geographic regions for selected host genera suggests the presence of core microbial communities which in Madagascar, might be driven more strongly by a species' preference for specific microhabitats than by the physical, physiological or biochemical properties of their skin. These results corroborate that both host and environmental factors are driving community assembly of amphibian cutaneous microbial communities, and provide an improved foundation for elucidating their role in disease resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The vertebrate clade diverged into Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, and chimeras) and Osteichthyes fishes (bony fishes) approximately 420 mya, with each group accumulating vast anatomical and physiological differences, including skin properties. The skin of Chondrichthyes fishes is covered in dermal denticles, whereas Osteichthyes fishes are covered in scales and are mucous rich. The divergence time among these two fish groups is hypothesized to result in predictable variation among symbionts. Here, using shotgun metagenomics, we test if patterns of diversity in the skin surface microbiome across the two fish clades match predictions made by phylosymbiosis theory. We hypothesize (1) the skin microbiome will be host and clade-specific, (2) evolutionary difference in elasmobranch and teleost will correspond with a concomitant increase in host-microbiome dissimilarity, and (3) the skin structure of the two groups will affect the taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiomes. RESULTS:We show that the taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiomes is host-specific. Teleost fish had lower average microbiome within clade similarity compared to among clade comparison, but their composition is not different among clade in a null based model. Elasmobranch's average similarity within clade was not different than across clade and not different in a null based model of comparison. In the comparison of host distance with microbiome distance, we found that the taxonomic composition of the microbiome was related to host distance for the elasmobranchs, but not the teleost fishes. In comparison, the gene function composition was not related to the host-organism distance for elasmobranchs but was negatively correlated with host distance for teleost fishes. CONCLUSION:Our results show the patterns of phylosymbiosis are not consistent across both fish clades, with the elasmobranchs showing phylosymbiosis, while the teleost fish are not. The discrepancy may be linked to alternative processes underpinning microbiome assemblage, including possible historical host-microbiome evolution of the elasmobranchs and convergent evolution in the teleost which filter specific microbial groups. Our comparison of the microbiomes among fishes represents an investigation into the microbial relationships of the oldest divergence of extant vertebrate hosts and reveals that microbial relationships are not consistent across evolutionary timescales. Video abstract.