Project description:Deficient retro-aortic rim is of concern as a risk factor for aortic erosion after device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD). However, its prevalence and contribution to technical failure and adverse outcomes have not been delineated. A single-center retrospective cohort study of children and adults undergoing cardiac catheterization for device occlusion of ASD from 1 January 1999 to 1 April 2012 was performed. Risk factors for technical failure and early adverse outcome were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. During the study period, 445 consecutive subjects with a median age of 5.9 years (range, 0.8-80 years) underwent catheterization. Of the subjects with reviewable echocardiograms, 60 % had deficient retro-aortic rim. No attempt at device closure was made for 3.6 % of the subjects. Of the remaining 429 subjects, 96 % underwent successful device occlusion. Major early adverse events occurred in 1.2 % (95 % confidence interval 0.4-2.7 %) of the cases, all of them either device embolization or malposition. Deficient retro-aortic rim was not a risk factor for composite outcome of technical failure or early major adverse event. No deaths, late reinterventions, or erosion events occurred during 2,395 total person-years (median, 5.8 years) of follow-up evaluation. Deficient retro-aortic rim was associated with increased risk of device impingement on the aorta, but no association was seen between device impingement or deficient retro-aortic rim and the development of new/progressive aortic insufficiency. Deficient retro-aortic rim is highly prevalent but did not increase the risk of adverse outcomes. Its contribution to the risk of aortic erosion could not be addressed by this study.
Project description:Deficient retro-aortic rim has been identified as a risk factor for device erosion following trans-catheter closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the primary screening method for subjects for possible device closure of ASD, but its reliability in measuring retro-aortic rim size has not been assessed previously.A single-institution cross-sectional analysis of children and adults referred for trans-catheter device closure of single ostium secundum ASD from January 1, 2005 to April 1, 2012 with reviewable TTE and trans-esophageal echocardiogram images was performed. Inter-rater reliability of measurements was tested in a 24% sample. Accuracy of TTE measurement of retro-aortic rim was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot with trans-esophageal echocardiogram measurement as the gold standard. Test characteristics of TTE detection of deficient retro-aortic rim were calculated. Risk factors for misclassification of deficient retro-aortic rim were assessed using receiver operator characteristic curves. Risk factors for measurement error were assessed through multivariate linear regression.In total, 163 subjects of median age 5 years (range: 0.3-46 years) were included. Trans-thoracic echocardiography had 90% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 90% positive predictive value, and 83% negative predictive value to detect deficient retro-aortic rim. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated no fixed bias (P?=?.23), but errors in measurement increased on average as the aortic rim increased in size (P?<?.001). Prespecified patient level risk factors did not affect receiver operator characteristic curve area under the curve, nor were any patient-level risk factors independently associated with increased measurement error on TTE.TTE is a sensitive and specific screening test for deficient retro-aortic rim across a range of patient ages and sizes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is a growing epidemic in most developed countries including the United States resulting in an increased number of obese patients with end-stage renal disease. A previous study has shown that obese patients with end-stage renal disease have a survival benefit with transplantation compared with dialysis. However, due to serious comorbidities, many centers place restrictions on the selection of obese patients for transplantation. Further, due to obese patients having an increased risk of diabetes, it is unclear whether obesity can be an independent risk, independent of diabetes for increasing adverse renal transplant outcomes. METHODS:To investigate the role of obesity in kidney transplantation, we used the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database. After filtering for subjects that had the full set of covariates including age, gender, graft type, ethnicity, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, dialysis time and time period of transplantation for our analysis, 191,091 subjects were included in the analyses. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for covariates we determined whether obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes such as delayed graft function, acute rejection, urine protein and graft failure. Cox regression modeling was used to determine hazard ratios of graft failure. RESULTS:Using multivariate model analyses, we found that obese patients have significantly increased risk of adverse transplant outcomes, including delayed graft function, graft failure, urine protein and acute rejection. Cox regression modeling hazard ratios showed that obesity also increased risk of graft failure. Life-table survival curves showed that obesity may be a risk factor independent of diabetes mellitus for a shorter time to graft failure. CONCLUSIONS:A key observation in our study is that the risks for adverse outcome of obesity are progressive with increasing body mass index. Furthermore, pre-obese overweight recipients compared with normal weight recipients also had increased risks of adverse outcomes related to kidney transplantation.
Project description:Background Acute penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs) are reported to dynamically evolve into different clinical outcomes ranging from regression to aortic rupture, but no practice guidelines are available in China. Methods and Results All 109 patients with acute PAUs were monitored clinically. At 30 days follow-up, 31 patients (28.44%) suffered from aortic-related adverse events, a composite of aortic-related mortality, aortic dissection, or an enlarged ulcer. In addition, 7 (6.42%) patients had clinically related adverse events, including all-cause mortality, cerebral stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, acute heart failure alone or acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure, acute renal failure, arrhythmia, and bleeding events. In the present study, the intervention criteria for the Chinese PAU population included a PAU diameter of 12.5 mm and depth of 9.5 mm. The multivariate analysis showed that an ulcer diameter >12.5 mm (hazard ratio [HR], 3.846; 95% CI, 1.561-9.476; <i>P</i>=0.003) and an ulcer depth >9.5 mm (HR, 3.359; 95% CI, 1.505-7.494; <i>P</i>=0.003) were each independent predictors of aortic-related events. Conclusions Patients with acute PAUs were at high risk for aortic-related adverse events and clinically related adverse events within 30 days after onset. Patients with an ulcer diameter >12.5 mm or an ulcer depth >9.5 mm have a higher risk for disease progression, and early intervention may be recommended.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To prospectively study the techniques and outcomes of transcatheter closure of complex Atrial septal defects (ASD). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Prospective single center study with experience in catheter closure of ASD. All patients with complex ASD suitable for device closure. OBJECTIVE: Analysis of outcomes of transcatheter closure of complex ASD in JIPMER Hospital over the past 5-year period. METHODS: Complex ASD was predefined and patients satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria are included. All the patients had meticulous Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) imaging beforehand. Modifications of the conventional techniques were allowed on a case per case basis according to operator preference. Successfully intervened patients were followed up clinically. RESULTS: Out of the 75 patients enrolled, 69 patients had successful device closure (success rate 92%) despite challenging anatomy. Fifty-six (74%) patients had ASD ? 25 mm. Fifteen patients (20%) had defect size ? 35 mm and 20 patients (26.6%) had devices implanted with ? 35 mm waist size. Fifty percent of patients had complete absence of aortic rim and 25% had deficient posterior rim. Twenty percent of patients had malaligned septum. Mean follow up period was 3.2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Trans catheter closure is feasible in anatomically complex substrates of Secundum ASD. Careful case selection, scrupulous imaging protocol, and expertise in modified techniques are mandatory for successful outcomes.
Project description:Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.
Project description:Current therapies for diseases of heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and aorta (aortopathy) include inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, beta-adrenergic antagonists, and the statin class of cholesterol-lowering agents. These therapies have limited efficacy, as adverse cardiovascular events continue to occur with some frequency in patients taking these drugs. Although cardiomyopathy and aortopathy can coexist in a number of conditions (for example, Marfan's syndrome, acromegaly, pregnancy, and aging), pathogenetic molecular links between the two diseases remain poorly understood. We reasoned that identification of common molecular perturbations in these two tissues could point to therapies for both conditions. Here, we show that deficiency of the transcriptional regulator Kruppel-like factor 15 (Klf15) in mice leads to both heart failure and aortic aneurysm formation through a shared molecular mechanism. Klf15 concentrations are markedly reduced in failing human hearts and in human aortic aneurysm tissues. Mice deficient in Klf15 develop heart failure and aortic aneurysms in a p53-dependent and p300 acetyltransferase-dependent fashion. KLF15 activation inhibits p300-mediated acetylation of p53. Conversely, Klf15 deficiency leads to hyperacetylation of p53 in the heart and aorta, a finding that is recapitulated in human tissues. Finally, Klf15-deficient mice are rescued by p53 deletion or p300 inhibition. These findings highlight a molecular perturbation common to the pathobiology of heart failure and aortic aneurysm formation and suggest that manipulation of KLF15 function may be a productive approach to treat these morbid diseases.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Arterial tortuosity has emerged as a predictor of adverse outcomes in congenital aortopathies using 3D reconstructed images. We validated a new method to estimate aortic arch tortuosity on 2D CT. We hypothesize that arch tortuosity may identify bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients at high risk to develop thoracic aortic aneurysms or aortic dissections (TAD). METHODS:BAV subjects with chest CT scans were retrospectively identified in our clinical records and matched to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) controls by age, gender, and presentation with TAD. Subjects with prior ascending aortic intervention were excluded. Measurements included aortic arch tortuosity, length, angle, width and height. Total aortic tortuosity was estimated in subjects with available abdominal images. RESULTS:120 BAV and 234 TAV subjects were included. Our 2D measurements were highly correlated with 3D midline arch measurements and had high inter- and intra-observer reliability. Compared to TAV, BAV subjects had increased arch tortuosity (median 1.76 [Q1-Q3: 1.62-1.95] vs. 1.63 [1.53-1.78], P?<?0.01), length (149 [136-160] vs. 135 [122-152] mm, P?<?0.01), height (46 [41-53] vs. 39 [34-47] mm, P?<?0.01), and vertex acuity (70 [61-77] vs. 75 [68-81] degree, P?<?0.01). In a multivariable analysis, arch tortuosity remained independently associated with BAV after adjusting for aortic diameter and other clinical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:We found that aortic arch tortuosity is significantly increased in BAV and may identify BAV patients who are at increased risk for TAD. Further studies to evaluate the association between tortuosity and clinical outcomes are in progress.
Project description:Introduction of hybrid techniques, such as transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TA-TAVR), requires skills that a heart team must master to achieve technical efficiency: the technical performance learning curve. To date, the learning curve for TA-TAVR remains unknown. We therefore evaluated the rate at which technical performance improved, assessed change in occurrence of adverse events in relation to technical performance, and determined whether adverse events after TA-TAVR were linked to acquiring technical performance efficiency (the learning curve).From April 2007 to February 2012, 1100 patients, average age 85.0 ± 6.4 years, underwent TA-TAVR in the PARTNER-I trial. Learning curves were defined by institution-specific patient sequence number using nonlinear mixed modeling.Mean procedure time decreased from 131 to 116 minutes within 30 cases (P = .06) and device success increased to 90% by case 45 (P = .0007). Within 30 days, 354 patients experienced a major adverse event (stroke in 29, death in 96), with possibly decreased complications over time (P ? .08). Although longer procedure time was associated with more adverse events (P < .0001), these events were associated with change in patient risk profile, not the technical performance learning curve (P = .8).The learning curve for TA-TAVR was 30 to 45 procedures performed, and technical efficiency was achieved without compromising patient safety. Although fewer patients are now undergoing TAVR via nontransfemoral access, understanding TA-TAVR learning curves and their relationship with outcomes is important as the field moves toward next-generation devices, such as those to replace the mitral valve, delivered via the left ventricular apex.
Project description:Multiple epidemiological studies from Europe and Asia have demonstrated increased cardiovascular risks associated with isolated elevation of home blood pressure (BP) or masked hypertension (MH). Previous studies have not addressed cardiovascular outcomes associated with MH and white-coat hypertension (WCH) in the general population in the United States.The goal of this study was to determine hypertensive target organ damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with WCH (high clinic BP, ?140/90 mm Hg; normal home BP, <135/85 mm Hg), MH (high home BP, ?135/85 mm Hg; normal clinic BP, <140/90 mm Hg), and sustained hypertension (high home and clinic BP) in the DHS (Dallas Heart Study), a large, multiethnic, probability-based population cohort.Associations among WCH, MH, sustained hypertension, and aortic pulsed wave velocity by magnetic resonance imaging; urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio; and cystatin C were evaluated at study baseline. Then, associations between WCH and MH with incident cardiovascular outcomes (coronary heart disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and cardiovascular death) over a median follow-up period of 9 years were assessed.The study cohort comprised 3,027 subjects (50% African Americans). The sample-weighted prevalence rates of WCH and MH were 3.3% and 17.8%, respectively. Both WCH and MH were independently associated with increased aortic pulsed wave velocity, cystatin C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Both WCH (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 4.15) and MH (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.36 to 3.03) were independently associated with higher cardiovascular events compared with the normotensive group, even after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors.In a multiethnic U.S. population, both WCH and MH were independently associated with increased aortic stiffness, renal injury, and incident cardiovascular events. Because MH is common and associated with an adverse cardiovascular profile, home BP monitoring should be routinely performed among U.S. adults.