Silver Nanoparticles Impact Biofilm Communities and Mussel Settlement.
ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) demonstrating good antimicrobial activity are widely used in many fields. However, the impact of AgNPs on the community structures of marine biofilms that drive biogeochemical cycling processes and the recruitment of marine invertebrate larvae remains unknown. Here, we employed MiSeq sequencing technology to evaluate the bacterial communities of 28-day-old marine biofilms formed on glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and PDMS filled with AgNPs and subsequently tested the influence of these marine biofilms on plantigrade settlement by the mussel Mytilus coruscus. AgNP-filled PDMS significantly reduced the dry weight and bacterial density of biofilms compared with the glass and PDMS controls. AgNP incorporation impacted bacterial communities by reducing the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae (phylum: Bacteroidetes) and increasing the relative abundance of Vibrionaceae (phylum: Proteobacteria) in 28-day-old biofilms compared to PDMS. The settlement rate of M. coruscus on 28-day-old biofilms developed on AgNPs was lower by >30% compared to settlement on control biofilms. Thus, the incorporation of AgNPs influences biofilm bacterial communities in the marine environment and subsequently inhibits mussel settlement.
Project description:Pseudoalteromonas is widespread in various marine environments, and most strains can affect invertebrate larval settlement and metamorphosis by forming biofilms. However, the impact and the molecular basis of population diversification occurring in Pseudoalteromonas biofilms are poorly understood. Here, we show that morphological diversification is prevalent in Pseudoalteromonas species during biofilm formation. Two types of genetic variants, wrinkled (frequency of 12±5%) and translucent (frequency of 5±3%), were found in Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica biofilms. The inducing activities of biofilms formed by the two variants on larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus coruscus were significantly decreased, suggesting strong antifouling activities. Using whole-genome re-sequencing combined with genetic manipulation, two genes were identified to be responsible for the morphology alternations. A nonsense mutation in AT00_08765 led to a wrinkled morphology due to the overproduction of cellulose, whereas a point mutation in AT00_17125 led to a translucent morphology via a reduction in capsular polysaccharide production. Taken together, the results suggest that the microbial behavior on larval settlement and metamorphosis in marine environment could be affected by the self-generated variants generated during the formation of marine biofilms, thereby rendering potential application in biocontrol of marine biofouling.
Project description:Members of the marine bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas are efficient producers of antifouling agents that exert inhibitory effects on the settlement of invertebrate larvae. The production of pigmented secondary metabolites by Pseudoalteromonas has been suggested to play a role in surface colonization. However, the physiological characteristics of the pigments produced by Pseudoalteromonas remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a genetic variant that hyperproduces a dark-brown pigment and was generated during Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica biofilm formation. Through whole-genome resequencing combined with targeted gene deletion and complementation, we found that a point mutation within the hmgA gene, which encodes homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, is solely responsible for the overproduction of the dark-brown pigment pyomelanin. In P. lipolytica, inactivation of the hmgA gene led to the formation of extracellular pyomelanin and greatly reduced larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus coruscus. Additionally, the extracted pyomelanin from the hmgA deletion mutant and the in vitro-synthesized pyomelanin also reduced larval settlement and metamorphosis of M. coruscus, suggesting that extracellular pyomelanin released from marine Pseudoalteromonas biofilm can inhibit the settlement of fouling organisms.
Project description:The application of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a considerable amount of registered commercial products inevitably will result in the continuous release of AgNPs into the natural aquatic environment. Therefore, native biofilms, as the prominent life form of microorganisms in almost all known ecosystems, will be subjected to AgNP exposure. Despite the exponentially growing research activities worldwide, it is still difficult to assess nanoparticle-mediated toxicity in natural environments. In order to obtain an ecotoxicologically relevant exposure scenario, we performed experiments with artificial stream mesocosm systems approaching low dose AgNP concentrations close to predicted environmental concentrations. Pregrown freshwater biofilms were exposed for 14 days to citrate-stabilized AgNPs at a concentration of 600 ?g l-1 in two commonly used sizes (30 and 70 nm). Sublethal effects of AgNP treatment were assessed with regard to biofilm structure by gravimetric measurements (biofilm thickness and density) and by two biomass parameters, chlorophyll a and protein content. The composition of bacterial biofilm communities was characterized by t-RFLP fingerprinting combined with phylogenetic studies based on the 16S gene. After 14 days of treatment, the structural parameters of the biofilm such as thickness, density, and chlorophyll a and protein content were not statistically significantly changed by AgNP exposure. Furthermore, t-RFLP fingerprint analysis showed that the bacterial diversity was not diminished by AgNPs, as calculated by Shannon Wiener and evenness indices. Nevertheless, t-RFLP analysis also indicated that AgNPs led to an altered biofilm community composition as was shown by cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) based on the Bray Curtis index. Sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes further revealed that changes in community composition were related with the displacement of putatively AgNP-sensitive bacterial taxa Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Cyanobacteria by taxa known for their enhanced adaptability towards metal stress, such as Acidobacteria, Sphingomonadales, and Comamonadaceae. This measurable community shift, even after low dose AgNP treatment, causes serious concerns with respect to the broad application of AgNPs and their potentially adverse impact on the ecological function of lotic biofilms, such as biodegradation or biostabilization.
Project description:As a stage of life cycle, larval settlement and metamorphosis are critical processes for persistence of many marine invertebrate populations. Bacterial biofilms (BFs) could induce larval settlement and metamorphosis. Pseudoalteromonas, a widely distributed genus of marine bacteria, showed inductive effects on several invertebrates. However, how Pseudoalteromonas BFs induce settlement and metamorphosis of Mytilus coruscus remains unclear. Pseudoalteromonas marina BFs with the highest inducing activity were further investigated to define inductive cues. Surface-bound products of P. marina BFs could induce larval settlement and metamorphosis. P. marina BFs treated with formalin, antibiotics, ultraviolet irradiation, heat and ethanol significantly reduced inductive effects and cell survival rates. The confocal laser scanning microscopy and the biovolume analysis showed the dominance of ?-polysaccharides on P. marina BFs. Treatment of BFs with amylases, proteases and lipase led to the decrease of inducing activity, suggesting that inductive cues of P. marina BFs may comprise of molecular domains of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. Finding inductive cues of BFs could put forward further studies about the mechanism of larval settlement and metamorphosis of marine invertebrates.
Project description:Increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacterial species is a serious public health problem and has prompted research examining the antibacterial effects of alternative compounds and novel treatment strategies. Compounding this problem is the ability of many pathogenic bacteria to form biofilms during chronic infections. Importantly, these communities are often recalcitrant to antibiotic treatments that show effectiveness against acute infection. The antimicrobial properties of silver have been known for decades, but recently silver and silver-containing compounds have seen renewed interest as antimicrobial agents for treating bacterial infections. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of various sizes, alone and in combination with the aminoglycoside antibiotic tobramycin, to inhibit established Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Our results demonstrate that smaller 10-nm and 20-nm AgNPs were more effective at synergistically potentiating the activity of tobramycin. Visualization of biofilms treated with combinations of 10-nm AgNPs and tobramycin reveals that the synergistic bactericidal effect may be caused by disrupting cellular membranes. Minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) assays using clinical P. aeruginosa isolates shows that small AgNPs are more effective than larger AgNPs at inhibiting biofilms, but that the synergy effect is likely a strain-dependent phenomenon. These data suggest that small AgNPs synergistically potentiate the activity of tobramycin against P. aeruginosain vitro and may reveal a potential role for AgNP/antibiotic combinations in treating patients with chronic infections in a strain-specific manner.
Project description:Biofilms are critical components of most marine systems and provide biochemical cues that can significantly impact overall community composition. Although progress has been made in the bacteria-animal interaction, the molecular basis of modulation of settlement and metamorphosis in most marine animals by bacteria is poorly understood. Here, Pseudoalteromonas marina showing inducing activity on mussel settlement and metamorphosis was chosen as a model to clarify the mechanism that regulates the bacteria-mussel interaction. We constructed a flagellin synthetic protein gene fliP deletion mutant of P. marina and checked whether deficiency of fliP gene will impact inducing activity, motility, and extracellular polymeric substances of biofilms. Furthermore, we examined the effect of flagellar proteins extracted from bacteria on larval settlement and metamorphosis. The deletion of the fliP gene caused the loss of the flagella structure and motility of the ?fliP strain. Deficiency of the fliP gene promoted the biofilm formation and changed biofilm matrix by reducing ?-polysaccharides and increasing extracellular proteins and finally reduced biofilm-inducing activities. Flagellar protein extract promoted mussel metamorphosis, and ?fliP biofilms combined with additional flagellar proteins induced similar settlement and metamorphosis rate compared to that of the wild-type strain. These findings provide novel insight on the molecular interactions between bacteria and mussels.
Project description:The gut microbial community is critical for the host immune system, and in recent years, it has been extensively studied in vertebrates using 'omic' technologies. In contrast, knowledge about how the interactions between water temperature and diet affect the gut microbiota of marine invertebrates that do not thermoregulate is much less studied. In the present study, the effect of elevated seawater temperature and diet (Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis) on the gut microbial community of the commercial mussel, Mytilus coruscus, was investigated. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial community in M. coruscus gut. The mortality of M. coruscus exposed to a high water temperature (31°C) increased after 3 days and the diversity of the bacterial community in the gut of live M. coruscus was significantly reduced. For example, the abundance of Bacteroides (Bacteroidetes) and norank_Marinilabiaceae (Bacteroidetes) increased in the gut of M. coruscus fed I. zhanjiangensis. In M. coruscus fed P. helgolandica, the abundance of Arcobacter (Proteobacteria) and norank_Marinilabiaceae increased and the abundance of unclassified_Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) decreased. The results obtained in the present study suggest that high temperatures favored the proliferation of opportunistic bacteria, including Bacteroides and Arcobacter, which may increase host susceptibility to disease. Microbial community composition of the gut in live M. coruscus was not impacted by the microalgal diet but it was modified in the group of mussels that died. The present study provides insight into the potential effects on the gut microbiome and mussel-bacteria interactions of rising seawater temperatures.
Project description:Microbial biofilms play important roles in initiating settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. Given the importance of habitat selection by the motile larval phase, understanding settlement choices is critical if we are to successfully predict the population dynamics of sessile adults. Marine microbial biofilms show remarkable variability in community composition, often mediated by environmental conditions and biofilm age. To determine if biofilm communities were influenced by the time allowed to establish (age) and/or seawater temperature, we manipulated experimental surfaces to firstly determine biofilm community composition and secondly test larval settlement responses for the abundant coral reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. Microbial profiling of biofilms revealed different communities according to both age and temperature. Biofilm community composition, as a result of both elevated seawater temperature and biofilm age, contributed to settlement for sponge larvae with markedly higher numbers of larvae settling to biofilms developed over longer periods (10 d) and at temperatures 2-6°C above ambient.
Project description:Inputs of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to marine waters continue to increase yet mechanisms of AgNPs toxicity to marine phytoplankton are still not well resolved. This study reports a series of toxicity experiments on a representative coastal marine diatom species Chaetoceros curvisetus using the reference AgNP, NM-300K. Exposure to AgNPs resulted in photosynthetic impairment and loss of diatom biomass in proportion to the supplied AgNP dose. The underlying mechanism of toxicity was explored via comparing biological responses in parallel experiments. Diatom responses to AgNP, free Ag(I) species, and dialysis bag-retained AgNP treatments showed marked similarity, pointing towards a dominant role of Ag(I) species uptake, rather than NPs themselves, in inducing the toxic response. In marked contrast to previous studies, addition of the organic complexing agent cysteine (Cys) alongside Ag only marginally moderated toxicity, implying AgCys<sup>-</sup> complexes were bioavailable to this diatom species. A preliminary field experiment with a natural phytoplankton community in the southeast Atlantic Ocean showed no significant toxic response at a NM-300 K concentration that resulted in ~40% biomass loss in the culture studies, suggesting a modulating effect of natural seawaters on Ag toxicity.
Project description:Shewanella sp. ECSMB14102, which promotes recruitment of the mussel Mytilus coruscus, was isolated from natural biofilms formed on glass slides submerged in the East China Sea. Here, we present the draft genome sequence, which comprises 4.41 Mb with a G+C content of 52.2%. The genomic information in this strain will contribute to deepening our understanding of bacteria-animal interaction.