Glycopyrrolate in comparison to hyoscine hydrobromide and placebo in the treatment of hypersalivation induced by clozapine (GOTHIC1): study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Clozapine is the only medication licensed for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia in the UK. Although efficacious, a common and unpopular side effect of clozapine treatment is clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH), which can contribute to non-adherence. The standard treatment for CIH in the UK is hyoscine hydrobromide but this may aggravate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia while glycopyrrolate may be an effective alternative with a more tolerable side effect profile. There is currently no convincing evidence for hyoscine, or any other medication, as an effective treatment for CIH. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility study of glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate) and hyoscine hydrobromide (hyoscine) in patients with clozapine-induced hypersalivation. We aim to recruit 42 patients who have been prescribed clozapine and are experiencing hypersalivation, and randomise them to one of three study arms (either hyoscine, glycopyrrolate or placebo). The primary outcome measures will be the participant recruitment and attrition rates, and the secondary outcome will be the metrics of the daytime hypersalivation measure. After a 1-week washout period (discontinuing CIH medication, if any), there will be a 4-week treatment period where participants will be titrated up to the maximum tolerated dose of hyoscine, glycopyrrolate or placebo. Measurements of daytime salivation, nocturnal salivation, cognition and side effects will be taken during home visits in week 2 and week 5. Information on salivation and side effects will also be taken through telephone calls in week 3 and week 4. To gather information on the experience of study participants, exit interviews will also be requested with all participants who drop out of the study and a sample of participants who complete the study. DISCUSSION:There is currently no convincing evidence for hyoscine, or any other medication, as an effective treatment for CIH. There is promising evidence that glycopyrrolate may be more successful in the treatment of CIH causing fewer cognitive side effects. We propose to conduct a randomised placebo-controlled feasibility study of glycopyrrolate and hyoscine in the treatment of clozapine-induced hypersalivation to inform the design of a future efficacy trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02613494 , 23 November 2015.
Project description:Background:Clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH) is a common side effect of clozapine treatment and is disliked by clozapine patients, potentially threatening adherence to clozapine treatment. We proposed a trial of alternative medications, hyoscine and glycopyrrolate, for the treatment of CIH and the primary objective of the feasibility study was to assess the recruitment and retention of community clozapine patients as well as assess the metrics of the primary hypersalivation measure. Methods:This 11-month trial took place in two NHS trusts in northwest UK. Participants were community-dwelling clozapine patients aged 18-65?years who were suffering from CIH, and were recruited from community mental health clinics. They were randomised using a telephone randomisation service to receive either hyoscine (1?week at 0.6?mg daily, 3?weeks at 0.9?mg daily), glycopyrrolate (1?week at 2?mg daily, 3?weeks at 3?mg daily) or placebo. Participants and investigators were blinded to which study arm the participants had been randomised to. We collected data on salivation levels and side effects on a weekly basis and also assessed cognition at the beginning and end of the trial. We also interviewed a sample of participants after the trial to gather information on their experience of having taken part. Results:One hundred and thirty-eight potential participants agreed to being contacted by researchers about participation in the trial and of these, 29 participants were randomised. Of these, four participants exited the trial before taking any trial medication, and two participants left the study owing to concerns of side effects. Data from four participants was missing, and complete data was available for 19 participants who completed the trial. The mean recruitment rate overall was 1.3 participants per site per month, and the overall retention rate was 76%. Interview data suggested that participants' experiences of trial participation were overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions:The feasibility study demonstrated that a trial of alternative medications in the treatment of CIH is feasible; patients were willing to be randomised to the trial and retention rate was high. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02613494, registered 24 November 2015.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Investigate whether hyoscine patch or glycopyrronium liquid is more effective and acceptable to treat drooling in children with neurodisability. DESIGN:Multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING:Recruitment through neurodisability teams; treatment by parents. PARTICIPANTS:Ninety children with neurodisability who had never received medication for drooling (55 boys, 35 girls; median age 4 years). EXCLUSION CRITERIA:medication contraindicated; in a trial that could affect drooling or management. INTERVENTION:Children were randomised to receive a hyoscine skin patch or glycopyrronium liquid. Dose was increased over 4 weeks to achieve optimum symptom control with minimal side-effects; steady dose then continued to 12 weeks. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:Primary outcome: Drooling Impact Scale (DIS) score at week-4. SECONDARY OUTCOMES:change in DIS scores over 12 weeks, Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication; adverse events; children's perception about treatment. RESULTS:Both medications yielded clinically and statistically significant reductions in mean DIS at week-4 (25.0 (SD 22.2) for hyoscine and 26.6 (SD 16) for glycopyrronium). There was no significant difference in change in DIS scores between treatment groups. By week-12, 26/47 (55%) children starting treatment were receiving hyoscine compared with 31/38 (82%) on glycopyrronium. There was a 42% increased chance of being on treatment at week-12 for children randomised to glycopyrronium relative to hyoscine (1.42, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.95). CONCLUSIONS:Hyoscine and glycopyrronium are clinically effective in treating drooling in children with neurodisability. Hyoscine produced more problematic side effects leading to a greater chance of treatment cessation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS:ISRCTN 75287237; EUDRACT: 2013-000863-94; Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency: 17136/0264/001-0003.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to confirm the efficacy and safety of twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15.6 µg, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with stable, symptomatic, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation.The GEM1 study was a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study that randomized patients with stable, symptomatic COPD with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation to twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15.6 µg or placebo (1:1) via the Neohaler(®) device. The primary objective was to demonstrate superiority of glycopyrrolate versus placebo in terms of forced expiratory volume in 1 second area under the curve between 0 and 12 hours post morning dose at week 12. Other outcomes included additional spirometric end points, transition dyspnea index, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, rescue medication use, and symptoms reported by patients via electronic diary. Safety was also assessed during the study.Of the 441 patients randomized (glycopyrrolate, n=222; placebo, n=219), 96% of patients completed the planned treatment phase. Glycopyrrolate demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.001) improvements in lung function versus placebo. Glycopyrrolate showed statistically significant improvement in the transition dyspnea index focal score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, COPD Assessment Test score, rescue medication use, and daily total symptom score versus placebo at week 12. Safety was comparable between the treatment groups.Significant improvement in lung function, dyspnea, COPD symptoms, health status, and rescue medication use suggests that glycopyrrolate is a safe and effective treatment option as maintenance bronchodilator in patients with stable, symptomatic COPD with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation.
Project description:Long-acting bronchodilators including muscarinic antagonists are central to the management of patients with COPD. The Glycopyrrolate Effect on syMptoms and lung function (GEM2) study assessed the efficacy and safety of twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15.6 ?g in patients with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation. This 12-week multicenter, double-blind study randomized (1:1) patients to glycopyrrolate 15.6 ?g twice daily (b.i.d.) or placebo both delivered via the NeohalerTM device. The primary objective was superiority of glycopyrrolate compared with placebo for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) standardized area under curve (AUC) between 0 and 12 hours post dosing (FEV1 AUC0-12h)at week 12. Other outcomes included additional spirometry parameters, health status using St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), dyspnea via Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), rescue medication use and COPD symptoms reported by patients via the electronic diary. Safety was also assessed. Of the 432 patients randomized (glycopyrrolate, n=216; placebo, n=216), 96% completed the planned treatment phase. The study met its primary objective (superiority of glycopyrrolate compared with placebo for FEV1 AUC0-12h).Compared with placebo, glycopyrrolate showed significant improvements in lung function parameters (p<0.001). Health status (SGRQ total score and COPD assessment test), rescue medication use and daily total COPD symptom scores were significantly improved with glycopyrrolate versus placebo over 12 weeks. Improvements in dyspnea were observed with glycopyrrolate and placebo although the treatment difference was not statistically significant. Overall, differences in the incidences of adverse events and serious adverse events between the groups were not considered clinically meaningful. No deaths were reported. Twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15.6 ?g showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements compared with placebo in lung function, COPD symptoms, health status, and rescue medication usage in COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01715298.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drooling saliva is a common problem in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The negative consequences of drooling include skin breakdown, dehydration, and damage to clothing and equipment. Children and families often suffer social embarrassment due to drooling. There is no evidence about the relative effectiveness, side effect profiles or patient acceptability of the two medications most commonly used to reduce drooling - glycopyrronium and hyoscine. Consequently, there is no consensus or guideline to aid clinical decisions about which drug to use, and at what dose. METHODS/DESIGN:A multi-centre, randomised trial of treatment with glycopyrronium or hyoscine in children with problematic drooling and non-progressive neurodisability. Ninety children aged between 3 and 15 years who have never received medication for drooling will be stratified by severity of drooling and care centre. Randomisation to receive treatment with glycopyrronium or hyoscine will be computer generated from the trial randomisation website. Dose adjustment and side effect monitoring will occur via telephone consultation. Medication arm will be known to participants and clinicians but not the Trial Outcome Assessor.The primary outcome measure is the Drooling Impact Scale score at four weeks, at which time all children will be on the maximum tolerated dose of their medication. Secondary outcome measures include change in Drooling Impact Scale score between baseline, 4, 12 and 52 weeks, change in Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale score and difference between groups in the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication score. A structured interview with children and young people of sufficient age, cognitive and communication ability will explore their perceptions of drooling and the effectiveness and acceptability of the medications. DISCUSSION:The primary objective of the study is to identify whether glycopyrronium or hyoscine is more effective in treating drooling in children with non-progressive neurodisability. The study will also determine which medications at what doses are most acceptable and have fewest side effects. This information will be used to develop evidence based guidance to inform the medical treatment of drooling. DRI TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN75287237.EUDRACT: 2013-000863-94.Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA): 17136/0264/001-0003.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a devastating illness that affects up to 1% of the population; it is characterized by a combination of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. Currently, treatment consists of one class of medications known as antipsychotics, which include typical (first-generation) and atypical (second-generation) agents. Unfortunately, antipsychotic medications have limited efficacy, with up to a third of patients lacking a full response. Clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic developed, is the only medication shown to be superior to all other antipsychotics. However, owing to several life-threatening side effects and required enrollment in a registry with routine blood monitoring, clozapine is greatly underutilized in the US. Developing a medication as efficacious as clozapine with limited side effects would likely become the first-line therapy for schizophrenia and related disorders. In this review, we discuss the history of clozapine, landmark studies, and its clinical advantages and disadvantages. We further discuss the hypotheses for clozapine's superior efficacy based on neuroreceptor binding, and the limitations of a receptor-based approach to antipsychotic development. We highlight some of the advances from pharmacogenetic studies on clozapine and then focus on studies of clozapine using unbiased approaches such as pharmacogenomics and gene expression profiling. Finally, we examine how these approaches could provide insights into clozapine's mechanism of action and side-effect profile, and lead to novel and improved therapeutics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and may impact the efficacy of COPD treatments; however, a large proportion of COPD patients continue to smoke following diagnosis. METHODS:This post-hoc analysis of pooled data from the replicate 12-week, placebo-controlled GEM1 and GEM2 studies assessed the impact of smoking status on the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate 15.6??g twice daily vs placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Data from 867 patients enrolled in GEM1 and GEM2 were pooled for analysis and grouped by smoking status (57% current smokers, 43% ex-smokers). Forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 to 12?h, trough FEV1, forced vital capacity, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, COPD assessment test (CAT) score, transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, daily symptom scores, and rescue medication use were assessed in current smokers and ex-smokers. Incidences of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were also assessed. RESULTS:Treatment with glycopyrrolate resulted in significant improvements in all lung function measures, independent of smoking status. In both current and ex-smokers, changes from baseline in trough FEV1 were less marked in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) than those not receiving ICS. Changes from baseline in SGRQ total score and rescue medication use were significantly greater with glycopyrrolate compared with placebo, regardless of smoking status. Changes in the CAT score, TDI focal score, and daily symptom scores significantly improved versus placebo, but only in current smokers. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) with glycopyrrolate relative to placebo were numerically greater in current smokers than ex-smokers. The incidences of AEs and SAEs were similar regardless of smoking status. CONCLUSIONS:In this post-hoc analysis of GEM1 and GEM2, glycopyrrolate use led to significant improvements in lung function, independent of baseline smoking status; improvements were less marked among patients receiving background ICS, regardless of baseline smoking status. Improvements in PROs were greater with glycopyrrolate than placebo, and the magnitude of changes was numerically greater among current smokers. The safety profile of glycopyrrolate was comparable between current smokers and ex-smokers.
Project description:Antipsychotic drugs are currently used in clinical practice for a variety of mental disorders. Among them, clozapine is the most effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is most helpful in controlling aggression and the suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Although clozapine is associated with a low likelihood of extrapyramidal symptoms and other neurological side effects, it is well known for the weight gain and metabolic side effects, which expose the patient to a greater risk of cardiovascular disorders and premature death, as well as psychosocial issues, leading to non-adherence to therapy. The mechanisms underlying these iatrogenic metabolic disorders are still controversial. We have therefore investigated the in vivo effects of the selective PKC? inhibitor, ruboxistaurin (LY-333531), in a preclinical model of long-term clozapine-induced weight gain. Cell biology, biochemistry, and behavioral tests have been performed in wild-type and PKC? knockout mice to investigate the contribution of endogenous PKC? and its pharmacological inhibition to the psychomotor effects of clozapine. Finally, we also shed light on a novel aspect of the mechanism underlying the clozapine-induced weight gain, demonstrating that the clozapine-dependent PKC? activation promotes the inhibition of the lipid droplet-selective autophagy process. This paves the way to new therapeutic approaches to this serious complication of clozapine therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a common and debilitating side effect of long-term dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). While clozapine is an effective treatment, the need for blood monitoring has limited its first-line use. OBJECTIVE: Since olanzapine shows similar receptor affinity to clozapine, we hypothesized that it might be an effective alternative to clozapine for treatment of drug-induced psychosis (DIP) in PD, and that lower doses than usual might make it tolerable. METHODS: In 1998-2003 we conducted a four-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, fixed-dose trial of olanzapine (0, 2.5mg, or 5mg) in 23 PD patients with DIP while allowing for clinically realistic dose adjustments of dopaminomimetic mid-study. The primary outcome measures were Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) ratings scored from videotaped interviews after study termination by an observer blinded to dose assignment and to interview timing, and CGI (Clinical Global Impression). The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor subscale (UPDRS) was the primary measure of tolerability. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis found no significant differences among treatment groups in study completion or serious adverse events. However, a disproportionate number of olanzapine vs. placebo subjects reported mild side effects (p<0.04), many citing motor worsening. Fourteen patients completed the study (seven on placebo, two on 2.5mg olanzapine, five on 5mg olanzapine). In study completers, analysis by repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant difference between olanzapine and placebo groups in BPRS psychosis reduction (p=0.536), parkinsonism (p=0.608), or any other measured parameters (CGI, MMSE, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression score, PDQ?39, Schwab-England ADL assessment, and sleep scores). CONCLUSION: This study adds to other evidence that olanzapine is ineffective in treating medication-induced psychosis in Parkinson disease.
Project description:Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), along with long-acting ?2-agonists (LABAs), are the mainstay for treatment of patients with COPD. Glycopyrrolate, or glycopyrronium bromide, like other LAMAs, inhibits parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. Glycopyrrolate is unusual in that it preferentially binds to M3 over M2 muscarinic receptors, thereby specifically targeting the primary muscarinic receptor responsible for bronchoconstriction occurring in COPD. Inhaled glycopyrrolate is slowly absorbed from the lungs and rapidly eliminated from the bloodstream, most likely by renal excretion in its unmetabolized form, limiting the potential for systemic adverse events. Inhaled glycopyrrolate is a fast-acting, efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate-severe COPD. It improves lung function, reduces the risk of exacerbations, and alleviates the symptoms of breathlessness, which in turn may explain the improvement seen in patients' quality of life. Inhaled formulations containing glycopyrrolate are well tolerated, and despite being an anticholinergic, few cardiovascular-related events have been reported. Inhaled glycopyrrolate is thus of value as both monotherapy and in combination with other classes of medication for maintenance treatment of COPD. This review covers the mechanism of action of inhaled glycopyrrolate, including its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles, and effects on mucus secretion. It also discusses the use of inhaled glycopyrrolate in the treatment of COPD, as monotherapy and in fixed-dose combinations with LABAs and inhaled corticosteroid-LABAs, including a triple therapy recently approved in Europe.