Robotic Near-Total Pancreatectomy for Nesidioblastosis after Bariatric Surgery.
ABSTRACT: Postprandial symptoms of neuroglycopenia after bariatric surgery may result as a consequence of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (nesidioblastosis) not dumping syndrome. Pancreatectomy is an acceptable treatment for this condition. We present the video of a case of near-total distal robotic pancreactectomy for the treatment of nesidioblastosis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Robotic pancreatectomy is an alternative to the treatment of nesidioblastosis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review. METHODS: A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days). CONCLUSIONS: The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy).
Project description:AIMS:Severe postprandial hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia is an increasingly recognized, debilitating complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Increased secretion of insulin and incretin hormones is implicated in its pathogenesis. Histopathologic examination of pancreas has demonstrated increased islet size and/or nuclear diameter in post-RYGB patients who underwent pancreatectomy for severe refractory hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia (RYGB + NG). We aimed to determine whether ?-cell proliferation or apoptosis is altered in RYGB + NG. METHODS:We performed an observational study to analyze markers of proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and transcription factor expression in pancreatic tissue from affected RYGB + NG patients (n = 12), normoglycemic patients undergoing pancreatic surgery for benign lesions (controls, n = 6), and individuals with hypoglycemia due to insulinoma (n = 52). RESULTS:Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was increased in insulin-positive cells in RYGB + NG patients (4.5-fold increase, p < 0.001 vs. controls) and correlated with ?-cell mass. Ki-67 immunoreactivity was low in both RYGB + NG and controls, but did not differ between groups. Phospho-histone H3 levels did not differ between RYGB + NG and controls. PCNA and Ki-67 were both significantly lower in both controls and RYGB + NG than insulinomas. Markers of apoptosis and cell cycle (M30, p27, and p21) did not differ between groups. PDX1 and menin exhibited similar expression patterns, while FOXO1 appeared to be more cytosolic in RYGB + NG. CONCLUSIONS:Markers of proliferation are heterogeneous in patients with severe post-RYGB hypoglycemia. Increased ?-cell proliferation in some individuals may contribute to increased ?-cell mass observed in severely affected patients.
Project description:Importance:Sleeve gastrectomy is increasingly used in the treatment of morbid obesity, but its long-term outcome vs the standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure is unknown. Objective:To determine whether there are differences between sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in terms of weight loss, changes in comorbidities, increase in quality of life, and adverse events. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Swiss Multicenter Bypass or Sleeve Study (SM-BOSS), a 2-group randomized trial, was conducted from January 2007 until November 2011 (last follow-up in March 2017). Of 3971 morbidly obese patients evaluated for bariatric surgery at 4 Swiss bariatric centers, 217 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a 5-year follow-up period. Interventions:Patients were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (n = 107) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 110). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was weight loss, expressed as percentage excess body mass index (BMI) loss. Exploratory end points were changes in comorbidities and adverse events. Results:Among the 217 patients (mean age, 45.5 years; 72% women; mean BMI, 43.9) 205 (94.5%) completed the trial. Excess BMI loss was not significantly different at 5 years: for sleeve gastrectomy, 61.1%, vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 68.3% (absolute difference, -7.18%; 95% CI, -14.30% to -0.06%; P?=?.22 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). Gastric reflux remission was observed more frequently after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (60.4%) than after sleeve gastrectomy (25.0%). Gastric reflux worsened (more symptoms or increase in therapy) more often after sleeve gastrectomy (31.8%) than after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (6.3%). The number of patients with reoperations or interventions was 16/101 (15.8%) after sleeve gastrectomy and 23/104 (22.1%) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with morbid obesity, there was no significant difference in excess BMI loss between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at 5 years of follow-up after surgery. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00356213.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Proximal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is commonly used to manage obesity, performed using laparoscopic or robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. As the prevalence of robotic bariatric surgery increases, further data is required to justify its use. METHODS:This was a large, retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedures performed using laparoscopic (LRYGB) or robotic (RRYGB; da Vinci Xi system, Intuitive Surgical Sàrl) surgery between January 2016 and March 2019. The surgical techniques did not differ apart from different trocar placements. Data collected included patient characteristics before and after RYGB, operative outcomes and complications. RESULTS:In total, 114 RRYGB and 108 LRYGB primary surgeries were performed. There were no significant differences between the groups, apart from a significantly shorter duration of surgery (116.9 vs. 128.9 min, respectively), lower C-reactive protein values at days 1 (31.1 vs. 44.1 mg/l) and 2 (50.3 vs. 77.8 mg/l) after the intervention, and overall complication rate (4.4 vs. 12.0%, Clavien-Dindo classification II-V) with RRYGB compared with LRYGB. There was a lower hemoglobin value in the postoperative course after RRYGB (12.1 vs. 12.6 g/dl, day 2). CONCLUSIONS:In our experience, robotic RYGB has proven to be safe and efficient, with a shorter duration of surgery and lower rate of complications than laparoscopic RYGB. RRYGB is easier to learn and seems safer in less experienced centers. Increasing experience with the robotic system can reduce the duration of surgery over time. Further studies with higher evidence level are necessary to confirm our results.
Project description:We report a 66-year-old male with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery who began dabigatran for new onset atrial fibrillation. After 5 weeks of therapy, his transesophageal echocardiogram prior to electrocardioversion showed severe spontaneous echo contrast. Cardioversion was postponed and anticoagulant therapy was continued. The following day, he suffered a thromboembolic stroke. Concern arose that postoperative malabsorption could have resulted in subtherapeutic anticoagulation. This notion was strengthened by a second patient who had subtherapeutic serum levels despite maximal dosing. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report impaired absorption of dabigatran following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. <Learning objective: Dabigatran has a predictable pharmacokinetic profile, allowing for a fixed-dose regimen that does not require frequent monitoring or dietary modifications. However, its absorption in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery has not been studied. Postoperative malabsoprtion, a major complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, can result in inadequate anticoagulation. As a result of unpredictable absorption, strategies allowing for routine monitoring may be best in this population.>.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Robotic-assisted bariatric surgery is increasingly performed. There remains controversy about the overall benefit of robotic-assisted (RBS) compared to conventional laparoscopic (LBS) bariatric surgery. In this study, we used a large national risk-stratified bariatric clinical database to compare outcomes between robotic and laparoscopic gastric bypass (RNYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS:A retrospective analysis of the 2015 and 2016 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) Participant Use Data File (PUF) was performed. Primary robotic and laparoscopic RYNGB and SG were analyzed. Descriptive analysis was performed of the unmatched cohorts, followed by 1:3 case-controlled matching. Cases and controls were matched by patient demographics and pre-operative comorbidities, and peri-operative outcomes compared. RESULTS:77,991 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RnYGB) (7.5% robotic-assisted) and 189,503 SG (6.8% robotic-assisted) cases were identified. Operative length was significantly higher in both the robotic-assisted RnYGB and SG cohorts (p?<?0.0001). Outcomes were similar between the robotic-assisted and laparoscopic RnYGB cohorts, except a lower mortality rate (p?=?0.05), transfusion requirement (p?=?0.005), aggregate bleeding (p?=?0.04), and surgical site infections (SSI) (p?=?0.006) in the robotic-assisted cohort. Outcomes were also similar between robotic-assisted and laparoscopic SG, except for a longer length of stay (p?<?0.0001) and higher rates of conversion (p?<?0.0001), 30-day intervention (p?=?0.01), operative drain present (p?<?0.0001), sepsis (p?=?0.01), and organ space SSI (p?=?0.0002) in the robotic cohort. Bleeding was lower in the robotic SG cohort and mortality was similar. CONCLUSION:Both robotic-assisted and laparoscopic RnYGB and SG are overall very safe. Robotic-assisted gastric bypass is associated with a lower mortality and morbidity; however, a clear benefit for robotic-assisted SG compared to laparoscopic SG was not seen. Given the longer operative and hospital duration, robotic SG is not cost-effective.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Radical gastrectomy is the cornerstone of the treatment of gastric cancer. For tumors invading the pancreas, en-bloc partial pancreatectomy may be needed for a radical resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of gastrectomies with partial pancreatectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS:Patients who underwent gastrectomy with or without partial pancreatectomy for gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer between 2011 and 2015 were selected from the Dutch Upper GI Cancer Audit (DUCA). Outcomes were resection margin (pR0) and Clavien-Dindo grade ??III postoperative complications and survival. The association between partial pancreatectomy and postoperative complications was analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. Overall survival of patients with partial pancreatectomy was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:Of 1966 patients that underwent gastrectomy, 55 patients (2.8%) underwent en-bloc partial pancreatectomy. A pR0 resection was achieved in 45 of 55 patients (82% versus 85% in the group without additional resection, P?=?0.82). Clavien-Dindo grade ??III complications occurred in 21 of 55 patients (38% versus 17%, P?<?0.001). Median overall survival [95% confidence interval] was 15 [6.8-23.2] months. For patients with and without perioperative systemic therapy, median survival was 20 [12.3-27.7] and 10 [5.7-14.3] months, and for patients with pR0 and pR1 resection, it was 20 [11.8-28.3] and 5 [2.4-7.6] months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Gastrectomy with partial pancreatectomy is not only associated with a pR0 resection rate of 82% but also with increased postoperative morbidity. It should only be performed if a pR0 resection is feasible.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim was to compare clinical outcomes of patients treated with totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (TRRYGB) with those treated with the different laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) techniques. The clinical benefit of the robotic approach to bariatric surgery compared to the standard laparoscopic approach is unclear. There are no studies directly comparing outcomes of TRRYGB with different LRYGB techniques. METHODS:Outcomes of 578 obese patients who underwent RYGB between 2011 and 2014 at an academic center were assessed. Multivariable analysis and propensity matching were used for comparing TRRYGB to different LRYGB techniques, including 21-mm EEA circular-stapled gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA, LRYGB-21CS), linear-stapled GJA (LRYGB-LS), and hand-sewn GJA (LRYGB-HS). RESULTS:The TRRYGB technique required a longer mean operative time compared to the other groups, respectively 204?±?46 vs. 139?±?30 min (LRYGB-21CS), 206?±?37 vs. 158?±?30 min (LRYGB-LS), and 210?±?36 vs. 167?±?30 min (LRYGB-HS). TRRYGB experienced a lower stricture rate (2 vs. 17%, P?=?0.003), shorter hospital stay (2.6?±?1.2 vs. 4.3?±?5.5 days, P?=?0.008), and lower readmission rate (12 vs. 28%, P?=?0.009). No significant differences in outcomes were observed when comparing RRYGB to LRYGB-LS or LRYGB-HS. CONCLUSIONS:TRRYGB increases operative time compared to all LRYGB techniques. TRRYGB was superior to LRYGB-21CS in terms of significantly shorter hospital stay, lower readmission rate, and less frequent GJA stricture formation. TRRYGB provides no clinical advantages over the LRYGB-LS and LRYGB-HS techniques.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum concentrations of fatty acid binding protein 4, an adipose tissue fatty acid chaperone, have been correlated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study were to assess relationships among Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, intensive lifestyle modification and medical management protocol, fatty acid binding protein 4, and metabolic parameters in obese patients with severe type 2 diabetes mellitus; and to evaluate the relative contribution of abdominal subcutaneous adipose and visceral adipose to the secretion of fatty acid binding protein 4. METHODS:Participants were randomly assigned to intensive lifestyle modification and medical management protocol (n?=?29) or to intensive lifestyle modification and medical management protocol augmented with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n?=?34). Relationships among fatty acid binding protein 4 and demographic characteristics, metabolic parameters, and 12-month changes in these values were examined. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants from obese nondiabetic patients (n?=?5) were obtained and treated with forskolin to evaluate relative secretion of fatty acid binding protein 4 in the different adipose tissue depots. RESULTS:The intensive lifestyle modification and medical management protocol and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass cohorts had similar fasting serum fatty acid binding protein 4 concentrations at baseline. At 1 year, mean serum fatty acid binding protein 4 decreased by 42% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass participants (P?=?.002) but did not change significantly in the intensive lifestyle modification and medical management protocol cohort. Percentage of weight change was not a significant predictor of 12-month fatty acid binding protein 4 within treatment arm or in multivariate models adjusted for treatment arm. In adipose tissue explants, fatty acid binding protein 4 was secreted similarly between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. CONCLUSION:After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, fatty acid binding protein 4 is reduced 12 months after surgery but not after intensive lifestyle modification and medical management protocol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fatty acid binding protein 4 was secreted similarly between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue explants.
Project description:Analysis of changes in gene expression after weight loss. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the weight loss caused by Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass may alter the expression of genes involved in multiple molecular pathways related to obesity. The results will generate important data for studies involving treatment of obesity, which is characterized as a multifactorial disease that affects thousands of individuals worldwide. Total RNA obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of women with obesity who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in pre- and postoperative periods (6 months). Women with a normal weight were used as controls.