Prognostic impact of hormone receptor- and HER2-defined subtypes in inflammatory breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy: a retrospective study.
ABSTRACT: Purpose: Studies examining high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC-AHSCT) strategies in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), showed encouraging results in terms of disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The lack of data regarding HER2 status in all of these studies prevented any prognostic analysis involving breast cancer subtypes. Methods: All consecutive female patients treated for IBC with HDC and AHSCT at Institut Paoli-Calmettes between 2003 and 2012 were included. Since 2005, trastuzumab was included in initial treatment. Patient, tumor and treatment characteristics were collected. Patients were categorized in three subtypes based on hormonal receptor (HR) and HER2 status of the primary tumor: Luminal, (HR+/HER2-), HER2 (HER2+, any HR), and triple negative (TN) (HER2- and HR-). The main objective was the analysis of OS according to the IHC subtypes. Results: Sixty-seven patients were included. Eleven patients received trastuzumab. Median follow up was 80.04 months (95% CI 73.2-88.08). Five-year OS and DFS for the whole population patients were 74% (95% CI 61-83) and 65 % (95% CI 52-75), respectively. OS differed across subtypes (p=0.057) : HER2 subgroup appeared to have the best prognosis with a 5-year OS of 89% (95% CI 64-97) compared to 57% (95% CI 33-76) for the TN subgroup (HR 5.38, 95% CI 1.14-25.44; p=0.034). Conclusions: In IBC patients receiving HDC-AHSCT, OS favorably compares with data available in the literature on similar groups of patients. TN patients carried the least favourable OS and HER2 patients, half of them also receiving trastuzumab, had the best outcome. These findings provide additional information and options for patients with IBC and who could potentially benefit of HDC-AHSCT.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Adjuvant trastuzumab reduces invasive breast cancer (IBC) recurrence and risk for death in patients with HER2-amplified or overexpressing IBC. A subset of patients in the landmark trastuzumab adjuvant trials who originally tested HER2-positive but were HER2-negative by central HER2 testing appeared to possibly benefit from trastuzumab. The objective for the NSABP B-47 trial was to determine whether the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy (CRx) would improve invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) in patients with HER2-negative breast cancer.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>A total of 3,270 women with high-risk primary IBC were randomly assigned to CRx with or without 1 year of trastuzumab. Eligibility criteria included immunohistochemistry (IHC) score 1+ or 2+ with fluorescence in situ hybridization ratio (FISH) < 2.0 or, if ratio was not performed, HER2 gene copy number < 4.0. CRx was either docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide or doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel for 12 weeks.<h4>Results</h4>At a median follow-up of 46 months, the addition of trastuzumab to CRx did not improve IDFS (5-year IDFS: 89.8% with CRx plus trastuzumab [CRxT] <i>v</i> 89.2% with CRx alone; hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.25; <i>P</i> = .85). These findings did not differ by level of HER2 IHC expression, lymph node involvement, or hormone-receptor status. For distant recurrence-free interval, 5-year estimates were 92.7% with CRxT compared with 93.6% for CRx alone (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.50; <i>P</i> = .55) and for overall survival (OS) were 94.8% with CRxT and 96.3% in CRx alone (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.95; <i>P</i> = .15). There were no unexpected toxicities from the addition of trastuzumab to CRx.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The addition of trastuzumab to CRx did not improve IDFS, distant recurrence-free interval, or OS in women with non-HER2-overexpressing IBC. Trastuzumab does not benefit women without IHC 3+ or FISH ratio-amplified breast cancer.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), with emphasis on the role of molecular subtypes and radiotherapy.A retrospective cohort study to investigate overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) in patients with IBC was conducted using data obtained by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2010-2013. Cox multivariate regression was used to calculate the adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR).403 patients were eligible for this study. Patients in the group with hormone receptors (HR)+/HER2- subtype had an OS of 79.6% compared with 89.0 % in the group with (HR)+/HER2+ subtype and 76.8% in the HR-/HER2+ group and 62.9% in the triple-negative (TN) group. BCSM was 16.3% for the HR+/HER2- group, 9.8% for the HR+/HER2+ group, 21.7% for the HR-/HER2+ group, and 30.5% for the TN group. For distant metastases, the results showed that there was a high probability of bone metastasis in HR-positive groups, brain and liver metastasis in HER2-positive groups, and lung metastasis in the TN group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that estrogen receptor and HER2 positivity were associated with better survival and that the TN subtype had a poorer OS and BCSM compared with other subtypes (P<0.05). Furthermore, patients who received radiotherapy were more likely to have improved survival (P< 0.05).Inflammatory breast cancer appears to alter the prognosis in association with the receptor status and molecular subtypes. Radiotherapy was still considered to be a crucial treatment for patients with IBC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously reported that in patients with HER2-positive (HER2+) locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab-containing regimens, high HER2 to centromere enumerator probe 17 ratio on fluorescence in situ hybridization (HER2 FISH ratio) was an independent predictor of high pathologic complete response (pCR) rate, which translated into improved recurrence-free survival (RFS). We sought to determine whether high HER2 FISH ratio is a predictor of pCR and prognosis in patients with HER2+ nonmetastatic inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and non-IBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This study included all patients with histologically proven stage III, HER2+ primary IBC, and non-IBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab and definitive surgery during 1999-2012. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to assess the effect of covariates on pCR. Kaplan-Meier estimates with log-rank test were employed for survival analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the effect of covariates on RFS and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:The study included 555 patients with stage III, HER+ breast cancer, 181 patients with IBC, and 374 with non-IBC. In the IBC cohort, HER2 FISH ratio was not significantly associated with pCR, RFS, or OS. In the non-IBC cohort, higher HER2 FISH ratio was significantly associated with higher pCR rate and longer OS. CONCLUSION:HER2 FISH ratio showed prognostic value among patients with HER2+ non-IBC but not HER2+ IBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This disparity may be due to the underlying aggressive nature of IBC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:The findings of this study indicate that the HER2 to fluorescence in situ hybridization ratio as a continuous variable has promise as a predictor of pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with HER2-positive (HER2+) noninflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC) regardless of the results on HER2 immunohistochemical testing. In the future, some patients with HER2+ non-IBC and a high HER2 FISH ratio might even be offered personalized treatment options, such as nonsurgical treatment.
Project description:Survival of patients with human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has improved dramatically since trastuzumab has become available, although the disease eventually progresses in most patients. This study investigates the outcome (overall survival [OS] and time to next treatment [TNT]) in MBC patients pretreated with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting (TP-group) compared with trastuzumab-naïve patients (TN-group) in order to investigate the possibility of trastuzumab resistance.Patients treated with first-line HER2-targeted-containing chemotherapy were eligible for the study. A power analysis was performed to estimate the minimum size of the TP-group. OS and TNT were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.Between January 1, 2000, and June 1, 2014, 469 patients were included, of whom 82 were in the TP-group and 387 were in the TN-group. Median OS and TNT were significantly worse in the TP-group compared with the TN-group (17 vs. 30 months, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.84 [1.15-2.96], p?=?.01 and 7 vs. 13 months, adjusted HR 1.65 [1.06-2.58], p?=?.03) after adjustment for age, year of diagnosis, disease-free interval, hormone receptor status, metastatic site, and cytotoxic regimens.First-line trastuzumab-containing treatment regimens are less effective in patients with failure of adjuvant trastuzumab compared with trastuzumab-naïve patients and might be due to trastuzumab resistance. The impact of trastuzumab resistance on the response on dual HER2 blockade with trastuzumab and pertuzumab and how resistance mechanisms can be used in the optimization of HER2-targeted treatment lines need further investigation.Evidence on the efficacy of palliative trastuzumab-based therapy after failure of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting is limited because of a minority of patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab in clinical trials. In this study, less clinical benefit of palliative trastuzumab-based therapy was observed in patients relapsing after adjuvant trastuzumab compared with no adjuvant trastuzumab treatment. Subgroup analyses and multivariable analyses revealed that this was independent of possible confounding factors, including adjuvant taxane-treatment. This might suggest a clinically meaningful impaired efficacy of trastuzumab after previous, in this case adjuvant, trastuzumab therapy. These results could have implications for treatment decision-making after short progression-free intervals on trastuzumab-containing regimens in the palliative setting.
Project description:We sought to investigate the impact of hormone receptor (HR) status and distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI) on the degree of overall survival (OS) benefit from palliative trastuzumab-containing treatment in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Here, we retrospectively identified 588 eligible HER2-positive patients with postoperative distant recurrence. DRFI of HR+HER2+ MBC patients (median: 30.7 months, IQR: 18.5-45.9, P?<?0.001) was significant longer compared with HR-HER2+ patients. Patients were categorized into four subgroups based on HR status and palliative trastuzumab (trast+) received. The most superior outcome was observed in the HR+HER2+trast+ subgroup, with a median OS of 48.3 months. Moreover, DRFI?>?24 months is an independent favourable prognostic factor for both HR-HER2+ patients (Hazard Ratio (HzR)?=?0.55, 95%?CI: 0.39-0.76, P?<?0.001) and HR+HER2+ patients (HzR?=?0.45, 95%?CI: 0.32-0.64, P? <? 0.001). Upon further analysis of the interaction between trastuzumab and DRFI, the degree of trastuzumab benefits in HR-HER2+ MBC patients remained basically unchanged regardless of DRFI length. Unlikely, the degree in HR+HER2+ MBC patients decreased gradually along with DRFI extending, indicating that trastuzumab failed to translate into an OS benefit for late recurrent (DRFI?>?5years) HR+HER2+ MBC patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Subtypes defined by hormonal receptor (HR) and HER2 status have not been well studied in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). We characterized clinical parameters and long-term outcomes, and compared pathological complete response (pCR) rates by HR/HER2 subtype in a large IBC patient population. We also compared disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between IBC patients who received targeted therapies (anti-hormonal, anti-HER2) and those who did not.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with IBC and treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center from January 1989 to January 2011. Of those, 527 patients had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had available information on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status. HR status was considered positive if either ER or PR status was positive. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we estimated median DFS and OS durations from the time of definitive surgery. Using the Cox proportional hazards regression model, we determined the effect of prognostic factors on DFS and OS. Results were compared by subtype.<h4>Results</h4>The overall pCR rate in stage III IBC was 15.2%, with the HR-positive/HER2-negative subtype showing the lowest rate (7.5%) and the HR-negative/HER2-positive subtype, the highest (30.6%). The HR-negative, HER2-negative subtype (triple-negative breast cancer, TNBC) had the worst survival rate. HR-positive disease, irrespective of HER2 status, had poor prognosis that did not differ from that of the HR-negative/HER2-positive subtype with regard to OS or DFS. Achieving pCR, no evidence of vascular invasion, non-TNBC, adjuvant hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy were associated with longer DFS and OS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Hormone receptor and HER2 molecular subtypes had limited predictive and prognostic power in our IBC population. All molecular subtypes of IBC had a poor prognosis. HR-positive status did not necessarily confer a good prognosis. For all IBC subtypes, novel, specific treatment strategies are needed in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings.
Project description:Co-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and hormone receptor (HR) predicted worse prognosis in early breast cancer before trastuzumab was developed. We aimed to investigate whether HER2 positivity was still associated with worse outcome in high-risk estrogen receptor (ER) positive patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. In the present study, 227 ER+/HER2+ patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy (HER2-pos-T group) and 1097 ER+/HER2-patients treated with chemotherapy alone (HER2-neg group) during 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively enrolled for the comparison of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). At a median follow-up of 59 months, 174 DFS events and 69 deaths were observed. The estimated 5-year DFS rate was 94.2% in the HER2-pos-T group and 87.4% in the HER2-neg group (Log-rank P = 0.014). HER2-pos-T group was associated with significantly better DFS in multivariate analysis (HR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22-0.67, Log-rank P = 0.001). The estimated 5-year OS rates for the two groups were 97.2% and 95.7%, respectively (Log-rank P = 0.183). In multivariable analysis, patients in the HER2-pos-T group had significantly better OS compared with those in the HER2-neg group (HR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95, Log-rank P = 0.037). We concluded that high-risk ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and trastuzumab had superior prognosis compared with ER+/HER2-patients. Therefore, HER2 positivity itself may not be considered as an unfavorable factor for ER + patients in the era of trastuzumab.
Project description:Purpose: Both 12 and 6 months of trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy are effective for HER2+ early-stage breast cancer. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness and the toxicity of the two durations. Methods and Materials: We acquired relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Our endpoints included disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), number of recurrences, mortality and early stopping of trastuzumab, and adverse events (AEs). Results: We included five good-quality studies. Both durations of trastuzumab were effective among women with HER2+ early-stage breast cancer, but 12 months of trastuzumab appeared to have better DFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.23, P = 0.09] and better OS than 6 months of trastuzumab (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.99-1.32, P = 0.07). However, the 12 month group had more AEs, especially cardiac events [risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.77, P < 0.00001]. In our sub-analyses, the 12 months duration had better DFS among patients using trastuzumab concurrently than the 6 months duration (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44, P = 0.006). Additionally, the 12 months duration had superior OS in women with ER-negative breast cancer (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.10-2.08, P = 0.01) and patients treated with trastuzumab concurrently than the 6 months duration (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.13-2.29, P = 0.008). Conclusions: Twelve months was the standard duration of adjuvant trastuzumab among patients with HER2+ early-stage breast cancer, with a tendency toward superior survival. However, patients in the 12 month group had more significant cardiac toxicity than those in the 6 month group.
Project description:Addition of bevacizumab to trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) was associated with favorable outcome in the BEVERLY-2 phase II trial. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 were correlated to high response rate and prolonged survival in high-grade glioma treated with bevacizumab. We examined the prognostic impact of MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels in BEVERLY-2 patients.MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels were assessed using ELISA at baseline and before surgery in 45/52 available samples. Correlations were tested with pathological complete response (pCR), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).Baseline (b) MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels were independent from patient characteristics and circulating tumor or endothelial cells, and were not correlated to pCR. High bMMP2 was correlated to better DFS (p=0.001) and OS (p=0.032), while low bMMP9 was correlated to better OS (p=0.022) and tended to be associated with longer DFS (p=0.071). In multivariate analyses, bMMP2 (p=0.003, Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.115) and bMMP9 (p=0.041, HR: 3.511) remained correlated to DFS. As continuous variables, bMMP2 was associated with relapse (p=0.002) and death (p=0.049), while bMMP9 was associated with death (p=0.035). During treatment, significant increase in MMP2 and decrease in MMP9 levels (p<0.001 for both) were observed in 100% and 87% of patients respectively.High bMMP2 and low bMMP9 serum levels were associated with better survival in HER2-positive IBC patients treated with bevacizumab- and trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Their predictive value of bevacizumab benefit should be evaluated in a randomized trial.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy.HER2-positive IBC patients received afatinib 40 mg daily until progression, and thereafter afatinib 40 mg daily and intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 weekly. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit; secondary endpoints were objective response (OR), duration of OR, and progression-free survival (PFS). Of 26 patients treated with afatinib monotherapy, clinical benefit was achieved in 9 patients (35%), 0 of 7 trastuzumab-treated patients and 9 of 19 trastuzumab-naïve patients. Following disease progression, 10 patients received afatinib plus vinorelbine, and clinical benefit was achieved in 2 of 4 trastuzumab-treated and 0 of 6 trastuzumab-naïve patients. All patients had treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Whole-exome sequencing of tumour biopsies taken before treatment and following disease progression on afatinib monotherapy was performed to assess the mutational landscape of IBC and evolutionary trajectories during therapy. Compared to a cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) patients with HER2-positive non-IBC, HER2-positive IBC patients had significantly higher mutational and neoantigenic burden, more frequent gain-of-function TP53 mutations and a recurrent 11q13.5 amplification overlapping PAK1. Planned exploratory analysis revealed that trastuzumab-naïve patients with tumours harbouring somatic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling had significantly shorter PFS compared to those without (p = 0.03). High genomic concordance between biopsies taken before and following afatinib resistance was observed with stable clonal structures in non-responding tumours, and evidence of branched evolution in 8 of 9 tumours analysed. Recruitment to the trial was terminated early following the LUX-Breast 1 trial, which showed that afatinib combined with vinorelbine had similar PFS and OR rates to trastuzumab plus vinorelbine but shorter overall survival (OS), and was less tolerable. The main limitations of this study are that the results should be interpreted with caution given the relatively small patient cohort and the potential for tumour sampling bias between pre- and post-treatment tumour biopsies.Afatinib, with or without vinorelbine, showed activity in trastuzumab-naïve HER2-positive IBC patients in a planned subgroup analysis. HER2-positive IBC is characterized by frequent TP53 gain-of-function mutations and a high mutational burden. The high mutational load associated with HER2-positive IBC suggests a potential role for checkpoint inhibitor therapy in this disease.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428.